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BAB 1- PENJANA ARUS TERUS

ELECTRICAL
MACHINE

GENERATOR MOTOR TRANSFORMER

DC AC DC AC

Separately 1
Self exited 1 3 series shunt Compound 3
exited
In a generator, conductors forming an electric
circuit are made to move through a magnetic
field.
By Faradays law an e.m.f. is induced in the
conductors and thus a source of e.m.f. is
created.
A generator converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy
E -The induced e.m.f.
B -the flux density (teslas),
L -the length of conductor in the magnetic field (m),
V -the conductor velocity, (m/s).
Flemings Right-hand rule
(often called the geneRator rule)
which states:

Let the thumb, first finger and


second finger of the
right hand be extended such that
they are all at right
angles to each other (as shown in
Figure). If the first
finger points in the direction of the
magnetic field and the
thumb points in the direction of
motion of the conductor
relative to the magnetic field, then
the second finger will
point in the direction of the induced
e.m.f.
If the conductor moves at an angle to the
magnetic field (instead of at 90 as assumed
above) then

E=Blv sin volts


The left-hand side is moving in
an upward direction
(check using Flemings right-
hand rule), with length l
cutting the lines of flux which
are travelling from left to
right. By definition, the induced
e.m.f. will be equal to
Blv sin and flowing into the
page
The right-hand side is moving
in a downward direction
(again, check using Flemings
right-hand rule),
with length l cutting the same
lines of flux as above.
The induced e.m.f. will also be
equal to Blv sin but
flowing out of the page.

Therefore the total e.m.f. for the loop conductor


=2Blv sin
Now consider a coil made up of a number of turns N
The total e.m.f. E for the loop conductor is now given by:

E = 2NBlv sin
Problem 1.
A rectangular coil of sides 12 cm and 8 cm is rotated in a magnetic
field of flux density1.4T, the longer side of the coil actually cutting
this flux. The coil is made up of 80 turns and rotates at
1200 rev/min.

(a) Calculate the maximum generated e.m.f.

(b) If the coil generates 90 V, at what speed will the coil rotate?
b) Since E =2NBlv sin
The action of a commutator
The arrangement shown in Fig. 1.5 (a) is called a
two-segmentcommutator and the voltage is applied
to the rotating segments by stationary brushes,
(usually carbon blocks), which slide on the
commutator material, (usually copper), when rotation
takes place.
In practice, there are many conductors on the rotating part of a d.c.
machine and these are attached to many commutator segments.

A schematic diagram of a multi segment commutator is shown in Fig.


1.5(b).
Poor commutation results in sparking at the trailing
edge of the brushes.

This can be improved by using interpoles (situated between each


pair of main poles), high resistance brushes, or using brushes
spanning several commutator segments
The basic parts of any d.c. machine are shown in
Fig. below, and comprise:

(a) a stationary part called the stator having,


(i) a steel ring called the yoke, to which are attached
(ii) the magnetic poles, around which are the
(iii) field windings, i.e. many turns of a conductor wound round
the pole core; current passing through this conductor creates an
electromagnet
Construction of DC
machine

Cutaway view of a dc motor Stator with poles visible.


Rotor is the rotating part -
armature
Stator is the stationary part - field

Armature coil

Brushes

Stator: non-moving coil


Rotor: rotating part
More loops of wire = higher rectified voltage
In practical, loops are generally placed in slots of an iron core
The iron acts as a magnetic conductor by providing a low-reluctance path for magnetic
lines of flux to increase the inductance of the loops and provide a higher induced
voltage.
The commutator is connected to the slotted iron core.
The entire assembly of iron core, commutator, and windings is called the armature.
The windings of armatures are connected in different ways depending on the
requirements of the machine.

Loops of wire are wound around slot in a metal core DC machine armature
Lap Wound Armatures
are used in machines designed for low voltage and high
current
armatures are constructed with large wire because of high
current
Eg: - are used is in the starter motor of almost all automobiles
The windings of a lap wound armature are connected in
parallel. This permits the current capacity of each winding to
be added and provides a higher operating current
No of current path, C=2p ; p=no of poles
Wave Wound Armatures
are used in machines designed for high voltage and low current
their windings connected in series
When the windings are connected in series, the voltage of each
winding adds, but the current capacity remains the same
are used is in the small generator in hand-cranked
megohmmeters
No of current path, C=2
Frogleg Wound Armatures
the most used in practical nowadays
designed for use with moderate current and moderate
armatures voltage
the windings are connected in series parallel.
Most large DC machines use frogleg wound
armatures.

Frogleg wound armatures


Most DC machines use wound electromagnets to
provide the magnetic field.

Two types of field windings are used :


series field
shunt field
Series field windings
are so named because they are connected in series with the armature
are made with relatively few windings turns of very large wire and have a
very low resistance
usually found in large horsepower machines wound with square or
rectangular wire.
The use of square wire permits the windings to be laid closer together,
which increases the number of turns that can be wound in a particular
space
Square and rectangular wire can also be made physically smaller
than round wire and still contain the same surface area

Square wire contains more surface than round wire

Square wire permits more turns than round wire in the same area
Shunt field windings
is constructed with relatively many turns of small wire,
thus, it has a much higher resistance than the series field.
is intended to be connected in parallel with, or shunt, the
armature.
high resistance is used to limit current flow through the
field.
When a DC machine uses both series and shunt fields, each
pole piece will contain both windings.

The windings are wound on the pole pieces in such a manner


that when current flows through the winding it will produce
alternate magnetic polarities.
Winding

armature field

Self excited Separately


Excited
Wave Lap Frogleg
C=2 C=2p

series shunt compound


The magnetic field produced by the stator poles induces
a voltage in the rotor (or armature) coils when the
generator is rotated.
This induced voltage is represented by a voltage source.
The stator coil has resistance, which is connected in
series.
The pole flux is produced by the DC excitation/field
current, which is magnetically coupled to the rotor
The field circuit has resistance and a source
The voltage drop on the brushes represented by a
battery
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit

1. Permanent magnet
2. Separately excited
3. Self-excited
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit

1. Permanent magnet
The poles are made of permanent magnets.
No field winding required.
Small size.
Disadvantage is low flux density, so low torque.
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit

2. Separately excited
The field flux is derived from a separate power source
independent of the generator itself.

B
Armature
Field winding
winding
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit
3. Self-excited
Shunt machine
The field flux is derived
by connecting the field
directly across the
terminals of the
generator.

B
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit
3. Self-excited
Series machine
field are connected
in series with
armature

B
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit
3. Self-excited
Cumulatively compounded

B B

Differentially compounded

B B
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit
3. Self-excited

Compounded dc generator
both a shunt and a series field
are present
DC Machine Equivalent Circuit
3. Self-excited
Compounded dc motor
both a shunt and a
series field are present