Oil and Gas
Drilling Problems
Wellbore stability

© All Rights Reserved

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Oil and Gas
Drilling Problems
Wellbore stability

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 178

Date:2002.9.

foreword

Significance

cause substantial problems in all

areas of the world, even in vertical

wells. These stability problems

are often encountered in the

shale-like rock layers above the

foreword

and sometimes also loss of

equipment.

2. A significant part of development

costs for a field today is production

drilling. If the production wells can

be drilled as deviated holes,

foreword

the production platform can drain a

larger area.

This can reduce the number of

platforms required to produce the field.

Stability during drilling can be critical

for highly deviated wells. There is

hence a large potential for cost saving

here, both with respect to reducing

foreword

the cost of the wells which are actually

drilled and also with respect to

reducing the required number of

production wells.

foreword

*research concern:

this report will presents an

overview of how rock mechanics can

be applied to analyze well stability

problems. The presentation is aimed at

showing the basic procedure, while the

borehole is in a complicated stress

foreword

circumstances, so the reality can not

be described exactly by an model, no

mater how complicated the model is.

Based on some ideal assumptions,a

stability analysis, however, can give

some guiding limits, which then have

to be related to practical conditions.

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

From the point of view of rock

mechanics, it is the present state of a

rock and its present mechanical properties

which are of interest. The rock has

however undergone a long and in many

cases complicated process from its initial

state of a loose sediment to its present

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

state as a rock.

A sedimentary basin may be exposed

to tectonic forces creating repeated cycles

of elevation and depression, in addition

to erosion, changes in sedimentation of

environment, changes in sedimentation

rate, solution and precipitation of

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

cementing material etc. These geological

activities and events will however affect

the properties which will be of main

interest in rock mechanics, including in

situ stress, pore pressure and rock

mechanical properties.

Therefore, some knowledge of

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

geological processes is often valuable,

and although on a totally different time

scale and length scale, geological

processes are often comparable with

events in rock mechanics laboratory

testing.

1.1 Underground stresses (see

figure )

Underground stresses

z

y

x

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

1) Normally, an underground formation

has to carry the weight of the overlying

material,

z 0 ( z) gdz (1.1)

z

and g is the acceleration of gravity. If

the density dont varies with depth, the

vertical stress at depth z becomes

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

simpler. ( notice that if we determine the

z-axis is pointing vertically downwards,

with z=0 corresponding to the earth

surface ).

Assuming that the horizontal stresses

are equal, by applying the elastic theory,

we may get :

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

x y z (1.2)

1

where v is Poissons ratio. Values of

the total vertical stress are normally

found by integrating density log down to

the appropriate depth. Horizontal stress

value are more difficult to infer. A Poissons

ratio measured in the lab today should

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

not be used to estimate a ratio between

the vertical and horizontal stresses. The

most direct method of obtaining the

horizontal stress is to perform a fracture

test of the formation. This is however

not done routinely, and the number of

data points will therefore mostly be

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

inadequate for evaluation of horizontal

stress gradients.

2 ) The earths crust consists of a number

of discrete tectonic plates. When different

plates interact, extensive deformation

will occur along plates boundaries, this

lead to tectonic stresses. (see figure)

Schematic illustration of

tectonic plate movement

zone ridge zone

lithosphere

asthenosphere

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

If we take the tectonic activity into

consideration, then the horizontal stress

will be:

v

x ( 1 ) z (1.3a )

1 v

v

( 2 ) z (1.3b)

1 v

y

tectonic coefficient.

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

3 ) The pore pressure is an important

parameter in any rock mechanics study

of porous, fluid-filled rock systems. The

pore fluid will carry part of the total

stresses applied to the system, thus

relieving the rock matrix from part of the

load. The effective stress as defined by

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

Terzaghi is equal to the total stress less

the pore pressure. This effective stress

concept was first introduced by Terzaghi

in soil mechanics in 1923, on an empirical

basis.

P0 (1.4)

'

refined by Biot as:

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

P0 (1.5)

'

namely, the Biot coefficient.

A further study shows that the Biot

coefficient has something with the rocks

volumetric compressibility and the solid

Matrix compressibility.

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

Cr

1 (1.6) E /(1 2 )

or 1 (1.7)

Cb Ei (1 2 i )

of the rock volume and the solid

matrix

and i --the Poissons ratio

of the rock volume and the solid

matrix

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

still we can use the transverse wave

velocity and the longitudinal wave

velocity to calculate the effective co-

efficient as the following:

b (3v pb 4v sb )

2 2

1 (1.8)

r (3v pr 4v sr )

2 2

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

volume and the solid matrix

v pb , v pr --longitudinal wave velocity of

the rock volume and the solid

matrix

vsb , vsr --transverse wave velocity of the

rock volume and the solid matrix

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

then the effective stresses can be

expressed as: (if we make =1)

z z 0 (1.9a)

'

v

x '

( 1 ) z (1.9b)

'

1 v

v

y '

( 2 ) z (1.9c)

'

1 v

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

1.2 two strength criterion

1 )Mohr-Coulomb criterion

1

3

1

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

C (1.10)

where: --the inner friction coefficient

of the rock, tg ;

--the inner friction angle;

Cshear strength

This has give us a criterion to judge if

the rock has failed or not.

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

the Mohr-Coulomb criterion also can

be written as the following form which

is the function of the principal stress of

1 and 3 :

2 1/ 2

2 1/ 2

1 ( 1) 3 ( 1) 2C (1.11)

this is just one form among four.

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

2) Drucker-Prager criterion

while from the above formula, we can

find that Mohr-Coulomb criterion has not

taken the medium stress into consideration.

Contrary to it, the Drucker-Prager criterion

does.

The expression is as the following:

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

QI 1 K f 0(1.12)

1/ 2

J2

where:

I1 1 2 3

1

6

J 2 ( 1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 3 1 )

2 2 2

3 sin

Q

3 3 sin 2

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

3C cos

Kf

3 sin

2

The mechanical properties of a rock

normally be described by 4 mechanical

parameters: two elastic parameters ( i.e.

Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio )

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

and two failure parameters ( friction angle

and uniaxial compressive strength when

applying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion ).

while the rock mechanical properties

could be tested in the lab. ( see figure )

Compressive test

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

During the test, increased the

pressure around the rock sample to

certain value, at the same time, we

enhance the vertical pressure in order to

increase the 1 , together write down

the samples axial compressive strain 1 .

1 equal to vertical distortion value divide

the original length of the sample.

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

3 3 3 3 0

3 2 1 0

1 3 0 cons tan t

)

T cons tan t

33

32

1

3 0 3

1

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

from the picture, we can find that the

maximum vertical stresses before the

rocks failure is the strength value

according to certain horizontal pressure.

when we increase the horizontal

pressure, it will not only increase the

strength of the rock, but also the plasticity,

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

i.e. the strain value before failure will

also increased. The third curve

approximately approach to the ideal

plasticity situation; the fourth one has

shown obvious hardening property. The

slope of the curve equal to the Youngs

modulus. If we record the transversal

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

strain 2 3 , then we can get the

value of the Poissons ration .

3

(1.13)

1

the rocks tensile strength is much

smaller than its compressive strength.

It is difficult to carry out the tensile test

Section 1 Some geological

aspects of rock mechanics

in the axial direction directly. So we

adopt the following method to obtain the

tensile strength t .

t (MPa)(1.14)

rt

where: Pthe total stress(N)

r-- the radius of the sample (mm)

t--the thickness of the sample(mm)

Tensile test

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

Underground formations are always

under some stress, mostly due to over-

burden pressure and tectonic stresses.

When a well is drilled in a formation,

stressed solid material is removed and

replaced with a fluid under pressure.

Since the well fluid pressure normally

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

does not match exactly the stress which

the removed solid exerted, there will be

an alteration in the stress state of the

formation around the well. (see figure )

This stress alteration is important, since

large stress deviation may lead to failure

in the formation. (see figure )

Stresses in a formation

before (a) and after drilling (b)

Well-bore failure

(caving)

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

If we consider the well is in a linear

elastic formation, so we can use the

the following model to analyze the wells

stresses situation: ( see figure )

for convenience, we use cylindrical

co-ordinates to study the stresses

distribution around the well-bore wall.

Borehole wall stresses

model (1)

Borehole wall stresses

model (2)

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

2.1 the stresses distribution of the

vertical well

1) the stresses caused by well pressure

R2

r 2 ( 2.1a )

r

R2

2 (2.1b)

r

Where R is the radius of the well-

bore.

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

2) The stresses caused by the x

x R2 x 3R 4 4 R 2

r (1 2 ) (1 4 2 ) cos 2 (2.2a)

2 r 2 r r

x R2 x 3R 4

(1 2 ) (1 4 ) cos 2 (2.2b)

2 r 2 r

x 3R 4 2 R 2

r (1 4 2 ) sin 2 (2.2c)

2 r r

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

3) Caused by the y

y R2 y 3R 4 4 R 2

r (1 2 ) (1 4 2 ) cos 2 (2.3a)

2 r 2 r r

y R2 y 3R 4

(1 2 ) (1 4 ) cos 2 (2.3b)

2 r 2 r

y 3R 4

2R 2

r (1 4 2 ) sin 2 (2.3c)

2 r r

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

4) Caused by the z

2

R

z v [2( x y ) 2 cos 2 ]( 2.4)

r

When the well pressure increase to a certain

value, it will cause loss of circulation, this

will lead to additional stresses distribution

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

around the well-bore wall

(1 )(1 2 ) (r 2 R 2 )

r f ( 0 )( 2.5a)

2(1 )

2

r

(1 )(1 2 ) r 2 R 2

f ( 0 )( 2.5b)

2(1 )

2

r

(1 )(1 2 )

z f ( 0 )( 2.5c)

2(1 )

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

where :

--Poissons ratio

f --porosity of the rock

0

formation

1 (see Page 23)

when the well-bore wall is non-permeable,

there is no this additional stresses.

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

so the stresses distribution around the

well-bore wall can be formed by the

above formulas:

R2 1 R2

r 2 ( x y )(1 2 )

r 2 r

1 3R 4 4R 2

( x y )(1 4 2 ) cos 2

2 r r

(1 )(1 2 ) R 2

(1 2 ) f ( 0 )( 2.6a )

2(1 ) r

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

R2 1 R2

2 ( x y )(1 2 )

r 2 r

1 3R 4

( x y )(1 4 ) cos 2

2 r

(1 )(1 2 ) R2

(1 2 ) f ( 0 )( 2.6b)

2(1 ) r

R 2

z z 2( x y )( ) cos 2

r

(1 )(1 2 )

f ( 0 )( 2.6c )

(1 )

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

when the well is permeable, =1;

when the well is non-permeable, =0.

at the well-bore wall (r=R), the stresses

distribution is:

r f ( 0 )(2.7a)

x (1 2 cos 2 ) y (1 2 cos 2 )

(1 )(1 2 )

f ( 0 )( 2.7b)

(1 )

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

z z 2( x y ) cos 2

(1 )(1 2 )

f ( 0 )( 2.7c)

(1 )

deviated well

As for the deviated well, the stresses

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

distribution around the well-bore wall is

more complicated. While the direction of

the well axis does not accord with the

principal stresses, so we need to

transform the co-ordinate from (1,2,3)

which represent the principal stresses

direction to (x,y,z) where z oriented the

same with the well axis. For convenience,

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

we also need to set up the relation

between the perpendicular co-ordinate

with the cylindrical co-ordinate.

while a transform from (1,2,3) co-

ordinate to (x,y,z) co-ordinate can be

obtained in two operations. (see figure)

where : represents the azimuth;

represents the deviation.

Co-ordinate Transform

3 1

1

2

1 1

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

1)make the 3 as the axis, rotate angle

according to the right hands rule, to

the (x1,y1,z1) co-ordinate. The relation

between the (1,2,3) with the (x1,y1,z1)

can be expressed as the following:

x1 cos sin 0 1

y1 sin cos 0 2(2.8)

z1 0 0 1 3

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

2) make the y1 as the axis, rotate

angle to the (x,y,z) co-ordinate. The

relation between the (x1,y1,z1) and

the (x,y,z) can be expressed as the

following matrix:

x cos 0 sin x1

y 0 1 0 y1(2.9)

z sin 0 cos z1

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

so the transform from (1,2,3) co-ordinate

to (x,y,z) co-ordinate can be expressed

by the following matrix:

x cos 0 sin cos sin 0 1

y 0 1 0 sin cos 0 2

z sin 0 cos 0 0 1 3

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

cos cos cos sin sin 1

sin cos 0 2(2.10)

sin cos sin sin cos 3

of xx , yy , zz in the (x,y,z) coordinate

and the component 1 , 2 , 3in the

(1,2,3) co-ordinate can be expressed

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

xx xy xz cos cos cos sin sin

yx yy yz sin cos 0

zx zy zz sin cos sin sin cos

1 0 0 cos cos sin sin cos

0 0 cos sin cos sin sin (2.11)

2

0 0 3 sin 0 cos

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

Or can be written as:

xx 1 cos 2 cos 2 2 cos 2 sin 2

3 sin 2

yy 1 sin 2 cos

2 2

3 cos

2

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

xy 1 cos cos sin

2 cos sin cos

xz 1 sin cos cos

2

2

3 sin cos

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

yz 1 sin cos sin

2 sin sin cos

while as we are study the deviated

well, so the stresses distribution around

the well-bore wall are not only caused by

the above terms, but also are caused by

the component of xy , xz , yz .

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

1) by the xy

4 2

3R 4R

r xy (1 4 2 ) sin 2

r r

4

3R

xy (1 4 ) sin 2

r

4 2

3R 2R

r xy (1 4 2 ) cos 2 (2.12)

r r

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

2) By the xz

2

R

rz xz (1 2 ) cos

r

2

R

z xz (1 2 ) sin (2.13)

r

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

3) By the yz

2

R

rz yxz (1 2 ) sin

r

2

R

z yz (1 2 ) cos (2.14)

r

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

add the stresses caused by different

component, we can get the total stresses

distribution around the deviated well:

r .. ..

.. ..

z .. ..

r .. ..

rz .. ..

z .. ..( 2.15)

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

at the well-bore wall (r=R) the stresses

can also be obtained:

r f ( 0 )

(1 )(1 2 )

[ f ]( 0 )

(1 )

xx (1 2 cos 2 ) yy (1 cos 2 )

4 xy sin 2

Section 2 Stresses

around boreholes

(1 )(1 2 )

z [ f ]( 0 ) zz

(1 )

[2( xx yy ) cos 2 4 xy sin 2 ]

r 0

rz 0

z 2 yz cos 2 xz sin (2.16)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

consequences

Formations at a given depth are

exposed to compressive stresses,vertically

and horizontally, as well as a pore pressure.

when a hole is drilled, the surrounding rock

must carry the load which was carried by

the removed rock. In a rock which behaves

linearly elastic, this leads to a stress

concentration near the well. If the

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

this stress concentration can lead to

failure of the borehole.

To prevent flow of pore fluid into

the well or rock failure (among other

things), the well is filled with mud. The

mud-weight is primarily adjusted to

prevent inflow of pore fluid, while the

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

has had a low priority. This represents

no problems in competent rocks,

but in weak formations it may be the

stability which sets the lower

acceptable limit for the mud-weight,

not the pore pressure.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

The mud will carry parts of the stress

concentration. The mud-weight can, however,

not be increased too much, since this will

cause hydraulic fracturing of the formation,

risking lost circulation and the possibility of a

blowout.

There are basically two types of borehole

failure.see the following figures:

Stability problems during

drilling

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

insufficient mud-weight compared with

rock strength and the stress around the

borehole, while tensile failure is caused

by an excessive mud-weight compared

with the smallest in situ stress.

compressive failure can be divided

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1). Increased borehole diameter due to

brittle failure and caving of the well-bore

wall. This can lead to cementing

problems and difficulties with logging

response and log interpretation. This

normally takes place in brittle rocks,but

borehole increase may also be due to

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

erosion (hydraulic or mechanical) in a

poorly cemented (weak) rock.

2). Reduced borehole diameter normally

occurs in weak (plastic) shale,

sandstones and salt. Some chalk

formations can also show such behavior.

This phenomenon requires repeated

reaming, or may even resulting in a

stuck drill-pipe.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Tensile failure or hydraulic fracturing

is recognized by lost circulation. This

can reduce the hydraulic pressure in the

well and cause inflow of pore fluid. In the

worst case, this results in a blowout.

When drilling in competent and

normally stressed rocks, these problems

are usually not experienced. They can,

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

however, appear in zones which are

abnormally stressed compared with

the strength of the rock. The mud may

also have detrimental effects,resulting

in a weakening of the rock. A typical

example is swelling shale, where the

mud is not in chemical equilibrium with

the rock, so that an initially chemical

problem is turning into a mechanical

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

problem.

The increased costs of such

problems are obvious. Instabilities may

also cause considerable problems to

later operations in the borehole.

Examples of this are logging, log

evaluation and cementing. Poor

cementing of the casing can lead to

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

problems for perforating, sand control,

production and stimulation.

stability problems can appear both

in vertical and in deviated wells. The

problems are generally larger in a

deviated hole, since the stress

distribution is less favorable. The

vertical stress, which is normally the

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

the largest, will have an increasing

component normal to the well-bore as

the deviation angle increasing, and the

stable range for the mud-weight

decrease. This may requires additional

casings. In some zones it may be

inadvisable to drill above a certain

angle.These limitation must therefore

be considered already in the planning

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

phase of a field.

This effect of deviation applies to

zones of normal stress gradients. If

tectonic components are present, the

situation may be the opposite, i.e.

increased deviation is more favorable,

at least in a given azimuth direction.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

2. The principle of a stability analysis

Ideally a theoretical model should cover

all aspects which could affect stability,such

as well pressure, temperature, time, mud

chemistry etc.

such a model is, however, unavailable

today, and is not likely to appear in the

near future since all mechanisms are not

mapped. The model would require large

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

to get the necessary input data, since

availability of cores is a limiting factor.

therefore presented:

1) Calculate the well pressure required

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

to avid compressive failure and tensile

failure (hydraulic fracturing) using linear

elastic theory.

2) Then taking into other detailed

conditions related to the problem.

To illustrate the procedure, calculations

for a vertical well will be presented. The

principle is exactly the same for a deviated

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

complicated and difficult to handle

analytically.

In a real case, this represents a first

order approximation to the problem,

which has to be coupled with all the

practical experience and other relevant

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

best recommendations and solutions.

The purpose of the calculation is to

find the minimum and maximum allowable

mud-weight to avoid the stability problems

described in the above section. The stress

calculations are based on a linear, elastic

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

model. Failure is assumed to take place

when the elastic limit of the rock is

reached. In the elastic case, the stress

concentration will reach its maximum at

the well-bore wall. Failure will thus occur

first at the well-bore wall, and it is

therefore the stress solutions at the well-

bore wall which will be of interest.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

compressive failure and tensile failure

as mentioned above. Shear failure may in

some cases precede tensile failure when

increasing the well pressure. However,

when considering practical aspects of

stability during drilling,

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

appear before the formation fractures

and the mud circulation is lost. Therefore

the discussion will be restricted to tensile

failure as the upper limit for the mud-

weight.

The calculation require primarily

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1) In situ stresses

2) Pore pressure

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

required to prevent borehole collapse

Based on the solutions presented in

the last section, the stresses at the well-

bore can be calculated.

There are two type of failure criterion

to calculate the lower mud-weight:

1) Mohr-Coulomb criterion

2) Drucker-Prager criterion

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

vertical well with equal horizontal stresses.

we suppose the vertical stresses is v ,

the horizontal stresses is h . The stresses

distribution around the well-bore wall is:

r p(3.1a)

2 h p(3.1b)

z v (3.1c)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

The effective stresses around the well-

bore wall is:

r ' p p0 (3.2a)

2 h p p0 (3.2b)

'

z z p0 (3.2c)

'

(we make the effective coefficient as 1.)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

comparatively, then z r ,basing

on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion:

C 0 r tg (3.3)

2

where: C0 2C (1 2 )1 / 2 (3.4a)

(3.4b)

4 2

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Cshear strength

-- inner friction coefficient

-- inner friction angle

then we can calculate the critical

well pressure:

2 h C0 (tg ) p0

2

pcr (3.5)

1 tg

2

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

r z , basing on the Mohr-

Coulomb criterion:

r C 0 tg (3.6)

2

C0 p0 (2 h p0 )tg

2

pcr (3.7)

1 tg

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

while the stresses distribution

around the well-bore was obtained by

assuming the rock is in a linearly elastic

situation. However, some kind of rocks

Youngs modulus has something with

the horizontal stresses. It will increase

when the horizontal stresses was

increased, taking shale for example.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

rock layers of Jurassic system in LunNan

area. We find the relation between the

Youngs modulus with the horizontal

stresses can be expressed as:

E E 0 n

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where: --confining pressure;

EYoungs modulus;

E0 ,nconstant related to the

rock

In Talimu area, it can be written as:

E 2736 0.1

linear.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Basing on the research of rock

mechanics lab of our school, the critical

mud-weight to keep the well-bore stability

is:

(3 H h ) 2CK p0 ( K 2 1)

m 100

(K )H

2

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Hthe depth of the well;

m-- the density of the mud;

Cthe shear strength;

range from 0.8~0.95;

H , h -- the biggest and the smallest

horizontal stresses.

--the effective coefficient

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

4. Calculation of maximum mud-weight

before fracturing

The upper limit for the mud-weight

is the maximum mud-weight before

tensile failure (fracturing)

Fracturing will take place when the

smallest effective principal stress

becomes tensile and equal to the tensile

strength of the rock:

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

3 0 0 (6.1)

'

to set the tensile strength equal to zero,

since there will always be small cracks

and imperfection in the well-bore wall.

Many models have been put forward

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

because different assuming and factors

have been taken into consideration, so

big difference exist in different models.

1 ) Eaton model

This method was widely used in the gulf

region of America. It suppose:

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1)The rock layer was in equal horizontal

stresses situation;

2)Imperfection and mini-fracture exist in

the formation;

3)well fluid penetrate into the fracture

under pressure, and it only need to

overcome the stresses of the vertical

fracture plane to initiating fracture.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

effective in situ stresses are:

x

'

z (3.8a )

'

1

y

'

z (3.8b)

'

1

z z p0 (3.8c)

'

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

that initiating fracture only need to

overcome the horizontal stresses, so

the effective fluid pressure of the well is:

p f p0 ( z p0 )(3.9)

1

so the critical pressure is:

pf ( z p 0 ) p 0 (3.10)

1

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

while Eaton model applies to the

newly sedimentary formation, which has

seldom been affected by the tectonic

activity. Its prediction effect will not be

satisfactory if were not in such formation.

2) Stephen model

Basically it has the same assumption

with the Eaton model, while it take the

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

tectonic activity into consideration. So

the effective in situ stresses are:

z ' z p0 (3.11a)

x (

'

) z (3.11b)

'

1

y '

( ) z (3.11c)

'

1

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

coefficient horizontally

the effective fluid pressure in the well to

initiating vertical fracture is:

p f p0 ( )( z p0 )(3.12)

1

so the critical pressure is:

pf ( )( z p 0 ) p 0 (3.13)

1

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

havent taken the stresses concentration

near the well-bore into consideration.

3) HuangRongzun model

Professor HuangRongzun of our

school has put forward new prediction

method in 1981 and 1984.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

it suppose:

1)The formation was in non-uniform

tectonic stresses situation;

2)Stresses concentration exists near the

well- bore.

3)The reason that the formation fracturing

is because the stresses at the well-bore

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

If we use 3 represents the over-

loading stresses, 1 , 2 ( 1 2 0) , then

the stresses at the well-bore wall (r=R)

are:

r p

( 1 2 ) 2( 1 2 ) cos 2 p(3.14)

r 0

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

fracture when increasing the well

pressure, the main reason causing the

well-bore unstable is that the effective

tangential stresses turn from the

compressive stresses to tensile stresses,

and exceed the tensile strength.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

will be reached at the position of 0

and 180 firstly, then

( 1 2 ) 2( 1 2 ) cos 2 p

3 2 1 p(3.15)

the effective stresses is:

' 3 2 1 p p0 (3.16)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

--the effective coefficient;

the fracturing condition is:

S t (3.17)

'

formation;

then

p f 3 2 1 p0 S t (3.18)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

If we express the over-lying

pressure as the following form:

H

3 S ( H ) gdH (3.19)

0

3 S p0 (3.20)

'

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

caused by the weight of the formation

are:

1 2

' '

3 (3.21)

'

1

if we take the tectonic stresses into

Consideration,then

1' ( 1 ) 3 (3.23a )

'

1

2 (

'

2 ) 3 (3.23b)

'

1

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

then the critical pressure is:

2

p f p0 ( k )( S p0 ) S t (3.24)

1

where: k 1 3 2

This model was widely used at

present, and has high veracity.

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

This new model was put forward

by professor HuangRongzun in 1990, it

was aimed at making use of the well

logging material to realize predicting

the formations fracturing pressure

continuously. It suppose:

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1)The formation was in an over-lying and

non-uniform horizontal tectonic

stresses situation;

2)The displacement of each sedimentary

layer is continuous;

3)The fracturing was caused because

the rocks stresses reached the tensile

strength.

Sedimentary layer

C

D

E

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

sedimentary layer underground, because

the displacement of different layer is

continuous, so the two main strains of

different layer must be the same.

1 ( A)

1

(B)

... 1 (3.25a )

2 ( A)

2

(B)

... 2 (3.25b)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

relation of the stress and strain:

1

1

Es

1 ' s ( 2 ' 3 ' ) (3.26a )

2

1

Es

2 s ( 1 3 ) (3.26b)

' ' '

1 1 const (3.27a )

2 2 const (3.27b)

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

so from the equation of the following:

'

' '

1 s ( 2 3 ) E s 1 (3.28a)

s ( 1 3

2

' '

s 2

'

) E (3.28b)

'

we can get the expression of 1 2 :

, '

1 1 E s 2 s ( S p0 ) 2 E s

1 '

(3.29a)

2 1 s 1 s 1 s

1 1 E s 2 s ( S p0 ) 2 E s

1

'

(3.29b)

2 1 s 1 s 1 s

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where:

1 1 2 (3.30a)

2 1 2 (3.30b)

they represent the formation coefficient.

take the horizontal principal stresses:

1 1 p 0 (3.31a)

'

2 2 p 0 (3.31b)

'

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

into:

p f 3 2 1 p0 S t (3.32)

so we can get the expression of the

fracture pressure as the following:

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1 Es 2 Es 2 s

pf (S P0 ) p0 S t (3.33)

1 s 1 s 1 s

the first term reflects the tectonic effect;

the second term reflects the over-lying

effect;

the third term reflects the pore pressure

effect;

Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

the fourth term reflects the tensile

strength effect;

The value of the s andEs can

be obtained by transforming the

well logging data. So it has put a

new method for predicting the fracturing

pressure continuously and mapping the

fracturing pressures section.

Illustration of stability analysis

for a deviated well-bore

Section 4 predict the well-

bore stability continuously

using well logging data

1.longitudinal wave and transverse wave

in elastic medium using elastic theory

E d (1 d )

Vp ( 4.1)

(1 d )(1 2 d )

Ed

Vs ( 4.2)

2 (1 d )

Vs --transverse wave velocity;

Ed --dynamic Youngs modulus;

d --dynamic Poissons ratio;

--density of the medium.

2.decide the elastic parameters using well

logging data

From the formula (4.1) and (4.2)

we know that if we have know the value

of , Ed and d ,then we can get the

value of V p andV s . Contrary to this, if we

can know the value of , V p andV s , then

we can get the value of Ed and d :

Vs 2 3(V p / Vs ) 2 4

Ed ( 4.3)

(V p / Vs ) 2

1

(V p / Vs ) 2 2

d

2 (V p / Vs ) 2

1 ( 4.4)

2.1 decide the longitudinal wave velocity

and transverse wave velocity

1

Vp * 10 6 ( m / s )

t p

1

Vs * 10 6 ( m / s )( 4.5)

t s

wave ( s / m )

Vs --time difference of transverse wave

velocity ( s / m )

2.2 decide density of rock

we can get the value of rock density

using the normal compensation density

logging, it can be used to calculate the

value of elastic parameters with enough

precision except the very uneven well-

bore wall condition. While for the oil gas

reservoir, the rocks porosity is much

bigger, so we need to revise the value

of rock density as the following:

log 0.5 e S ( ma f )( 4.6)

where: --revised density;

log --logging density;

e --rock porosity;

Sgas saturation;

ma--density of the rock matrix;

f --density of fluid in layer;

at the same time, we need to revise the

value of time difference in the oil gas

layer as the following:

t t log C p (C p 1) e S (t f t ma )(4.7)

t log--logging time difference;

t f --time difference of layer fluid;

t--time

ma

difference of rock matrix;

C p --revised coefficient.( C p =1~2)

3. Decide the rock strength using logging

data

3.1the relation between uniaxial

compressive strength with dynamic

Youngs modulus established by Deer and

Miller in 1966 as the following:

e 0.0045Ed (1 Vcl ) 0.008EdVcl (MPa)(4.8)

where: Vcl --the mud content of sand

rock;

Ed --dynamic Youngs modulus

of sand rock;(Mpa)

normally, the tensile strength of the rock

times 8~15 is the compressive strength,

S t c / 15(4.9)

where: S t --the tensile strength of the

rock;(Mpa)

3.2 decide the value of shear strength C

and inner friction angle

3.2.1basing on the research of Bruce S and

Coates the relation between shear

strength and wave velocity is as the

following:

1 d 2 4

C 5.44 10 (1 2 d )(

15 2

) V p (1 0.78Vcl )(4.10)

1 d

where: d --dynamic Poissons ratio of

the rock;

Vp

--longitudinal wave velocity of

the rock; (m/s)

--rock density; ( g / cm 3 )

Vcl --mud content of layer; (it can be get

by gamma logging data and its

expression will be given in later

example)

3.2.2 the relation between inner friction

angle and shear strength is as the

following basing on our schools research:

a log M (M 1)

2 1/ 2

b(4.11)

where: M a1 b1 C

a,b, a1 ,b1 are some constant related to

rock, which can be get by experiment.

We have calculated the expression

for Talimu region as the following, while

other regions rock also can use it to get

the approximate value of inner friction

angle when knowing the value of shear

strength.

2.564 log M ( M 1)

2 1/ 2

20(4.12)

M 58.93 1.785 C

3.3decide the value of efficient coefficient

the expression has been given

before, and usually we can make it

equalize to 1 for sands rock basing on

the Terzadhi theory, except for the

quite lower permeability condition.

3.4 decide the static parameters

s A1 K1 d

E s A2 K 2 E d (4.13)

where: A1 , A2 , K1 , K 2--are transforming

coefficients;

basing on the experiment result

performed in North of China, They are

related with the stress difference of rock:

A1 0.24543 0.155483 log( )

A2 198.4 1810.2 log( )

K1 0.050248 0.364781 log( )

K 2 0.066184 0.160931 log( )( 4.14)

where: = v gH(Mpa)

generally speaking, it can also be used

among other regions.

3.5 decide the tectonic coefficient 1 , 2

1 ( H h 2P0 )(1 s ) 2 s ( S P0 )

1

Es

1

2 ( H h )(1 s )( 4.15)

Es

while tectonic coefficient is a constant

for certain tectonic region, so when we

know its value at certain depth then it

can be used in overall tectonic region.

Example

Known condition:

1)vertical well:

the deviation angle-- = 0 ;

the azimuth angle-- = 0 ;

2)in situ stresses(measuring depth=1000)

H =2.61 Mpa/100m;

h =1.71 Mpa/100m;

Example

v =2.35 Mpa/100m;

P0 =1.3 Mpa/100m;

s =0.25 ;

E s =40 Gpa;

3)the effective coefficient =0.85;

4)the well-bore wall is non-permeable,i.e.

=0;

Example

5)well logging data:

MD TVD AC GR DEN

Example

1070 1070 62 70 2.37

Example

6)the relation between the velocity of

longitudinal wave and of the

transversal wave:

v s 0.59v p 0.21 km/s

7)the relation between the static and

dynamic elastic parameter:

s 0.1 d 0.15

E s 0.3E d 0.33Gpa

Example

8)pore pressure P0 =1.3 Mpa/100;

9)mud content Vcl

GR GR min

IGR

GR max GR min

2 2.7 IGR

1

Vcl

2 2.7

1

10)when depth<1050m, the average

3

density of the formation, deno=2.31 g / cm

Example

Question:

1)calculate the tectonic coefficient 1 , 2 ;

2)calculate the value of the in situ

stresses varying with the depth;

3)calculate the value of formation strength

varying with the depth;

4)calculate the value of the collapsing

Example

pressure and the fracturing pressure;

Solution:

1) 1 1 ( H h 2P0 )(1 s ) 2 s ( S P0 )

Es

1

2 ( H h )(1 s )

Es

Example

2)

1 1 Es i 2 s i(S i P0 ) 2 Es i

H i P0

2 1 s i 1 s i 1 s i

1 1 Es i 2 s i (S i P0 ) 2 Es i

h i P0

2 1 s i 1 s i 1 s i

Example

s 0.1 d 0.15

E s 0.3E d 0.33Gpa

V 2 s 3(V p / Vs ) 2 4

Ed

v s 0.59v(V p / Vs ) 2 1

p 0.21

(V p / Vs ) 2

2

d

2 (V p / Vs ) 1 2

v s 0.59v p 0.21

Example

V p 12 2.54 10 / AC km/s;

S i DEN i g MDi

3) 1 d 2 4

C 5.44 10 (1 2 d )(

15 2

) V p (1 0.78Vcl )

1 d

GR GR min

IGR

GR max GR min

2 1 IGR

Vcl 2.7

2 1

Example

2.564 log M ( M 1) 2 1/ 2

20

M 58.93 1.785C

S t 0.0045Ed (1 Vcl ) 0.008Ed Vcl / 12

4)fracturing pressure

1 E s 2 E s 2 s

pf ( S P0 ) p0 S t

1 s 1 s 1 s

Pf 1000

f g / cm 3

g MDi

Example

collapse pressure

(3 H h ) 2CK p0 ( K 2 1)

m 100

(K )H

2

Well logging data and calculating result

Depth Time Gamma Density

(m) difference ray of the

s / ft rock

1060 87 88 2.42

1065 51 81 2.38

1070 62 70 2.37

1075 55 30 2.42

1080 80 77 2.39

1085 82 71 2.41

1090 65 87 2.43

1 2

Over-loading

(horizontal (horizontal stress

stress stress

coefficient) coefficient)

0.00024 0.000281 23.794

0.00024 0.00028 25.074

0.00024 25.257

0.00028

25.480

0.00024 0.00028

25.545

0.00024 0.00028

0.00024 25.877

0.00028

Horizontal Horizontal Tensile Shear

stress stress strength

strength

19.493 14.623 10.017 74.636

Inner Mud- Mud-

Friction Fracture weight weight

angle pressure (fracture) (collapse)

728

936

217

24.782 23. 2.234 -0.154

343

21.781 21. 2.014 1.341

140

22.989 22. 2.127 1.148

427

24.071 19. 1.864 1.609

752

24.144 19. 1.848 1.638

667

21.624 21. 1.995 1.284

337

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