You are on page 1of 178

Well-bore stability

Date:2002.9.
foreword
Significance

1. stability problems during drilling


cause substantial problems in all
areas of the world, even in vertical
wells. These stability problems
are often encountered in the
shale-like rock layers above the
foreword

reservoir, resulting in loss of time


and sometimes also loss of
equipment.
2. A significant part of development
costs for a field today is production
drilling. If the production wells can
be drilled as deviated holes,
foreword
the production platform can drain a
larger area.
This can reduce the number of
platforms required to produce the field.
Stability during drilling can be critical
for highly deviated wells. There is
hence a large potential for cost saving
here, both with respect to reducing
foreword
the cost of the wells which are actually
drilled and also with respect to
reducing the required number of
production wells.
foreword
*research concern:
this report will presents an
overview of how rock mechanics can
be applied to analyze well stability
problems. The presentation is aimed at
showing the basic procedure, while the
borehole is in a complicated stress
foreword
circumstances, so the reality can not
be described exactly by an model, no
mater how complicated the model is.
Based on some ideal assumptions,a
stability analysis, however, can give
some guiding limits, which then have
to be related to practical conditions.
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
From the point of view of rock
mechanics, it is the present state of a
rock and its present mechanical properties
which are of interest. The rock has
however undergone a long and in many
cases complicated process from its initial
state of a loose sediment to its present
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
state as a rock.
A sedimentary basin may be exposed
to tectonic forces creating repeated cycles
of elevation and depression, in addition
to erosion, changes in sedimentation of
environment, changes in sedimentation
rate, solution and precipitation of
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
cementing material etc. These geological
activities and events will however affect
the properties which will be of main
interest in rock mechanics, including in
situ stress, pore pressure and rock
mechanical properties.
Therefore, some knowledge of
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
geological processes is often valuable,
and although on a totally different time
scale and length scale, geological
processes are often comparable with
events in rock mechanics laboratory
testing.
1.1 Underground stresses (see
figure )
Underground stresses

z
y

x
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
1) Normally, an underground formation
has to carry the weight of the overlying
material,
z 0 ( z) gdz (1.1)
z

Where is the density of the material


and g is the acceleration of gravity. If
the density dont varies with depth, the
vertical stress at depth z becomes
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
simpler. ( notice that if we determine the
z-axis is pointing vertically downwards,
with z=0 corresponding to the earth
surface ).
Assuming that the horizontal stresses
are equal, by applying the elastic theory,
we may get :
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics

x y z (1.2)
1
where v is Poissons ratio. Values of
the total vertical stress are normally
found by integrating density log down to
the appropriate depth. Horizontal stress
value are more difficult to infer. A Poissons
ratio measured in the lab today should
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
not be used to estimate a ratio between
the vertical and horizontal stresses. The
most direct method of obtaining the
horizontal stress is to perform a fracture
test of the formation. This is however
not done routinely, and the number of
data points will therefore mostly be
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
inadequate for evaluation of horizontal
stress gradients.
2 ) The earths crust consists of a number
of discrete tectonic plates. When different
plates interact, extensive deformation
will occur along plates boundaries, this
lead to tectonic stresses. (see figure)
Schematic illustration of
tectonic plate movement

Subduction Spreading Subduction


zone ridge zone
lithosphere

asthenosphere
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
If we take the tectonic activity into
consideration, then the horizontal stress
will be:
v
x ( 1 ) z (1.3a )
1 v
v
( 2 ) z (1.3b)
1 v
y

Where the 1and 2 represent the


tectonic coefficient.
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
3 ) The pore pressure is an important
parameter in any rock mechanics study
of porous, fluid-filled rock systems. The
pore fluid will carry part of the total
stresses applied to the system, thus
relieving the rock matrix from part of the
load. The effective stress as defined by
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
Terzaghi is equal to the total stress less
the pore pressure. This effective stress
concept was first introduced by Terzaghi
in soil mechanics in 1923, on an empirical
basis.
P0 (1.4)
'

The effective stress concept has later been


refined by Biot as:
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
P0 (1.5)
'

Where is the effective stress coefficient.


namely, the Biot coefficient.
A further study shows that the Biot
coefficient has something with the rocks
volumetric compressibility and the solid
Matrix compressibility.
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
Cr
1 (1.6) E /(1 2 )
or 1 (1.7)
Cb Ei (1 2 i )

where: E and E i --the Youngs modulus


of the rock volume and the solid
matrix
and i --the Poissons ratio
of the rock volume and the solid
matrix
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
still we can use the transverse wave
velocity and the longitudinal wave
velocity to calculate the effective co-
efficient as the following:
b (3v pb 4v sb )
2 2
1 (1.8)
r (3v pr 4v sr )
2 2

where: b , r --the density of the rock


Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
volume and the solid matrix
v pb , v pr --longitudinal wave velocity of
the rock volume and the solid
matrix
vsb , vsr --transverse wave velocity of the
rock volume and the solid matrix
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
then the effective stresses can be
expressed as: (if we make =1)
z z 0 (1.9a)
'

v
x '
( 1 ) z (1.9b)
'

1 v
v
y '
( 2 ) z (1.9c)
'

1 v
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
1.2 two strength criterion
1 )Mohr-Coulomb criterion
1


3

1
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
C (1.10)
where: --the inner friction coefficient
of the rock, tg ;
--the inner friction angle;
Cshear strength
This has give us a criterion to judge if
the rock has failed or not.
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
the Mohr-Coulomb criterion also can
be written as the following form which
is the function of the principal stress of
1 and 3 :
2 1/ 2
2 1/ 2

1 ( 1) 3 ( 1) 2C (1.11)
this is just one form among four.
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
2) Drucker-Prager criterion
while from the above formula, we can
find that Mohr-Coulomb criterion has not
taken the medium stress into consideration.
Contrary to it, the Drucker-Prager criterion
does.
The expression is as the following:
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
QI 1 K f 0(1.12)
1/ 2
J2
where:
I1 1 2 3

1
6

J 2 ( 1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 3 1 )
2 2 2

3 sin
Q
3 3 sin 2
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics

3C cos
Kf
3 sin
2

1.3 Rock mechanical properties


The mechanical properties of a rock
normally be described by 4 mechanical
parameters: two elastic parameters ( i.e.
Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio )
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
and two failure parameters ( friction angle
and uniaxial compressive strength when
applying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion ).
while the rock mechanical properties
could be tested in the lab. ( see figure )
Compressive test
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
During the test, increased the
pressure around the rock sample to
certain value, at the same time, we
enhance the vertical pressure in order to
increase the 1 , together write down
the samples axial compressive strain 1 .
1 equal to vertical distortion value divide
the original length of the sample.
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
3 3 3 3 0
3 2 1 0

1 3 0 cons tan t
)
T cons tan t
33
32
1

3 0 3

1
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
from the picture, we can find that the
maximum vertical stresses before the
rocks failure is the strength value
according to certain horizontal pressure.
when we increase the horizontal
pressure, it will not only increase the
strength of the rock, but also the plasticity,
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
i.e. the strain value before failure will
also increased. The third curve
approximately approach to the ideal
plasticity situation; the fourth one has
shown obvious hardening property. The
slope of the curve equal to the Youngs
modulus. If we record the transversal
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
strain 2 3 , then we can get the
value of the Poissons ration .
3
(1.13)
1
the rocks tensile strength is much
smaller than its compressive strength.
It is difficult to carry out the tensile test
Section 1 Some geological
aspects of rock mechanics
in the axial direction directly. So we
adopt the following method to obtain the
tensile strength t .

t (MPa)(1.14)
rt
where: Pthe total stress(N)
r-- the radius of the sample (mm)
t--the thickness of the sample(mm)
Tensile test
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
Underground formations are always
under some stress, mostly due to over-
burden pressure and tectonic stresses.
When a well is drilled in a formation,
stressed solid material is removed and
replaced with a fluid under pressure.
Since the well fluid pressure normally
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
does not match exactly the stress which
the removed solid exerted, there will be
an alteration in the stress state of the
formation around the well. (see figure )
This stress alteration is important, since
large stress deviation may lead to failure
in the formation. (see figure )
Stresses in a formation
before (a) and after drilling (b)
Well-bore failure
(caving)
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
If we consider the well is in a linear
elastic formation, so we can use the
the following model to analyze the wells
stresses situation: ( see figure )
for convenience, we use cylindrical
co-ordinates to study the stresses
distribution around the well-bore wall.
Borehole wall stresses
model (1)
Borehole wall stresses
model (2)
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
2.1 the stresses distribution of the
vertical well
1) the stresses caused by well pressure
R2
r 2 ( 2.1a )
r
R2
2 (2.1b)
r
Where R is the radius of the well-
bore.
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
2) The stresses caused by the x
x R2 x 3R 4 4 R 2
r (1 2 ) (1 4 2 ) cos 2 (2.2a)
2 r 2 r r
x R2 x 3R 4
(1 2 ) (1 4 ) cos 2 (2.2b)
2 r 2 r

x 3R 4 2 R 2
r (1 4 2 ) sin 2 (2.2c)
2 r r
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
3) Caused by the y
y R2 y 3R 4 4 R 2
r (1 2 ) (1 4 2 ) cos 2 (2.3a)
2 r 2 r r
y R2 y 3R 4
(1 2 ) (1 4 ) cos 2 (2.3b)
2 r 2 r
y 3R 4
2R 2
r (1 4 2 ) sin 2 (2.3c)
2 r r
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
4) Caused by the z
2
R
z v [2( x y ) 2 cos 2 ]( 2.4)
r

5) Caused by permeable effect


When the well pressure increase to a certain
value, it will cause loss of circulation, this
will lead to additional stresses distribution
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
around the well-bore wall
(1 )(1 2 ) (r 2 R 2 )
r f ( 0 )( 2.5a)
2(1 )
2
r

(1 )(1 2 ) r 2 R 2
f ( 0 )( 2.5b)
2(1 )
2
r

(1 )(1 2 )
z f ( 0 )( 2.5c)
2(1 )
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
where :
--Poissons ratio
f --porosity of the rock
0

0 --pore pressure of the virgin


formation
1 (see Page 23)
when the well-bore wall is non-permeable,
there is no this additional stresses.
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
so the stresses distribution around the
well-bore wall can be formed by the
above formulas:
R2 1 R2
r 2 ( x y )(1 2 )
r 2 r
1 3R 4 4R 2
( x y )(1 4 2 ) cos 2
2 r r
(1 )(1 2 ) R 2

(1 2 ) f ( 0 )( 2.6a )
2(1 ) r
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
R2 1 R2
2 ( x y )(1 2 )
r 2 r
1 3R 4
( x y )(1 4 ) cos 2
2 r
(1 )(1 2 ) R2
(1 2 ) f ( 0 )( 2.6b)
2(1 ) r

R 2
z z 2( x y )( ) cos 2
r
(1 )(1 2 )
f ( 0 )( 2.6c )
(1 )
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
when the well is permeable, =1;
when the well is non-permeable, =0.
at the well-bore wall (r=R), the stresses
distribution is:
r f ( 0 )(2.7a)
x (1 2 cos 2 ) y (1 2 cos 2 )
(1 )(1 2 )
f ( 0 )( 2.7b)
(1 )
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
z z 2( x y ) cos 2
(1 )(1 2 )
f ( 0 )( 2.7c)
(1 )

2.2 the stresses distribution around the


deviated well
As for the deviated well, the stresses
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
distribution around the well-bore wall is
more complicated. While the direction of
the well axis does not accord with the
principal stresses, so we need to
transform the co-ordinate from (1,2,3)
which represent the principal stresses
direction to (x,y,z) where z oriented the
same with the well axis. For convenience,
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
we also need to set up the relation
between the perpendicular co-ordinate
with the cylindrical co-ordinate.
while a transform from (1,2,3) co-
ordinate to (x,y,z) co-ordinate can be
obtained in two operations. (see figure)
where : represents the azimuth;
represents the deviation.
Co-ordinate Transform
3 1




1
2
1 1
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
1)make the 3 as the axis, rotate angle
according to the right hands rule, to
the (x1,y1,z1) co-ordinate. The relation
between the (1,2,3) with the (x1,y1,z1)
can be expressed as the following:
x1 cos sin 0 1
y1 sin cos 0 2(2.8)

z1 0 0 1 3
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
2) make the y1 as the axis, rotate
angle to the (x,y,z) co-ordinate. The
relation between the (x1,y1,z1) and
the (x,y,z) can be expressed as the
following matrix:
x cos 0 sin x1
y 0 1 0 y1(2.9)

z sin 0 cos z1
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
so the transform from (1,2,3) co-ordinate
to (x,y,z) co-ordinate can be expressed
by the following matrix:
x cos 0 sin cos sin 0 1
y 0 1 0 sin cos 0 2

z sin 0 cos 0 0 1 3
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
cos cos cos sin sin 1
sin cos 0 2(2.10)
sin cos sin sin cos 3

the relation between the component


of xx , yy , zz in the (x,y,z) coordinate
and the component 1 , 2 , 3in the
(1,2,3) co-ordinate can be expressed
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
xx xy xz cos cos cos sin sin

yx yy yz sin cos 0
zx zy zz sin cos sin sin cos

1 0 0 cos cos sin sin cos
0 0 cos sin cos sin sin (2.11)
2
0 0 3 sin 0 cos
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
Or can be written as:
xx 1 cos 2 cos 2 2 cos 2 sin 2
3 sin 2
yy 1 sin 2 cos
2 2

zz 1 sin 2 cos 2 2 sin 2 sin 2


3 cos
2
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
xy 1 cos cos sin
2 cos sin cos
xz 1 sin cos cos
2

2 cos sin sin


2

3 sin cos
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
yz 1 sin cos sin
2 sin sin cos
while as we are study the deviated
well, so the stresses distribution around
the well-bore wall are not only caused by
the above terms, but also are caused by
the component of xy , xz , yz .
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
1) by the xy
4 2
3R 4R
r xy (1 4 2 ) sin 2
r r
4
3R
xy (1 4 ) sin 2
r
4 2
3R 2R
r xy (1 4 2 ) cos 2 (2.12)
r r
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
2) By the xz
2
R
rz xz (1 2 ) cos
r
2
R
z xz (1 2 ) sin (2.13)
r
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
3) By the yz
2
R
rz yxz (1 2 ) sin
r
2
R
z yz (1 2 ) cos (2.14)
r
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
add the stresses caused by different
component, we can get the total stresses
distribution around the deviated well:
r .. ..
.. ..
z .. ..
r .. ..
rz .. ..
z .. ..( 2.15)
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
at the well-bore wall (r=R) the stresses
can also be obtained:
r f ( 0 )
(1 )(1 2 )
[ f ]( 0 )
(1 )
xx (1 2 cos 2 ) yy (1 cos 2 )
4 xy sin 2
Section 2 Stresses
around boreholes
(1 )(1 2 )
z [ f ]( 0 ) zz
(1 )
[2( xx yy ) cos 2 4 xy sin 2 ]
r 0
rz 0
z 2 yz cos 2 xz sin (2.16)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1.Unstable boreholesreasons and


consequences
Formations at a given depth are
exposed to compressive stresses,vertically
and horizontally, as well as a pore pressure.
when a hole is drilled, the surrounding rock
must carry the load which was carried by
the removed rock. In a rock which behaves
linearly elastic, this leads to a stress
concentration near the well. If the
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

well is drilled through a weak rock,


this stress concentration can lead to
failure of the borehole.
To prevent flow of pore fluid into
the well or rock failure (among other
things), the well is filled with mud. The
mud-weight is primarily adjusted to
prevent inflow of pore fluid, while the
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

aspect of rock stability traditionally


has had a low priority. This represents
no problems in competent rocks,
but in weak formations it may be the
stability which sets the lower
acceptable limit for the mud-weight,
not the pore pressure.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

The mud will carry parts of the stress
concentration. The mud-weight can, however,
not be increased too much, since this will
cause hydraulic fracturing of the formation,
risking lost circulation and the possibility of a
blowout.
There are basically two types of borehole
failure.see the following figures:
Stability problems during
drilling
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

compressive failure is caused by an


insufficient mud-weight compared with
rock strength and the stress around the
borehole, while tensile failure is caused
by an excessive mud-weight compared
with the smallest in situ stress.
compressive failure can be divided
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

into two main types:


1). Increased borehole diameter due to
brittle failure and caving of the well-bore
wall. This can lead to cementing
problems and difficulties with logging
response and log interpretation. This
normally takes place in brittle rocks,but
borehole increase may also be due to
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
erosion (hydraulic or mechanical) in a
poorly cemented (weak) rock.
2). Reduced borehole diameter normally
occurs in weak (plastic) shale,
sandstones and salt. Some chalk
formations can also show such behavior.
This phenomenon requires repeated
reaming, or may even resulting in a
stuck drill-pipe.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
Tensile failure or hydraulic fracturing
is recognized by lost circulation. This
can reduce the hydraulic pressure in the
well and cause inflow of pore fluid. In the
worst case, this results in a blowout.
When drilling in competent and
normally stressed rocks, these problems
are usually not experienced. They can,
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
however, appear in zones which are
abnormally stressed compared with
the strength of the rock. The mud may
also have detrimental effects,resulting
in a weakening of the rock. A typical
example is swelling shale, where the
mud is not in chemical equilibrium with
the rock, so that an initially chemical
problem is turning into a mechanical
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

problem.
The increased costs of such
problems are obvious. Instabilities may
also cause considerable problems to
later operations in the borehole.
Examples of this are logging, log
evaluation and cementing. Poor
cementing of the casing can lead to
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
problems for perforating, sand control,
production and stimulation.
stability problems can appear both
in vertical and in deviated wells. The
problems are generally larger in a
deviated hole, since the stress
distribution is less favorable. The
vertical stress, which is normally the
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
the largest, will have an increasing
component normal to the well-bore as
the deviation angle increasing, and the
stable range for the mud-weight
decrease. This may requires additional
casings. In some zones it may be
inadvisable to drill above a certain
angle.These limitation must therefore
be considered already in the planning
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

phase of a field.
This effect of deviation applies to
zones of normal stress gradients. If
tectonic components are present, the
situation may be the opposite, i.e.
increased deviation is more favorable,
at least in a given azimuth direction.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
2. The principle of a stability analysis
Ideally a theoretical model should cover
all aspects which could affect stability,such
as well pressure, temperature, time, mud
chemistry etc.
such a model is, however, unavailable
today, and is not likely to appear in the
near future since all mechanisms are not
mapped. The model would require large
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

resources, and it would be very difficult


to get the necessary input data, since
availability of cores is a limiting factor.

A two-step method for analysis is


therefore presented:
1) Calculate the well pressure required
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
to avid compressive failure and tensile
failure (hydraulic fracturing) using linear
elastic theory.
2) Then taking into other detailed
conditions related to the problem.
To illustrate the procedure, calculations
for a vertical well will be presented. The
principle is exactly the same for a deviated
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

well, but the equations are more


complicated and difficult to handle
analytically.
In a real case, this represents a first
order approximation to the problem,
which has to be coupled with all the
practical experience and other relevant
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

information from a field to generate the


best recommendations and solutions.
The purpose of the calculation is to
find the minimum and maximum allowable
mud-weight to avoid the stability problems
described in the above section. The stress
calculations are based on a linear, elastic
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
model. Failure is assumed to take place
when the elastic limit of the rock is
reached. In the elastic case, the stress
concentration will reach its maximum at
the well-bore wall. Failure will thus occur
first at the well-bore wall, and it is
therefore the stress solutions at the well-
bore wall which will be of interest.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

The calculation itself is limited to


compressive failure and tensile failure
as mentioned above. Shear failure may in
some cases precede tensile failure when
increasing the well pressure. However,
when considering practical aspects of
stability during drilling,
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

significant problems are not expected to


appear before the formation fractures
and the mud circulation is lost. Therefore
the discussion will be restricted to tensile
failure as the upper limit for the mud-
weight.
The calculation require primarily
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

the following data:


1) In situ stresses

2) Pore pressure

3) Failure criterion for the rock

4) Physical parameter of the rock

5) Geometry parameter of the well-bore


Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

3. Calculation of minimum mud-weight


required to prevent borehole collapse
Based on the solutions presented in
the last section, the stresses at the well-
bore can be calculated.
There are two type of failure criterion
to calculate the lower mud-weight:
1) Mohr-Coulomb criterion

2) Drucker-Prager criterion
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

To illustrate the principle, consider a


vertical well with equal horizontal stresses.
we suppose the vertical stresses is v ,
the horizontal stresses is h . The stresses
distribution around the well-bore wall is:
r p(3.1a)
2 h p(3.1b)
z v (3.1c)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
The effective stresses around the well-
bore wall is:
r ' p p0 (3.2a)
2 h p p0 (3.2b)
'

z z p0 (3.2c)
'

where p 0 --initial pore pressure of the formation ,


(we make the effective coefficient as 1.)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

1)When the well pressure is smaller


comparatively, then z r ,basing
on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion:
C 0 r tg (3.3)
2


where: C0 2C (1 2 )1 / 2 (3.4a)

(3.4b)
4 2
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Cshear strength
-- inner friction coefficient
-- inner friction angle
then we can calculate the critical
well pressure:
2 h C0 (tg ) p0
2
pcr (3.5)
1 tg
2
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

2) When increasing the well pressure,


r z , basing on the Mohr-
Coulomb criterion:

r C 0 tg (3.6)
2

then we can get the critical pressure:


C0 p0 (2 h p0 )tg
2
pcr (3.7)
1 tg
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
while the stresses distribution
around the well-bore was obtained by
assuming the rock is in a linearly elastic
situation. However, some kind of rocks
Youngs modulus has something with
the horizontal stresses. It will increase
when the horizontal stresses was
increased, taking shale for example.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

After making research on shale


rock layers of Jurassic system in LunNan
area. We find the relation between the
Youngs modulus with the horizontal
stresses can be expressed as:

E E 0 n
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
where: --confining pressure;
EYoungs modulus;
E0 ,nconstant related to the
rock
In Talimu area, it can be written as:

E 2736 0.1

It can be seen that the relation is non-


linear.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
Basing on the research of rock
mechanics lab of our school, the critical
mud-weight to keep the well-bore stability
is:
(3 H h ) 2CK p0 ( K 2 1)
m 100
(K )H
2

where: K ctg (45 0 / 2);


Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
Hthe depth of the well;
m-- the density of the mud;
Cthe shear strength;

--non-linear amend coefficient,


range from 0.8~0.95;
H , h -- the biggest and the smallest
horizontal stresses.
--the effective coefficient
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
4. Calculation of maximum mud-weight
before fracturing
The upper limit for the mud-weight
is the maximum mud-weight before
tensile failure (fracturing)
Fracturing will take place when the
smallest effective principal stress
becomes tensile and equal to the tensile
strength of the rock:
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

3 0 0 (6.1)
'

A good approximation is normally


to set the tensile strength equal to zero,
since there will always be small cracks
and imperfection in the well-bore wall.
Many models have been put forward
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

to predict the critical mud-weight. While


because different assuming and factors
have been taken into consideration, so
big difference exist in different models.
1 ) Eaton model
This method was widely used in the gulf
region of America. It suppose:
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
1)The rock layer was in equal horizontal
stresses situation;
2)Imperfection and mini-fracture exist in
the formation;
3)well fluid penetrate into the fracture
under pressure, and it only need to
overcome the stresses of the vertical
fracture plane to initiating fracture.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

basing on the above assumption, the


effective in situ stresses are:

x
'
z (3.8a )
'

1

y
'
z (3.8b)
'

1
z z p0 (3.8c)
'
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

From the suppose 2) and 3) we know


that initiating fracture only need to
overcome the horizontal stresses, so
the effective fluid pressure of the well is:

p f p0 ( z p0 )(3.9)
1
so the critical pressure is:

pf ( z p 0 ) p 0 (3.10)
1
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
while Eaton model applies to the
newly sedimentary formation, which has
seldom been affected by the tectonic
activity. Its prediction effect will not be
satisfactory if were not in such formation.
2) Stephen model
Basically it has the same assumption
with the Eaton model, while it take the
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
tectonic activity into consideration. So
the effective in situ stresses are:

z ' z p0 (3.11a)

x (
'
) z (3.11b)
'

1

y '
( ) z (3.11c)
'

1
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where: --the uniform tectonic


coefficient horizontally
the effective fluid pressure in the well to
initiating vertical fracture is:

p f p0 ( )( z p0 )(3.12)
1
so the critical pressure is:

pf ( )( z p 0 ) p 0 (3.13)
1
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

However the above two model


havent taken the stresses concentration
near the well-bore into consideration.
3) HuangRongzun model
Professor HuangRongzun of our
school has put forward new prediction
method in 1981 and 1984.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

it suppose:
1)The formation was in non-uniform
tectonic stresses situation;
2)Stresses concentration exists near the
well- bore.
3)The reason that the formation fracturing
is because the stresses at the well-bore
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

exceed the formations tensile strength.


If we use 3 represents the over-
loading stresses, 1 , 2 ( 1 2 0) , then
the stresses at the well-bore wall (r=R)
are:
r p
( 1 2 ) 2( 1 2 ) cos 2 p(3.14)
r 0
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

In most cases, it will be vertical


fracture when increasing the well
pressure, the main reason causing the
well-bore unstable is that the effective
tangential stresses turn from the
compressive stresses to tensile stresses,
and exceed the tensile strength.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Obviously, the maximum tensile stresses


will be reached at the position of 0
and 180 firstly, then
( 1 2 ) 2( 1 2 ) cos 2 p
3 2 1 p(3.15)
the effective stresses is:
' 3 2 1 p p0 (3.16)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where: p 0 --the pore pressure;


--the effective coefficient;
the fracturing condition is:
S t (3.17)
'

where: St --the tensile strength of the


formation;
then
p f 3 2 1 p0 S t (3.18)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where: p f --the critical pressure.


If we express the over-lying
pressure as the following form:
H
3 S ( H ) gdH (3.19)
0

then the effective over-lying pressure is:


3 S p0 (3.20)
'
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

then the effective horizontal stresses


caused by the weight of the formation
are:

1 2
' '
3 (3.21)
'

1
if we take the tectonic stresses into
Consideration,then
1' ( 1 ) 3 (3.23a )
'

1

2 (
'
2 ) 3 (3.23b)
'

1
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where: 1 , 2 --the tectonic coefficient.


then the critical pressure is:
2
p f p0 ( k )( S p0 ) S t (3.24)
1
where: k 1 3 2
This model was widely used at
present, and has high veracity.
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

4)New HuangRongzun model


This new model was put forward
by professor HuangRongzun in 1990, it
was aimed at making use of the well
logging material to realize predicting
the formations fracturing pressure
continuously. It suppose:
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
1)The formation was in an over-lying and
non-uniform horizontal tectonic
stresses situation;
2)The displacement of each sedimentary
layer is continuous;
3)The fracturing was caused because
the rocks stresses reached the tensile
strength.
Sedimentary layer

C
D
E
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

if we use A,B,C,D,E represent different


sedimentary layer underground, because
the displacement of different layer is
continuous, so the two main strains of
different layer must be the same.

1 ( A)
1
(B)
... 1 (3.25a )
2 ( A)
2
(B)
... 2 (3.25b)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

Based on the Hooke law, we get the


relation of the stress and strain:
1
1
Es

1 ' s ( 2 ' 3 ' ) (3.26a )

2
1
Es

2 s ( 1 3 ) (3.26b)
' ' '

if we suppose the 1 and 2 as constant,


1 1 const (3.27a )
2 2 const (3.27b)
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
so from the equation of the following:
'
' '

1 s ( 2 3 ) E s 1 (3.28a)

s ( 1 3
2
' '
s 2
'
) E (3.28b)
'
we can get the expression of 1 2 :
, '

1 1 E s 2 s ( S p0 ) 2 E s
1 '
(3.29a)
2 1 s 1 s 1 s

1 1 E s 2 s ( S p0 ) 2 E s
1
'
(3.29b)
2 1 s 1 s 1 s
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

where:
1 1 2 (3.30a)
2 1 2 (3.30b)
they represent the formation coefficient.
take the horizontal principal stresses:
1 1 p 0 (3.31a)
'

2 2 p 0 (3.31b)
'
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight

into:

p f 3 2 1 p0 S t (3.32)
so we can get the expression of the
fracture pressure as the following:
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
1 Es 2 Es 2 s
pf (S P0 ) p0 S t (3.33)
1 s 1 s 1 s
the first term reflects the tectonic effect;
the second term reflects the over-lying
effect;
the third term reflects the pore pressure
effect;
Section 3 Critical Mud-Weight
the fourth term reflects the tensile
strength effect;
The value of the s andEs can
be obtained by transforming the
well logging data. So it has put a
new method for predicting the fracturing
pressure continuously and mapping the
fracturing pressures section.
Illustration of stability analysis
for a deviated well-bore
Section 4 predict the well-
bore stability continuously
using well logging data
1.longitudinal wave and transverse wave
in elastic medium using elastic theory
E d (1 d )
Vp ( 4.1)
(1 d )(1 2 d )
Ed
Vs ( 4.2)
2 (1 d )

where: V p --longitudinal wave velocity


Vs --transverse wave velocity;
Ed --dynamic Youngs modulus;
d --dynamic Poissons ratio;
--density of the medium.
2.decide the elastic parameters using well
logging data
From the formula (4.1) and (4.2)
we know that if we have know the value
of , Ed and d ,then we can get the
value of V p andV s . Contrary to this, if we
can know the value of , V p andV s , then
we can get the value of Ed and d :
Vs 2 3(V p / Vs ) 2 4
Ed ( 4.3)
(V p / Vs ) 2
1
(V p / Vs ) 2 2
d

2 (V p / Vs ) 2
1 ( 4.4)
2.1 decide the longitudinal wave velocity
and transverse wave velocity
1
Vp * 10 6 ( m / s )
t p
1
Vs * 10 6 ( m / s )( 4.5)
t s

where: t p --time difference of longitudinal


wave ( s / m )
Vs --time difference of transverse wave
velocity ( s / m )
2.2 decide density of rock
we can get the value of rock density
using the normal compensation density
logging, it can be used to calculate the
value of elastic parameters with enough
precision except the very uneven well-
bore wall condition. While for the oil gas
reservoir, the rocks porosity is much
bigger, so we need to revise the value
of rock density as the following:
log 0.5 e S ( ma f )( 4.6)
where: --revised density;
log --logging density;
e --rock porosity;
Sgas saturation;
ma--density of the rock matrix;
f --density of fluid in layer;
at the same time, we need to revise the
value of time difference in the oil gas
layer as the following:
t t log C p (C p 1) e S (t f t ma )(4.7)

where: t --revised time difference;


t log--logging time difference;
t f --time difference of layer fluid;
t--time
ma
difference of rock matrix;
C p --revised coefficient.( C p =1~2)
3. Decide the rock strength using logging
data
3.1the relation between uniaxial
compressive strength with dynamic
Youngs modulus established by Deer and
Miller in 1966 as the following:
e 0.0045Ed (1 Vcl ) 0.008EdVcl (MPa)(4.8)
where: Vcl --the mud content of sand
rock;
Ed --dynamic Youngs modulus
of sand rock;(Mpa)
normally, the tensile strength of the rock
times 8~15 is the compressive strength,
S t c / 15(4.9)
where: S t --the tensile strength of the
rock;(Mpa)
3.2 decide the value of shear strength C
and inner friction angle
3.2.1basing on the research of Bruce S and
Coates the relation between shear
strength and wave velocity is as the
following:
1 d 2 4
C 5.44 10 (1 2 d )(
15 2
) V p (1 0.78Vcl )(4.10)
1 d
where: d --dynamic Poissons ratio of
the rock;
Vp
--longitudinal wave velocity of
the rock; (m/s)
--rock density; ( g / cm 3 )
Vcl --mud content of layer; (it can be get
by gamma logging data and its
expression will be given in later
example)
3.2.2 the relation between inner friction
angle and shear strength is as the
following basing on our schools research:
a log M (M 1)
2 1/ 2
b(4.11)
where: M a1 b1 C
a,b, a1 ,b1 are some constant related to
rock, which can be get by experiment.
We have calculated the expression
for Talimu region as the following, while
other regions rock also can use it to get
the approximate value of inner friction
angle when knowing the value of shear
strength.

2.564 log M ( M 1)
2 1/ 2
20(4.12)
M 58.93 1.785 C
3.3decide the value of efficient coefficient
the expression has been given
before, and usually we can make it
equalize to 1 for sands rock basing on
the Terzadhi theory, except for the
quite lower permeability condition.
3.4 decide the static parameters
s A1 K1 d
E s A2 K 2 E d (4.13)
where: A1 , A2 , K1 , K 2--are transforming
coefficients;
basing on the experiment result
performed in North of China, They are
related with the stress difference of rock:
A1 0.24543 0.155483 log( )
A2 198.4 1810.2 log( )
K1 0.050248 0.364781 log( )
K 2 0.066184 0.160931 log( )( 4.14)

where: = v gH(Mpa)
generally speaking, it can also be used
among other regions.
3.5 decide the tectonic coefficient 1 , 2
1 ( H h 2P0 )(1 s ) 2 s ( S P0 )
1
Es
1
2 ( H h )(1 s )( 4.15)
Es
while tectonic coefficient is a constant
for certain tectonic region, so when we
know its value at certain depth then it
can be used in overall tectonic region.
Example
Known condition:
1)vertical well:
the deviation angle-- = 0 ;
the azimuth angle-- = 0 ;
2)in situ stresses(measuring depth=1000)
H =2.61 Mpa/100m;
h =1.71 Mpa/100m;
Example
v =2.35 Mpa/100m;
P0 =1.3 Mpa/100m;
s =0.25 ;
E s =40 Gpa;
3)the effective coefficient =0.85;
4)the well-bore wall is non-permeable,i.e.
=0;
Example
5)well logging data:
MD TVD AC GR DEN

1050 1050 72 100 2.41

1055 1055 65 105 2.39

1060 1060 87 88 2.42

1065 1065 51 81 2.38


Example
1070 1070 62 70 2.37

1075 1075 55 30 2.42

1080 1080 80 77 2.39

1085 1085 82 71 2.41

1090 1090 65 87 2.43


Example
6)the relation between the velocity of
longitudinal wave and of the
transversal wave:
v s 0.59v p 0.21 km/s
7)the relation between the static and
dynamic elastic parameter:
s 0.1 d 0.15
E s 0.3E d 0.33Gpa
Example
8)pore pressure P0 =1.3 Mpa/100;
9)mud content Vcl
GR GR min
IGR
GR max GR min
2 2.7 IGR
1
Vcl
2 2.7
1
10)when depth<1050m, the average
3
density of the formation, deno=2.31 g / cm
Example
Question:
1)calculate the tectonic coefficient 1 , 2 ;
2)calculate the value of the in situ
stresses varying with the depth;
3)calculate the value of formation strength
varying with the depth;
4)calculate the value of the collapsing
Example
pressure and the fracturing pressure;
Solution:
1) 1 1 ( H h 2P0 )(1 s ) 2 s ( S P0 )
Es
1
2 ( H h )(1 s )
Es

notice:transform the units


Example
2)
1 1 Es i 2 s i(S i P0 ) 2 Es i
H i P0
2 1 s i 1 s i 1 s i

1 1 Es i 2 s i (S i P0 ) 2 Es i
h i P0
2 1 s i 1 s i 1 s i
Example
s 0.1 d 0.15
E s 0.3E d 0.33Gpa
V 2 s 3(V p / Vs ) 2 4
Ed
v s 0.59v(V p / Vs ) 2 1
p 0.21

(V p / Vs ) 2
2

d

2 (V p / Vs ) 1 2

v s 0.59v p 0.21
Example
V p 12 2.54 10 / AC km/s;

S i DEN i g MDi
3) 1 d 2 4
C 5.44 10 (1 2 d )(
15 2
) V p (1 0.78Vcl )
1 d
GR GR min
IGR
GR max GR min
2 1 IGR
Vcl 2.7
2 1
Example
2.564 log M ( M 1) 2 1/ 2
20
M 58.93 1.785C
S t 0.0045Ed (1 Vcl ) 0.008Ed Vcl / 12
4)fracturing pressure
1 E s 2 E s 2 s
pf ( S P0 ) p0 S t
1 s 1 s 1 s
Pf 1000
f g / cm 3
g MDi
Example
collapse pressure

(3 H h ) 2CK p0 ( K 2 1)
m 100
(K )H
2
Well logging data and calculating result
Depth Time Gamma Density
(m) difference ray of the
s / ft rock

1050 72 100 2.41

1055 65 105 2.39

1060 87 88 2.42
1065 51 81 2.38

1070 62 70 2.37

1075 55 30 2.42

1080 80 77 2.39

1085 82 71 2.41

1090 65 87 2.43
1 2
Over-loading
(horizontal (horizontal stress
stress stress
coefficient) coefficient)
0.00024 0.000281 23.794

0.00024 0.000281 24.839

0.00024 0.000281 25.009


0.00024 0.00028 25.074

0.00024 0.00028 24.930

0.00024 25.257
0.00028
25.480
0.00024 0.00028
25.545
0.00024 0.00028

0.00024 25.877
0.00028
Horizontal Horizontal Tensile Shear
stress stress strength
strength

16.522 14.109 4.974 23.484

17.347 14.386 6.173 37.101

15.946 14.311 3.280 9.647


19.493 14.623 10.017 74.636

17.670 14.432 6.564 30.802

18.836 14.600 8.511 41.781

16.360 14.436 3.854 11.895

16.286 14.444 3.670 10.418

17.626 14.618 6.160 31.166


Inner Mud- Mud-
Friction Fracture weight weight
angle pressure (fracture) (collapse)

23.219 19. 1.915 1.292


728

22.049 20. 2.023 1.026


936

24.181 19. 1.848 1.627


217
24.782 23. 2.234 -0.154
343
21.781 21. 2.014 1.341
140
22.989 22. 2.127 1.148
427
24.071 19. 1.864 1.609
752
24.144 19. 1.848 1.638
667
21.624 21. 1.995 1.284
337