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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
FDMA is a multiple access method in which users are
assigned specific frequency bands. The user has sole
right of using the frequency band for the entire call
duration.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


In TDMA an assigned frequency band shared among
a few users. However, each user is allowed to
transmit in predetermined time slots. Hence,
channelization of user is achieved through separation
in time.
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Advantages:-
The main advantages of this technology
are:
|. Fast Network deployment.
2. Reduced service interruptions.
3. Low Maintenance & operational cost.
4. Better system coverage flexibility
5. Higher capacity
6. Easy transition to mobile services.
|
Ôalient Features of CDMA
u It is an advanced comm. Technology.
u It has Anti-jam and security features.
u Large capacity as compared to other Technology
like FDMA and TDMA.
u It uses spread spectrum technology

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Ôpread spectrum principle:
›riginally spread spectrum radio technology was
developed for military use to counter the interference
by hostile jamming. The broad spectrum of the
transmitted signal gives rise to´spread spectrum´. A
spectrum signal is generated by modulating the
radio frequency (RF) signal with a code consisting of
different pseudo random binary sequences, which is
inherently resistant to noisy signal environment.

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A number of spread spectrum RF signals thus
generated share the same frequency spectrum and
thus the entire bandwidth available in the band will
be used by each of the users using same frequency
at the same time.
›n the received side only the signal energy
with the selected binary sequence code is accepted
and information content is recovered. The other user
signals, whose codes do not match contribute only
the noise and are not ³de-spread´ back in
bandwidth. This transmission and reception of
signals differentiated by ³codes´ using the same
frequency simultaneously by a number of users is
known as code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). |V
Techniques as opposed to conventional method of
Frequency Division Multiple Access and Time
Division Multiple Access.
In the fig. It has been tried to explain that how
the base band signal of 9.6 kbps is spread using a
long pseudo-random Noise(PN) source to occupy
entire bandwidth of |.25 Mhz. At the receiving end
this signal will have interference from signals of
other users of the same cell, user different cells and
interference from other noise sources. All these
signals get combined with the desired signal but
using a correlator and correct PN code, the original
data can be reproduced back.

     
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CDMA channel is |.25 MHz wide and there is a separation
of 45 MHz in the forward and the reverse channel in case
of cellular band & and 80 MHz in case of PCS band.
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Walsh Codes:-
In CDMA the traffic channels are separated by
Unique ³Walsh´ code. These are
(a) 64 codes of 64 Bit Length.
(b) Forwarded traffic channel Codes.
(c) All codes are orthogonal to each other.
(d) These codes provide Isolation between
multiple signals transmitted by base stations


The basic concept behind creation of the code is
as follows:
(a)Repeat the function right
(b)Repeat the function below
(c) Invert function (diagonally)

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By using this technique we create a set of 64
such codes of 64 bit length which is known as
Walsh codes. All such codes are orthogonal to
each other. The individual subscriber now can
start communication using one of these codes.
These codes are traffic channel codes and are
used for orthogonal spreading of the information in
the entire bandwidth. ›rthogonality provides
nearly perfect isolation between the multiple
signals transmitted by the base station.

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LONG CODE
(a) 242 Bits polynomials.
(b) Forwarded channel Data (traffic and paging chls)
scrambled.
(c) Provides channelizations for the reverse chls.
(d) This code is unique for every subscriber.
(e) It is known as user address mask or user
identification.
(f) Subscriber are differentiated as no two same
codes are used.

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Ô O@T CODE
(a) This PN sequence is based on 2|
characteristics polynomial.
(b) Differentiates cells and sectors.
(c) Identification cells and sectors.
(d) Consist of codes for I to Q chls.
(e) Each cell uses different codes.

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CDMA C L A@C ITECTU@E
Pilot channel (W0)
The pilot is used by the subs unit to obtain initial
system synchronization and to distinguish cell
sites. Every sector of every cell site has a unique
pilot channel.
u Transmitted constantly.
u Allows the mobile to acquire the system.
u Provides mobile with signal strength comparison.
u Approximately 20% of the radiated power is in
the pilot.
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u as unique PN Offset(2| ) for each cell or sector.
Ôync channel (W32)
Used during system Acquisition stage. Sync chl
provides the subs unit with network information
related to cell site identification, pilot transmit
power & cell site PN offset.
u Used by mobile to synchronize with the system
u Transmits sync message with
- Pilot PN offset - System time
- Long PN code - System ID
- Network ID - Paging chl data rate
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u Tx at |200 bps
PAGING C LÔ (W|-W7)
›n this chl base station can page the subs unit
and it can send call set-up and traffic chl
assignment information.
u Means of communication between base to
mobile station.
u Paging CHL data Rates can be 2.4,4.8 or 9.6
Kbps.
u CDMA assignment has 7 paging CHLs.
u Each paging CHL supports |80 pages per set.
u Total pages/ CDMA RF chl = |260

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Traffic Channels ( W8-W3| & W33-W63)
The traffic chl carries the actual call. That is, the
voice and control information between the subs unit
& base station.
TX upto 9.6kbps on rate set | and upto |4.4kbps
on rate set 2.


Access C LÔ.
(a) Provides communication from Mobile to base
station when mobile is not using traffic Chl. The
access chl is used for call origination & for
response to pages, orders & registration
requests. It is paired with corresponding paging
chl.
(b) Each Access CHL use long PN code.
(c) Base station responds to transmission on a
particular Access CHL.
(d)Mobile responds to base station message by
emitting on Access CHL.
(e) Tx at 4800bps O
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@ake receiver
CDMA mobiles use rake receivers. The rake
receiver essentially a set of four or more receivers
(or fingers). ›ne of the receivers constantly
searches for different multipaths and helps to direct
the other three fingers to lock onto strong multipath
signals.
u Allows combined reception of up to three different
paths.
u Provides searcher receiver to identify changes in
path characteristics/new cells.
u Provides both path diversity and frequency diversity
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