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July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.

11-03/0513r0

Optimal Combining of STBC and


Spatial Multiplexing for MIMO-OFDM

Taehyun Jeon, Heejung Yu, and Sok-kyu Lee


Wireless LAN Modem Research Team, ETRI
Jihoon Choi and Yong H. Lee
KAIST

Submission Slide 1 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Contents
Spatial Multiplexing for MIMO Systems
Detection Methods
Transmit Diversity for MIMO Systems
Transmit Diversity using STBC
Combining of STBC and Spatial Multiplexing
Simulation results
Conclusion

Submission Slide 2 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Spatial Multiplexing for MIMO Systems


Tx 1 Rx 1
x1 (n) y1 (n)

Tx 2 Rx 2
Spatial x2 ( n ) y 2 ( n) Spatial
Demultiplexing Multiplexing

Tx N Rx M
xT (n) y R (n)

Transmit independent parallel data streams through


multiple antennas
Increase the data rate T times faster than SISO
Submission Slide 3 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI
July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Detection of Spatial Multiplexed Signal


Maximum Likelihood (ML) Detection
x (n) min {y (n) Hx(n)}H {y(n) Hx(n)}
xi ( n )

x i (n) all possible constellat ion set


Complexity: ~ LT operation required (L: constellation size)
Linear Detection
x (n) decision {( H H H) 1 H H y(n)} : Zero Forcing
x (n) decision {( H H H 2 I N ) 1 H H y (n)} : MMSE

V-BLAST Detection
Nulling & Canceling : Successive detection of data streams
(layer by layer)
Complexity: ~ O(29T3/3)

Submission Slide 4 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Spatial Multiplexing for MIMO-OFDM


OFDM sub-divides the wideband channel into multiple flat fading
subcarriers and can be implemented simpler and more efficient
demodulation processing (IFFT/FFT and FEQ) over single carrier
systems
MIMO-OFDM with T=R=2: Complexity ~ O(29NT3/3) when V-
BLAST detection used

x1 (0) h11 y1 (0)

IFFT
P/S h12 P/S
FFT

x1 ( N 1) y1 ( N 1)
h 21
x2 (0) y2 (0)
IFFT
P/S h 22
P/S FFT

x2 ( N 1) y2 ( N 1)

Submission Slide 5 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Transmit Diversity for MIMO Systems


Techniques compatible to IEEE 802.11a
Delay Diversity and Random Phase Diversity
Simple to implement but not significant performance gain
with number of antenna increase
Space-Time Block Coding (STBC)
Simpler implementation than Trellis Coding
Alamouti code provides diversity order 2 with T=2 and R=1

h1
*
x1 -x 2

x1 x2 r1 r2 S pace- tim e x1 x2
S pace- tim e block
h2
block coding x2 x* decoding
1

Submission Slide 6 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

STBC for MIMO-OFDM


x1 - x*2
x1 x 2
IFFT P/S
x(n)
S/P STBC

IFFT P/S

x 2 x1*

x1 [ x1 (0),, x1 ( N 1)]T
x 2 [ x2 (0),, x2 ( N 1)]T

N : Number of subcarrier s

Submission Slide 7 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

N x N MIMO Channels
In terms of Spatial Multiplexing x1 h1,1 y1

Data rate increases as number of x2 h2, 2 y2

antenna increases
No significant diversity advantages xN hN , N yN

In terms of Diversity x h1,1 y1,1


Maximum diversity gain can be h1, N y1, N
achieved
h2,1 y2,1
Higher order modulation needed to
increase the data rate SNR loss hN , N yN ,N

For best performance for a target data rate, optimal


combining of above should be considered
Submission Slide 8 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI
July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Combining of 2-layer Spatial Multiplexing


and Alamouti Code
yn
an IFFT P/S S/P FFT
STBC
IFFT P/S ^x
xn STBC Based n
S/P
V-BLAST
Detection
P/S
IFFT P/S
STBC
bn IFFT P/S S/P FFT

Tx 1 Tx 2 Tx 3 Tx 4

t=2n a2n a2n+1 b2n b2n+1

t=2n+1 -a*2n+1 -a*2n -b*2n+1 b*2n

Submission Slide 9 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Simulation Parameters
IEEE 802.11a PHY Based Frame
Number of Subcarriers (data subcarriers): 64 (48)
Number of Cyclic Prefix: 16
Sampling Rate: 20MHz
Modulation: QPSK, 16QAM, 256QAM
Number of Tx and Rx Antenna: 2, 4
Channel Coding: None
Channel Model: Independent MIMO Channel
ETSI/BRAN Channel Model B (RMS Delay Spread = 100ns)
Quasi Static Channel (no change within one frame)

Submission Slide 10 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Simulation Results (T=2,R=2)


12Mbaud
48Mbps 24Mbaud
Mode 1: QPSK S/P

12Mbaud
48Mbps 12Mbaud
Mode 2: 16QAM 2x2 STBC

-1
Mode 1: QPSK, 2 layers
Mode 2: 16QAM, 1 layer, 2x2 STBC
Mode 2 (16QAM and Alamouti) performs
better than Mode 1 (QPSK and 2-layered)
10

10
-2 Diversity gain of order 4 in Mode 2
overcomes the ~4dB degradation of
-3 higher order modulation
BER

10

-4
10

-5
10

-6
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Eb/No per Rx antenna (dB)

Submission Slide 11 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Simulation Results (T=4,R=2)


12Mbaud 12Mbaud
24Mbaud 2x2 STBC
48Mbps
Mode 1: QPSK S/P
2x2 STBC

12Mbaud

48Mbps 12Mbaud
Mode 2: 16QAM 4x4 STBC

Mode 1: QPSK, 2 layers, 2x2 STBC


10
-1 Mode 2: 16QAM, 1 layer, 4x4 STBC Mode 2 (16QAM and 4x4 STBC) performs
better than Mode 1 (QPSK and 2-layered
10
-2 Alamouti) beyond Eb/No=8dB
Diversity order 4 over 3
-3
BER

10

-4
10

-5
10

-6
10
0 5 10 15 20
Eb/No per Rx antenna (dB)

Submission Slide 12 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Simulation Results (T=4,R=4) 12Mbaud


48Mbaud
96Mbps
Mode 1: QPSK S/P

12Mbaud 12Mbaud
24Mbaud 2x2 STBC
Mode 2: 96Mbps
16QAM S/P
2x2 STBC

12Mbaud
12Mbaud
Mode 3: 96Mbps
256QAM 4x4 STBC

-1
Mode 1: QPSK, 4 layers
Mode 2: 16QAM, 2 layers, 2x2 STBC Three different combinations are tested
10
Mode 2 (16QAM and 2-layered Alamouti)
Mode 3: 256QAM, 1 layer, 4x4 STBC

10
-2 performs best beyond 5dB
Mode 1 (QPSK and 4-layered) : Average
diversity gain ~2.5
-3
BER

10

-4 Mode 2 and Mode 3 : diversity gain about


10
the same but 256QAM performs ~8dB
10
-5 worse than 16QAM

-6
10
0 5 10 15 20
Eb/No per Rx antenna (dB)

Submission Slide 13 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI


July 2003 doc.: IEEE 802.11-03/0513r0

Conclusions
Optimal MIMO-OFDM system should be selected by
trading-off the spatial multiplexing and diversity gain
for a given antenna arrangement
Candidate combined systems of STBC and spatial
multiplexing proposed and their performances
compared for extended IEEE 802.11a systems
Performance evaluations with realistic MIMO channel
model for further work items

Submission Slide 14 Taehyun Jeon, ETRI