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Mobility and Layering

LTE OPT Training


Last Updated: March 13th, 2012
Version 1.0

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1 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Content

Network + field KPIs


KPI targets and reference values
Inter-layer mobility optimization use cases
Relevant features and parameters summary
DT log analysis exercise
Project example

Handover drops are covered in another module of this training

Soc Classification level


2 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Some important counter-based idle mode mobility
KPIs
none in BTS
In eNB there are no counters for idle mode mobility
In NSN MME there are counters for TAU success rate

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3 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Presentation / Author / Date
Drive test KPIs for mobility
Use case: UE is camping in 2G/3G when LTE coverage is
better.
Analysis requires simultaneous scanner + UE logging
Field test KPI TBD
Use case: ping-pong cell reselection
Field test KPI TBD

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4 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Presentation / Author / Date
Content

Network + field KPIs


KPI targets and reference values
Inter-layer mobility optimization use cases
Relevant features and parameters summary
DT log analysis exercise
Project example

Handover drops are covered in another module of this training

Soc Classification level


5 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
KPI Targets

none defined

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6 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
KPI Reference values

none defined

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7 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Presentation / Author / Date
Content

Network + field KPIs


KPI targets and reference values
Inter-layer mobility optimization use cases
Relevant features and parameters summary
DT log analysis exercise
Project example

Idle and connected mode parameter knowledge is prerequisite for this


module. See
LTE RNDR training
LTEPAR training

Handover drops are covered in another module of this training

Soc Classification level


8 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Idle Mode Mobility optimization use cases

UE capabilities Feature Group Indicator NEXT

Tracking Area optimization


Location Area optimization
LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G
LTE inter-frequency handover optimization
Ping-pong mobility

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9 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
UE capabilities troubleshooting FGI
Common problem cases:
UE does not support LTE inter-frequency handover + meas gaps
UE does not support LTE3G ISHO
How to find out UE capabilities?
Why is this a problem?
UE firmware feature details are often not known
Most drive test tools dont decode Feature Group Indicator in UE
Capability msg

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10 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
UE Capability Info, Feature Group Indicator bitmap
.
Not decoded by all tools,
interRAT-BandList value 5
see TS 36.331 Annex B
interRAT-NeedForGaps : true
interRAT-BandList value 6
interRAT-NeedForGaps : true
Not all tools decode FGI
featureGroupIndicators
Wireshark decodes.
Bin : 5E 0D D8 80 (= 1577965696)
interRAT-Parameters Nemo 6.1 decodes partly
utraFDD
supportedBandListUTRA-FDD
supportedBandListUTRA-FDD value 1 : bandI
supportedBandListUTRA-FDD value 2 : bandVIII
geran
supportedBandListGERAN
supportedBandListGERAN value 1 : gsm850
supportedBandListGERAN value 2 : gsm900E
supportedBandListGERAN value 3 : gsm1800
supportedBandListGERAN value 4 : gsm1900
interRAT-PS-HO-ToGERAN : false

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11 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
UE Capability Info, Feature Group Indicator bitmap
featureGroupIndicators: 5e0dd880 [bit length 32]
0... .... = Indicator 1: Intra-subframe freq hopping for PUSCH scheduled by UL grant; DCI format 3a; PDSCH transmission mode 5; Aperiodic CQI/PMI/RI report on PUSCH: Mode 2-0 and 2-2 - Not supported
.1.. .... = Indicator 2: Simultaneous CQI and ACK/NACK on PUCCH (format 2a/2b); Absolute TPC command for PUSCH; Resource alloc type 1 for PDSCH; Periodic CQI/PMI/RI report on PUCCH: Mode 2-0 and 2-1 - Supported
..0. .... = Indicator 3: 5bit RLC UM SN; 7bit PDCP SN - Not supported
...1 .... = Indicator 4: Short DRX cycle - Supported
.... 1... = Indicator 5: Long DRX cycle; DRX command MAC control element - Supported
.... .1.. = Indicator 6: Prioritised bit rate - Supported
.... ..1. = Indicator 7: RLC UM - Supported
.... ...0 = Indicator 8: EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to UTRA CELL_DCH PS handover - Not supported
0... .... = Indicator 9: EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to GERAN GSM_Dedicated handover - Not Supported
.0.. .... = Indicator 10: EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to GERAN (Packet_) Idle by Cell Change Order; EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to GERAN (Packet_) Idle by Cell Change Order with NACC - Not supported
..0. .... = Indicator 11: EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to CDMA2000 1xRTT CS Active handover - Not supported
...0 .... = Indicator 12: EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to CDMA2000 HRPD Active handover - Not supported
.... 1... = Indicator 13: Inter-frequency handover - Supported
.... .1.. = Indicator 14: Measurement reporting event: Event A4 - Neighbour > threshold; Measurement reporting event: Event A5 - Serving < threshold1 & Neighbour > threshold2 - Supported
.... ..0. = Indicator 15: Measurement reporting event: Event B1 - Neighbour > threshold - Not supported
.... ...1 = Indicator 16: non-ANR related periodical measurement reporting - Supported
1... .... = Indicator 17: Periodical measurement reporting for SON / ANR; ANR related intra-frequency measurement reporting events - Supported
.1.. .... = Indicator 18: ANR related inter-frequency measurement reporting events - Supported
..0. .... = Indicator 19: ANR related inter-RAT measurement reporting events - Not supported
...1 .... = Indicator 20: SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 8x AM DRB; SRB1 and SRB2 for DCCH + 5x AM DRB + 3x UM DRB (if indicator 7 is supported) - Supported
.... 1... = Indicator 21: Predefined intra- and inter-subframe frequency hopping for PUSCH with N_sb > 1; Predefined inter-subframe frequency hopping for PUSCH with N_sb > 1 - Supported
.... .0.. = Indicator 22: UTRAN measurements, reporting and measurement reporting event B2 in E-UTRA connected mode - Not supported
.... ..0. = Indicator 23: GERAN measurements, reporting and measurement reporting event B2 in E-UTRA connected mode - Not supported
.... ...0 = Indicator 24: 1xRTT measurements, reporting and measurement reporting event B2 in E-UTRA connected mode - Not supported
1... .... = Indicator 25: Inter-frequency measurements and reporting in E-UTRA connected mode - Supported
.0.. .... = Indicator 26: HRPD measurements, reporting and measurement reporting event B2 in E-UTRA connected mode - Not supported
..0. .... = Indicator 27: EUTRA RRC_CONNECTED to UTRA CELL_DCH CS handover - Not supported
...0 .... = Indicator 28: TTI bundling - Not supported
.... 0... = Indicator 29: Semi-Persistent Scheduling - Not supported
.... .0.. = Indicator 30: Handover between FDD and TDD - Not supported
.... ..0. = Indicator 31: Undefined - Not supported
.... ...0 = Indicator 32: Undefined - Not supported

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12 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Idle Mode Mobility optimization use cases

UE capabilities Feature Group Indicator


Tracking Area optimization NEXT

Location Area optimization


LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G
LTE inter-frequency handover optimization
Ping-pong mobility

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13 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Tracking Area optimization benefits
Paging carried in
all cells in a TA, or
all cells in a list of TAs
Tracking Area optimization is a trade-off between
excessive paging load and excessive TA updates
Tracking Area optimization potential benefits
Decrease Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Utilization
Increase throughput resource available for end users
Reduce admission control failures for VoLTE
Increase Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Availability
Improve user experience of network access and latency
Optimize Mobility Management Entity (MME) Paging and Tracking
Update Performance
Improve the end user system availability experience
14
Lengthen UE Battery Life by Reducing Mobility Related Signaling
Soc Classification level
Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Tracking Area optimization trade-off
Paging increases in a linear
fashion as a TA is made larger.

TA Updates are inversely


proportional to the TA size.
There is a diminishing
improvement in TA updates as
the size increases.

The optimal size of a TA is call


model dependant. The rate at
which UE move, receive DL
data and enter idle mode
influence the optimal size.

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15 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Tracking Area optimization mobility patterns
To minimize TAUs, Tracking Areas should follow user
mobility patterns
These are difficult to measure from BTS counters
M8015 records handover for source-target pairs
Even if these are for connected mode, they probably approximate UE
mobility patterns
NSN MME give TAU statistics only at TA level
Check MME counters in case of other vendor MME

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16 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Tracking Area optimization typical case
Heavy traffic along the road causes tracking area updates
Optimization solution 1: combine TAs 1-3 to one big TA
Drawback: heavy paging load in eNBs

TAI = 3

TAI = 2
TAI = 1

Heavy traffic along road

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17 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Tracking Area optimization typical case
Heavy traffic along the road causes tracking area updates
Optimization solution 2: put TAs 1-3 to the same TA list
Drawback: heavy paging load in eNBs

TAI = 3

TAI = 2
TAI = 1

TA LIST:
TAI = 1
TAI = 2
Heavy traffic
TAI = 3

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18 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Idle Mode Mobility optimization use cases

UE capabilities Feature Group Indicator


Tracking Area optimization
Location Area optimization NEXT

LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G


LTE inter-frequency handover optimization
Ping-pong mobility

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19 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Location Area optimization

CSFB capable UE makes combined EPS/IMSI


attach/TAU in which MME assigns LAC to UE
LAC assigned based on TAI-LAI-VLR mapping table in MME
When UE moves to 2G/3G, either because of normal
cell reselection or CSFB, it will make LAU if 2G/3G
LAC is different from LTE LAC
Question: should we set LTE LAC to be the same as
2G or 3G LAC?
If LTE coverage is patchy, frequent LAU will occur when UE reselects
to 2G/3G and back signalling load and CS paging black hole
CSFB call setup time could increase because UE must make LAU first
BUT: there is a danger of UE ending up being unreachable or
increased paging time if LTE LAC is the same as non-LTE LAC and
20
UE goes camping in 2G/3G (next slide)
Soc Classification level
Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Location Area optimization, CS paging problem

If CSFB UE does not make LAU when it reselects to 2G or


3G, MSS still assumes UE is in LTE and pages it first from
there, and only afterwards in 2G/3G (depending on core
implementation)
Solution 1: use Gs interface so that UE makes combined
LAU/RAU when it reselects 2G/3G MSS will be informed
by SGSN that UE is in 2G/3G, and there is no CS paging
delay
Solution 2: make sure that LTE LAC is different from 2G/3G
LAC (can use dummy LAC in MME)
Also MSS pooling, if used, may require that LTE LAC and 3G LAC are
different
Discuss options with core planning team!!
Also Idle Mode Signalling Reduction feature might be implemented in core (not
all UEs supportPresentation
Soc Classification level
21
yet)/ Author / Date
Nokia Siemens Networks
Idle Mode Mobility optimization use cases

UE capabilities Feature Group Indicator


Tracking Area optimization
Location Area optimization
NEXT
LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G
LTE inter-frequency handover optimization
Ping-pong mobility

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22 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G
LTE-capable UEs should stay in LTE if there is
coverage (and not excessive interference)
LTE uses Rel8 absolute priority based cell
reselection
In Rel8 3GLTE and 2GLTE HOs not supported
Hence in initial phases, idle mode mobility optimization is crucial
RU40 supports RRC Release with Redirect to LTE
3GLTE reselection use case:
LTE layer(s) have higher priority than 3G layer
LTE coverage area is a subarea of 3G coverage
2GLTE reselection use case
Rural areas of 3G operators and non-3G operators
LTE layer(s) have higher priority than 2G layer
23 LTE coverage area is a subarea of 2G coverage
Soc Classification level
Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
LTE-capable UEs camping in 3G
3GLTE reselection only possible in URA_PCH, CELL_PCH or idle mode
If possible, shorten DCH and FACH inactivity timer
Often not allowed or not sensible
RU40 Smart LTE Layering feature
LTE UE redirected to LTE layer immediately

redirect

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24 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
3GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer

Important 3G parameters
ADJL/AdjLAbsPrioCellReselec
WCEL/AbsPrioCellReselec
Should be: AdjLAbsPrioCellReselec>AbsPrioCellReselec
NOTE: These parameters are not allowed to have the same value.
HOPL/AdjLThreshigh, 062 dB
HOPL/AdjLQrxlevminEUTRA, -140..-44, step 2 dBm
Check parameters from SIB19 using drive testing!!
UE performs the cell re-selection to a measured higher
priority LTE carrier in case the criterion
RSRPLTE QrxlevminLTE AdjLThresH igh

is fullfilled for at least TreselectionFACH or TreselectionPCH

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25 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
3GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
How often UE searches for higher priority LTE cells depends
on WCEL/Sprioritysearch1 and WCEL/Sprioritysearch2

Kcarrier=number of LTE carriers in SIB19


RSCPServingCell Inside this region UE shall
search for a E-UTRA layers of
higher priority at least every
60sec.
Outside this region, UE shall be
able to reselect a higher prio LTE
Sprioritysearch2 cell within Kcarrier * TdetectE-UTRA
Sprioritysearch1
RSCPmin

Ec/N0ServingCell
Ec/N0min

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26 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
3GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
From prev slide:
if SrxlevServingCell <= Sprioritysearch1 or SqualServingCell <= Sprioritysearch2 then UE
shall be able to evaluate whether a new detectable *) LTE cell meets
the reselection criteria within Kcarrier * TdetectE-UTRA
DRX cycle length [s] TdetectE-UTRA [s]
0.08 not in idle mode
0.16 not in idle mode
0.32 not in idle mode 30
0.64
1.28
2.56
60
5.12

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27 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
3GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
In order to accelerate 3GLTE reselection there is
not a lot that can be done Mainly:
Set Sprioritysearch1 and Sprioritysearch2 to high values.
Setting DRX cycle to max 1.28sec reduces reselection time to
K*30sec
Using only one LTE carrier in SIB19 results in K=1, which minimizes
cell reselection time, <30sec should be possible for compliant Ues
Initial field measurements indicate <10sec reselection time from the point
when UE moves to PCH or idle state

HOPL/AdjLQrxlevminEUTRA should be set to the same value


as used on LTE, usually around -130dBm
To avoid ping-pong, hysteresis can be set to
HOPL/AdjLThreshigh =6dB
On LTE side, A2 RRC redirect trigger and cell reselection
Soc Classification level
28 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
2GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
RG20 BSS21353: LTE system information supports
autonomous cell reselection from the GSM/EDGE
cells to the LTE cells.
Enables BCCH broadcasting of LTE layers
When both LTE and WCDMA layers have priority value defined, also
the priority parameters for the WCDMA cell are sent in SI2q message.
UE will select higher priority LTE layer if the
following criterion is fullfilled for duration of time
hysteresis parameter
RSRP > lteAdjCellMinRxLevel + lteAdjCellReselectUpperThr
RG30EP1 RG301854 Fast Return to LTE
from GSM redirects UE to LTE after GSM call
release
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29 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
2GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
Impact of BTS/timeHysteresis

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30 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
2GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
Parameters

Name Scope Range Recommend


ed Value

The same as
lteAdjCellMinRxLevel ADJL -140...-78 dB, step 2 dB LTE qRxLevMin
5
lteAdjCellPriority ADJL 0...7, step 1
8 dB
lteAdjCellReselectUpperThr ADJL 0...62 dB, step 2 dB
5 dB
lteAdjCellReselectLowerThr ADJL 0...62 dB, step 2 dB
1
gsmPriority BTS 0...7, step 1

What is the source for these recommendations?? CHECK??

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31 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
2GLTE reselection to higher priority LTE layer
Parameters
Name Scope Range Recommended
Value
gprsMsTxPwrMaxCCH1x00,
5...39 dBm, step 2
gprsMsTxpwrMaxCCH, BTS 33 dBm
dBm
msTxPwrMaxCCH
-98...-56, step 3, 15
prioritySearchThr BTS 15 (Always)
(Always)
0...28 dB, step 2 dB,
lowPriorityThr BTS 15 (Always)
15 (Always)
5 sec (0), 10 sec (1),
timeHysteresis BTS 10 sec (1)
15 sec (2), 20 sec (3)
Rule disabled (0),
reselectionAlgorithmHysteres Rule disabled
BTS 5dB (1), 4dB (2), 3dB
is (0)
(3)

What is the source for these recommendations?? CHECK??

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32 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Idle Mode Mobility optimization use cases

UE capabilities Feature Group Indicator


Tracking Area optimization
Location Area optimization
LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G
NEXT
LTE inter-frequency handover optimization
Ping-pong mobility

Soc Classification level


33 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Inter-frequency HO optimization

Usually one LTE layer is for coverage and one is for


hot spots
Goal in initial phase is to ensure that UE is
connected to the layer with the best RSRP if layers
have the same bandwidth
Assuming initial deployment with low-to-medium load
Load balancing features in roadmap
If the layers have different bandwidths, the lower
bandwidth layer should have higher RSRP to reach
equivalent throughput
Example: About 5-8 dB higher for 10MHz versus 20MHz
though handover thresholds could be decided based on many other
criteria too
Soc Classification level
34 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Inter-frequency HO optimization
IFHO meas gaps should not be activated too early
Activating IFHO measurements reduces UE tput due to meas gaps
Activating IFHO measurements deactivates DRX increases battery
consumption for smart phones

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35 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Inter-frequency HO optimization
Very little experience from live networks
HO should not be triggered too early, an aggressive trigger
point would be RSRP below -115dBm @20MHz bandwidth if
there is coverage from a better neighbour layer
Otherwise end user experience suffers
If interference present, threshold may need to be much higher
Based on field measurements, RSRP <-115dBm results in <20Mbps tput for
20MHz unloaded system. Anything above this is usually still ok for web
browsers
Triggering HO at RSRP > -100dBm produces little practical
user tput benefit
TCP and internet limit practical tput of end users
Speed test users are another story..

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36 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Inter-frequency HO optimization
A3 offset depending on target layer bandwidth
If target bw is same: a3offset ~3dB
If target bw is half: a3offset ~ 8dB
If target bw is double: a3offset ~ 0dB (or even negative??!!)
The above rules of thumb are based on the principle that user
tput should not suffer in target layer
The call should not drop either
No load balancing point of view, LB features in RL50 and beyond
No point to activate IFHO in cells where there is no other
layer coverage
Settings should be such that ping-pong is not possible for any
pair of layers
At least 5dB margin
Exercises to follow
Soc Classification level
37 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Idle Mode Mobility optimization use cases

UE capabilities Feature Group Indicator


Tracking Area optimization
Location Area optimization
LTE-capable UEs camping in 2G/3G
LTE inter-frequency handover optimization
NEXT
Ping-pong mobility

Soc Classification level


38 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Ping-pong idle + connected mode mobility
For every pair of layers, triggering thresholds should be
checked for
Idle-idle ping-pong
Idle-connected ping-pong
Connected-idle ping-pong
Connected-connected ping-pong

Example of idle-connected ping-pong:


1. 3GLTE idle mode reselection takes place at when LTE received
level is RSRP = -125dBm
2. In LTE, UE goes to connected mode due to always-on applications
3. A2 RRC redirect to UTRA threshold has been set to -120dBm
4. A2 is triggered and UE is redirected back to 3G
5. and so on go to step 1
Soc Classification level
39 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Content

Network + field KPIs


KPI targets and reference values
Inter-layer mobility optimization use cases
Relevant features and parameters summary
DT log analysis exercise
Project example

Handover drops are covered in another module of this training

Soc Classification level


40 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Relevant parameters and features

For parameters, see RNDR, module 6:


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D440638684

For parameters, see LTEPAR:


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D440929921
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/434422196

For features, see NetEng enablings:


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/420016219

Soc Classification level


41 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Content

Network + field KPIs


KPI targets and reference values
Inter-layer mobility optimization use cases
Relevant features and parameters summary
DT log analysis exercise
Project example

Handover drops are covered in another module of this training

Soc Classification level


42 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
[Classroom exercise]

Soc Classification level


43 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Presentation / Author / Date
Content

Network + field KPIs


KPI targets and reference values
Inter-layer mobility optimization use cases
Relevant features and parameters summary
DT log analysis exercise
Project example

Handover drops are covered in another module of this training

Soc Classification level


44 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Connected mode mobility
Ping-pong RSRP/RSRQ A3
Simultaneous activation of RSRP and RSRQ A3 handovers between two different
layers may lead to ping pong HO between these layers. For example, in the
previous network example case:
RSRP is better on 1800: lower frequency ->lower free space loss and penetration loss
RSRQ is better on 2600: less interference due to lower number of sites
A UE on a 1800 site when measuring a 2600 neighbour with better RSRQ it
performs HO to 2600 site. Once on 2600, the UE measures an 1800 site with
better RSRP, performs HO to 2600
Exercise
1. Considering the below settings, suggest two possible solutions to avoid the ping
pong (remeber, operator wants to keep traffic in 2600 as long as possible):
Settings for 1800 cells:
LNHOIF (2600MHz):hysA3OffsetRsrp(/Rsrq)InterFreq = 2dB
LNHOIF (2600MHz):a3OffsetRsrp(/Rsrq)InterFreq = 2dB
Settings for 2600 cells:
LNHOIF (1800MHz):hysA3OffsetRsrp(/Rsrq)InterFreq = 3dB
LNHOIF (1800MHz):a3OffsetRsrp(/Rsrq)InterFreq = 3dB
Soc Classification level
45 Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Presentation / Author / Date
LTE 2600, absolute priority 7 qrxLevMin = -130 dBm
idle mode reselection sIntraSearch = 62

sNonIntrSearch = 16

RSRP

-68 -114 -130 -140

When RSRP < -68: start to When RSRP < -114: start to
measure intra-freq neighbours. measure on LTE1800 and WCDMA

Reselection to another 2600 cell Reselection to LTE1800 cell will If no suitable LTE1800 cell is found,
will happen when the neighbour is happen when serving cell is then try WCDMA. Reselection to
3dB better. below -120dBm and the WCDMA will happen when serving
LTE1800 neighbours RSRP is cell is below -120 and neighbouring
LNCEL:Qhyst = 3dB better than -109 dBm. WCDMA cell RSCP > -101
IAFIM: qOffestCell = 0dB
LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 10 LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 10
Reselection will happen if UE IRFIM:interFrqThrL = 21 UFFIM:utraFrqThrL = 10 (relative to
camps longer than 1 sec in the UFFIM:qRxLevMinUtra = -111)
serving cell AND condition has to Reselection will happen if UE
be met for a time camps longer than 1 sec in the Reselection will happen if UE
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s serving cell AND condition has camps longer than 1 sec in the
to be met for a time serving cell AND condition has to
IRFIM:interTResEutr = 1s be met for a time UFFIM:tResUtra
= 1s
For internal use only
46 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
LTE 1800, absolute priority 6 qrxLevMin = -130 dBm
idle mode reselection sIntraSearch = 62

sNonIntrSearch = 16

RSRP

-68 -114 -130 -140

When RSRP < -68: start to UE will always (=periodically) When RSRP < -114: start to
measure intra-freq neighbours. measure on 2600 cells because measure on WCDMA
2600 has higher priority

Reselection to another 1800 cell Reselection to WCDMA will happen


will happen when the neighbour is when serving cell is below -120 and
Reselection to 2600 cell will
3dB better. neighbouring WCDMA cell RSCP >
happen when 2600 cell is better
-101
than -109.
LNCEL:Qhyst = 3dB
IAFIM: qOffestCell = 0dB LNCEL:threshSrvLow = 10
IRFIM:interFrqThrH = 21
UFFIM:utraFrqThrL = 10 (relative to
Reselection will happen if UE UFFIM:qRxLevMinUtra = -111)
Reselection will happen if UE
camps longer than 1 sec in the
camps longer than 1 sec in the
serving cell AND condition has to Reselection will happen if UE
serving cell AND condition has
be met for a time camps longer than 1 sec in the
to be met for a time
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s serving cell AND condition has to
IRFIM:interTResEutr = 1s
be met for a time UFFIM:tResUtra
= 1s

For internal use only


47 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection

The UE will rank the measured cells according to the


following rule:
Rankserving cell = Measured RSRPserving cell + LNCEL:Qhyst
Rankneighbour cell = Measured RSRPneighbour cell IAFIM:qOffsetCell

For internal use only


48 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
When RSRP < -68: start to
Intra frequency cell reselection measure intra-freq neighbours.

examples

Default: LNCEL: qHyst = 1dB and IAFIM: qOffsetCell = 2 dB.


Issue:
qOffsetCell is in the IAFIM object, where IAFIM is optional. Is 1dB
enough to avoid ping-pong if IAFIM is not defined?
qOffsetCell is better to be used for specific case, for example, indoor
cells, instead of generic offset to avoid ping-pong. Otherwise, this will
make the DB maintenance & consistency more difficult, because:
All possible neighbours need to be defined in IAFIM, otherwise any missing
neighbours will be better-off by x dB (set by qOffsetCell) compare to a
measured PCI which is defined in IAFIM.
IAFIM neighbour review is needed whenever a new sites is deployed.
When make a new PCI plan, you have to change the PCIs in all the IAFIM
objects also.
Solution:
Instead of having the default, change qHyst to 3 dB and qOffsetCell to
49 0 (or dont define the IAFIM at all. See next slide for details)
For internal use only
Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection
examples

The IAFIM is optional, meaning that if you want to set


qOffsetCell to 0 and you dont want to blacklist any cells, you
should not define the IAFIM.
However, there is one reason to have IAFIM. For certain
Huawei UEs, it has been seen that they crash if they dont
receive the SIB4 (where the IAFIM parameters are carried).
Therefore it is recommended to have the SIB4 and just define
a dummy PCI in the IAFIM and set the qOffsetCell to 0.

For internal use only


50 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection
examples

In the Telia Denmark network, LNCEL:qHyst was set to 1 dB, and


IAFIM:qOffsetCell was set to 2dB, but it was only defined for intra-site
neighbours.
This means that when reselecting to intra-site neighbours, the total margin
is 3 dB (2+1). However, since there was no IAFIM defined for the other
neighbouring cells, there would be only 1 dB of hysteresis, which is too
little, results too many reselections between sites & cells.

List only contains offset for two neighbours

For internal use only


51 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Intra frequency cell reselection
Idle mode PCI plot
Before parameter change, cell After parameter change, less
reselections happening too often ping pong between cells

For internal use only


52 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Idle mode mobility
Intra LTE inter-frequency cell reselection

Telia have 20MHz BW on LTE2600 and 10MHz BW on LTE1800. For this


reason, they want the UE to camp on LTE2600 whenever it is available
since the peak throughputs will be higher on LTE2600 compared to
LTE1800.
The idle mode parameters were set such that LTE2600 has higher priority
than LTE1800.
For LTE2600 cells
Priority of serving layer defined in LNCEL:cellReSelPrio. Set to 7 (7 is highest priority, 0
is lowest.)
Priority of neighbouring layer frequency 1832 (LTE1800) IRFIM:eutCelResPrio. Set to
6.
For LTE1800 cells, opposite. (priority of serving layer set to 6, priority of
LTE2600 layer set to 7).
When on LTE1800, the UE should constantly (periodically) do
measurements on LTE2600 and reselect to this layer if the coverage is
sufficient (Srxlevneighbour > IRFIM:interFrqThrH for a period longer than
IRFIM:interTResEut ).

For internal use only


53 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Idle mode mobility
Intra LTE inter-frequency cell reselection

Red/brown: UE is
camping on LTE2600
Blue: UE is camping on
LTE1800

Pink sites: LTE2600


Green sites: LTE1800

The inter-frequency cell


reselection is working,
but it seems like the UE
is not always preferring
LTE2600 although the
LTE2600 coverage is
good.

For internal use only


54 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Idle mode mobility
Intra LTE inter-frequency cell reselection

It turned out that although the priorities and parameters for inter-frequency
cell reselection were set correctly, the UE sometimes has a mind of its
own and does not want to camp on LTE2600 although the coverage is
excellent.
ZTE was asked to give an explanation of why the UE does not follow the
network priorities and to explain the algorithm for LTE layer selection, and
this was their (slightly confusing) answer:
The truth is the UE will scan the band 1(1800MHZ) first when it power on, if the attach procedure fails
by some reason, then UE will try to attach to the band 3(2600MHZ). If the UE can attach to band 1
successful, and then when they power on at the next time, UE will try to attach to the band which
attached successfully at the previous time, that means if the UE have the scanning records with
1800MHZ and attached successful at previous time, and then you put in it under the band mixed
environment now, they will try to attach to 1800MHZ first, if they is no reject from NW, UE will never
trying to attach to 2600. Because they work fine on the 1800MHZ, otherwise there are some thing
goes wrong with 1800MHZ NW, then UE will skip the attach request to 1800MHZ, and trying to attach
to 2600MHZ NW.

For internal use only


55 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Problem summary:
High RRC and E-RAB Drop Ratio in live TeliaSonera LTE1800 Network
120.00

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
09.29.2011

10.12.2011

10.14.2011

10.15.2011
09.30.2011

10.01.2011

10.02.2011

10.03.2011

10.04.2011

10.05.2011

10.06.2011

10.07.2011

10.08.2011

10.09.2011

10.10.2011

10.11.2011

10.13.2011

10.16.2011
LTE_5092a E-RAB Release Failure Ratio, eNB init TNL (%) LTE_5091a E-RAB Release Failure Ratio, eNB init OTHER (%)
LTE_5090a E-RAB Release Failure Ratio, eNB init RNL (%) LTE_5238a E-RAB Release Failure Ratio, EPC init OTHER (%)
For internal use only
56 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Parameter settings for Redirect in live TeliaSonera LTE1800 Network:


According to drive test results performed at the beginning of October, ZTE UE is performing
very unstable under lower threshold settings.

RSRP Serving Cell RSRP

reporting condition met


A2 condition met
after Time To Trigger
-110dBm
threshold4=30

threshold4
LNCEL; 0..97dB; 1dB; -
Baseline is -140dBm
a2TimeToTriggerRedirect

- 140 dBm time


Measurement
Report

For internal use only


57 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Failure scenario in TeliaSonera live LTE1800 Network:

RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT

event A2
RRC: RRC CONNECTION RELEASE for redirection
cause: other (Serving LTE Cell
(no target RAT RSRP falls below
-110dBm)
Indicated!!!)
UE Context Release: due to eutran generated reason

For internal use only


58 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Redirect failure due to UE Network Mode setting

Analysis Results:
According to eNB traces collected from most affected sites, the drops occur in case when
conditions for RRC connection release with redirect are met on UE side
The redirect failure is due to LTE only Network mode setting of UE by end user. In this
mode UE does not provide any IRAT capabilities to the eNB within UE Radio Capability
IE so eNB decides that redirect to 3G WCDMA is not supported by UE and releases the
call after Measurement Report A2.

Solution Options:
eNB SW RL20 EP4.0 - No A2 triggered RRC Connection Release without redirect in case
target frequency layer or IRAT for redirect is not supported by UE according to UE Radio
Capability IE
Change threshold4 from -110dBm to -120? -126? -130? Risk of quality degradation to all
LTE end users in whole network.
Inform end users to change UE Network Mode setting from 4G only to 4G preferred

For internal use only


59 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
Data Radio Bearer
Commercial Launched Threshold4 Tuning

Improved

For internal use only


60 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02
E-RAB Release/Drop
Commercial Launched Threshold4 Tuning

60% drop rate

15% drop rate

For internal use only


61 Nokia Siemens Networks TSDK LTE Optimisation Learning / Evan Lu / 2011-11-02