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[SISTEM MANAJEMEN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA]

Pertemuan 2

ISH3M3 _ 3 sks _ Genap 2016/2017


Litasari W.S., S.Psi., M.Psi.
Learning Outcome
Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan aktivitas manajemen SDM : perencanaan strategis HR,
manajemen organisasi dan perencanaan personil ; rekrutmen dan seleksi karyawan ;
pengembangan & pengelolaan karir; penilaian kinerja; manajemen kompensasi (LO-2)
Perencanaan Strategis SDM
LO 2 -1 : memahami kaitan strategi perusahaan dengan strategi HR serta tujuan planning
SDM
LO 2- 2 : mengidentifikasi aktivitas yang terkait dalam perencanaan SDM
LO 2- 3 : mendekripsikan aktivitas perencanaan mulai dari analisis visi & misi organisasi
hingga analisis work flow dan job design
LO 2-4 : mendeksripsikan proses job analysis
Perekrutan
LO 2-5 : memahami kaitan antara HR Planning dan Rekrutasi serta tujuan masing-masing
LO 2-6 : memahami kaitan antara Job Analysis dengan Rekrutasi
LO 2 -7 : mendekripsikan aktivitas/ proses Rekrutasi (dengan mempertimbangkan sumber
internal dan eksternal) dan dapat membuat proses bisnis rekrutasi di perusahaan
Human Resources as a Core
Competency
Strategic Human Resources Management
Organizational use of employees to gain or keep a
competitive advantage against competitors.
Core Competency
A unique capability in the organization that creates
high value and that differentiates the organization
from its competition.

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Possible HR Areas for Core Competencies

2002 Southwestern College Figure 21


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HR-Based Core Competencies
Organizational Culture
The shared values and beliefs of the workforce
Productivity
A measure of the quantity and quality of work done,
considering the cost of the resources used.
A ratio of the inputs and outputs that indicates the
value added by an organization.
Quality Products and Services
High quality products and services are the results of
HR-enhancements to organizational performance.
2002 Southwestern College
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Customer Service Dimensions

2002 Southwestern College Figure 22


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Factors That Determine HR Plans

2002 Southwestern College Figure 23


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Linkage of Organizational and HR Strategies

2002 Southwestern College Figure 24


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Human Resource Planning
Human Resource (HR) Planning
The process of analyzing and identifying the need for
and availability of human resources so that the
organization can meet its objectives.
HR Planning Responsibilities
Top HR executive and subordinates gather information
from other managers to use in the development of HR
projections for top management to use in strategic
planning and setting organizational goals

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Typical Division of HR Responsibilities
in HR Planning

2002 Southwestern College Figure 25


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Human Resource Planning (contd)

Small Business and HR Planning Issues


Attracting and retaining qualified outsiders
Management succession between generations of
owners
Evolution of HR activities as business grows
Family relationships and HR policies

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HR Planning Process

2002 Southwestern College Figure 26


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HR Planning Process
HR Strategies
The means used to anticipate and manage the
supply of and demand for human resources.
Provide overall direction for the way in which HR
activities will be developed and managed.
Overall
Strategic Plan

Human Resources
Strategic Plan

HR Activities
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Benefits of HR Planning
Better view of the HR dimensions of business decisions
Lower HR costs through better HR management.
More timely recruitment for anticipate HR needs
More inclusion of protected groups through planned increases in
workforce diversity.
Better development of managerial talent

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Scanning the External Environment

Environmental Scanning
The process of studying the environment of the
organization to pinpoint opportunities and threats.
Environment Changes Impacting HR
Governmental regulations
Economic conditions
Geographic and competitive concerns
Workforce composition

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Employers Use of Part-Time Workers

Source: Adapted from Part-Time Employment,


(NY:
2002The Conference Board,
Southwestern Collegen.d.) vol. 6 #1. Figure 27
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Internal Assessment of the
Organizational Workforce
Auditing Jobs and Skills
What jobs exist now?
How many individuals are performing each
job?
How essential is each job?
What jobs will be needed to implement future
organizational strategies?
What are the characteristics of anticipated
jobs?

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Internal Assessment of the
Organizational Workforce
Organizational Capabilities Inventory
HRIS databasessources of information about
employees knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs)
Components of an organizational capabilities
inventory
Workforce and individual demographics
Individual employee career progression
Individual job performance data

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Forecasting HR Supply and Demand

Forecasting
The use of information from the past and present to
identify expected future conditions.
Forecasting Methods
Judgmental
Estimatesasking managers opinions, top-down or bottom-
up
Rules of thumbusing general guidelines
Delphi techniqueasking a group of experts
Nominal groupsreaching a group consensus in open
discussion
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Forecasting HR Supply and Demand

Forecasting Methods (contd)


Mathematical
Statistical regression analysis
Simulation models
Productivity ratiosunits produced per employee
Staffing ratiosestimates of indirect labor needs
Forecasting Periods
Short-termless than one year
Intermediateup to five years
Long-rangemore than five years

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Forecasting
Methods

2002 Southwestern College Figure 28


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Forecasting HR Supply and Demand

Forecasting the Demand for Human Resources


Organization-wide estimate for total demand
Unit breakdown for specific skill needs by number and
type of employee
Develop decision rules (fill rates) for positions to be filled
internally and externally.
Develop additional decision rules for positions impacted by
the chain effects of internal promotions and transfers.
Forecasting the Supply for Human Resources
External Supply
Internal Supply
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Forecasting HR Supply and Demand

Forecasting External HR Supply


Factors affecting external
Net migration for an area
Individuals entering and leaving the workforce
Individuals graduating from schools and colleges
Changing workforce composition and patterns
Economic forecasts
Technological developments and shifts
Actions of competing employers
Government regulations and pressures
Other factors affecting the workforce

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Forecasting HR Supply and Demand
Forecasting Internal HR Supply
Effects of promotions, lateral moves, and
terminations
Succession analysis
Replacement charts
Transition matrix (Markov matrix)

Exit Manager Supervisor Line Worker


Manager .15 .85 .00 .00.
Supervisor .10 .15 .70 .05
Line Worker .20 .00 .15 .65

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Estimating Internal Labor Supply for a Given Unit

2002 Southwestern College Figure 29


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Managing Human Resource
Surplus or Shortage
Workforce Reductions and the WARN Act
Identifies employer requirements for layoff
advance notice.
60-day notice to employees and the local
community before a layoff or facility closing
involving more than 50 people.
Does not cover part-time or seasonal workers.
Imposes fines for not following notification
procedure.
Has hardship clauses for unanticipated closures or
lack of business continuance capabilities.

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Managing Human Resource
Surplus or Shortage
Workforce Realignment
Downsizing, Rightsizing, and Reduction in
Force (RIF) all mean reducing the number of
employees in an organization.
Causes
Economicweak product demand, loss of market
share to competitors
Structuraltechnological change, mergers and
acquisitions

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Managing Human Resource
Surplus or Shortage
Workforce Realignment (contd)
Positive consequences
Increase competitiveness
Increased productivity
Negative consequences
Cannibalization of HR resources
Loss of specialized skills and experience
Loss of growth and innovation skills
Managing survivors
Provide explanations for actions and the future
Involve survivors in transition/regrouping activities

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Managing Human Resource
Surplus or Shortage
Downsizing approaches
Attrition and hiring freezes
Not replacing departing employees and not hiring new
employees/
Early retirement buyouts
Offering incentives that encourage senior employees to
leave the organization early.
Layoffs
Employees are placed on unpaid leave until called back
to work when business conditions improve.
Employees are selected for layoff on the basis of their
seniority or performance or a combination of both.
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Managing Human Resource
Surplus or Shortage
Downsizing approaches (contd)
Outplacement services provided to displaced
employees to give them support and
assistance:
Personal career counseling
Resume preparation and typing services
Interviewing workshops
Referral assistance
Severance payments
Continuance of medical benefits
Job retraining
2002 Southwestern College
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Dealing with Downsizing
Investigate alternatives to downsizing
Involve those people necessary for success in the planning for
downsizing
Develop comprehensive communications plans
Nurture the survivors
Outplacement pays off

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Assessing HR Effectiveness
Diagnostic Measures of HR Effectiveness
HR expense per employee
Compensation as a percent of expenses
HR department expense as a percent of total expenses
Cost of hires
Turnover rates
Absenteeism rates
Workers compensation per employee

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Overview of the HR
Evaluation Process

2002 Southwestern College Figure 210


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Assessing HR Effectiveness
HR Audit
A formal research effort that evaluates the current state of
HR management in an organization
Audit areas:
Legal compliance (e.g., EEO, OSHA, ERISA, and FMLA)
Current job specifications and descriptions
Valid recruiting and selection process
Formal wage and salary system Benefits
Employee handbook
Absenteeism and turnover control
Grievance resolution process
Orientation program Training and development
Performance management system

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Using HR Research for Assessment

HR Research
The analysis of data from HR records to determine the
effectiveness of past and present HR practices.
Primary Research
Research method in which data are gathered first-
hand for the specific project being conducted.
Secondary Research
Research method using data already gathered by
others and reported in books, articles in professional
journals, or other sources.

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HR Performance and Benchmarking

Benchmarking
Comparing specific measures of performance against
data on those measures in other best practice
organizations
Common Benchmarks
Total compensation as a percentage of net income
before taxes
Percent of management positions filled internally
Dollar sales per employee
Benefits as a percentage of payroll cost
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Doing the Benchmarking Analysis
Return on Investment (ROI)
Calculation showing the value of expenditures for
HR activities.

C
ROI
AB
A = Operating costs for a new or enhance system for the time period
B = One-time cost of acquisition and implementation
C = Value of gains from productivity improvements for the time period

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HR Business Performance Calculations

Source: Adapted from Jac


2002 Southwestern Fitz-Enz, Top 10 Calculations for Your HRIS, HR Focus, April 1998, S-3.
College Figure 211a
238
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HR Business Performance Calculations

Source: Adapted from Jac


2002 Southwestern Fitz-Enz, Top 10 Calculations for Your HRIS, HR Focus, April 1998, S-3.
College Figure 211b
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Doing the Benchmarking Analysis
Economic Value Added (EVA)
A firms net operating profit after the cost of capital
(minimum rate of return demanded by the
shareholders) is deducted.
Cost of capital is the benchmark for returns for all HR
activities.
Utility analysis
Analysis in which economic or other statistical models
are built to identify the costs and benefits associated
with specific HR activities
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Work Flow In Organizations

Work Flow
Position Job
Design
Process of Set of job Set of related
analyzing tasks duties duties.
necessary for performed by a
production of a particular
product or person.
service.
Figure 4.1: Developing a Work Flow
Analysis
Job Analysis

Job Analysis
Process of getting
detailed information
about jobs.
Job
Descriptions

Job
Specification
s
Importance of Job Analysis
Job analysis is the building Work redesign
block of all HRM HR planning
functions.
Almost every HRM Selection
program requires some Training
type of information Performance appraisal
determined by job
analysis. Career planning
Job evaluation
Figure 4.5: Approaches to Job Design
Designing Jobs That Motivate: The Job
Characteristics Model
1. Skill variety extent a job requires a variety of skills to carry
out tasks involved.
2. Task identity degree a job requires completing a whole
piece of work from beginning to end.
3. Task significance extent the job has an impact on people.
4. Autonomy degree the job allows an individual to make
decisions about the way work will be carried out.
5. Feedback - extent to a person receives clear information
about performance effectiveness from the work itself.
Figure 4.6: Characteristics of a Motivating
Job
Designing Jobs That Motivate
Job Enlargement

Job Enlargement - Broadening types of tasks


performed in a job.

Job Extension - Enlarging


Job Rotation - Enlarging
jobs by combining several
jobs by moving employees
relatively simple jobs to
among several different
form a job with a wider
jobs.
range of tasks.
Designing Jobs That Motivate Flexible
Work Schedules
Flextime Job Sharing
Employees may choose Two part-time employees
starting and ending times complete tasks associated
within guidelines. with a single job.
Work schedule that allows
Enables an organization to
time for family and
community interests. attract or retain employees
who want time to attend to
other matters.

Telework doing ones


work away from a centrally
located office
Designing Ergonomic Jobs

Ergonomics study of interface between


individuals physiology and characteristics of
physical work environment.
Goal is to minimize physical strain on the
worker by structuring physical work
environment around the way the human
body works.
Redesigning work to make it more worker-
friendly can lead to increased efficiencies.
What Do I Need to Know?

1. Discuss how to plan for human resources


needed to carry out the organizations
strategy.
2. Determine the labor demand for workers in
various job categories.
3. Summarize the advantages and
disadvantages of ways to eliminate a labor
surplus and avoid a labor shortage.
What Do I Need to Know? (continued)

4. Describe recruitment policies organizations


use to make job vacancies more attractive.
5. List and compare sources of job applicants.
6. Describe the recruiters role in the
recruitment process, including limits and
opportunities.
The Process of Human Resource Planning

Organizations should carry out human


resource planning so as to meet business
objectives and gain a competitive advantage
over competitors.
Human resource planning compares the present
state of the organization with its goals for the
future
Then identifies what changes it must make in its
human resources to meet those goals
Figure 5.1: Overview of the Human Resource
Planning Process
Forecasting

Forecasting: attempts There are three major


to determine the supply steps to forecasting:
and demand for various 1. Forecasting the demand
types of human for labor
resources to predict 2. Determining labor
areas within the supply
organization where
there will be labor 3. Determining labor
shortages or surpluses. surplus or shortage
Forecasting the Demand for Labor

Trend Analysis Leading Indicators


Constructing and Objective measures that
applying statistical accurately predict
models that predict future labor demand.
labor demand for the
next year, given
relatively objective
statistics from the
previous year.
Determining Labor Supply

Transitional matrix: a It answers two questions:


chart that lists job 1. Where did people in
categories held in one each job category go?
period and shows the 2. Where did people now
proportion of employees in each job category
in each of those job come from?
categories in a future
period.
Table 5.1: Transitional Matrix Example
for an Auto Parts Manufacturer
Determining Labor Surplus or Shortage

Based on the forecasts for labor demand and


supply, the planner can compare the figures to
determine whether there will be a shortage or
surplus of labor for each job category.
Determining expected shortages and
surpluses allows the organization to plan how
to address these challenges.
Goal Setting and Strategic Planning

The purpose of setting specific numerical goals is to


focus attention on the problem and provide a basis
for measuring the organizations success in
addressing labor shortages and surpluses.
The goals should come directly from the analysis of
supply and demand.
For each goal, the organization must choose one or
more human resource strategies.
Organizations should retain and attract employees
who provide a core competency (what makes it
better than competitors)
Options for Reducing a Surplus

Pay
Downsizing Demotions
reductions

Work Hiring
Transfers
sharing freeze

Natural Early
Retraining
attrition retirement
As the average age of many workers in skilled trades grows, the coming
demand for workers in many trades is expected to outstrip supply in the
United States. There is a potential for employers in some areas to
experience a labor shortage because of this.
Options for Avoiding a Shortage

Temporary
Overtime Outsourcing
employees

Retrained Turnover New external


transfers reductions hires

Technological
innovation
Table 5.2: HR Strategies for Addressing a
Labor Shortage or Surplus
Test Your Knowledge

A public accounting firm of 250 employees


realizes they have a surplus of 15 support
personnel (not auditors). What should they
do?
A. Hire temporary workers
B. Offer early retirement
C. Downsize people in those positions
D. Wait for attrition and implement a hiring freeze
for those positions
Implementing and Evaluating the HR Plan

When implementing the HR strategy, the


organization must hold some individual accountable
for achieving the goals.
That person must also have the authority and
resources needed to accomplish those goals.
Regular progress reports should be issued.
The evaluation of results should not only look at the
actual numbers, but should also identify which parts
of the planning process contributed to success or
failure.
Applying HR Planning to Affirmative Action

Workforce Utilization The organization must


Review: a comparison of assess current utilization
employees in protected patterns, then forecast
groups with the how they are likely to
proportion that each
group represents in the change in the near future.
relevant labor market. If the analyses forecast
The steps in a workforce underutilization of certain
utilization review are groups, then goals and a
identical to the steps in plan will be established.
the HR planning process.
Recruiting Human Resources

The role of human resource recruitment is to


build a supply of potential new hires that the
organization can draw on if the need arises.
Recruiting: any activity carried on by the
organization with the primary purpose of
identifying and attracting potential
employees.
Figure 5.2: Three Aspects of Recruiting
Personnel Internal versus
external recruiting
Policies
Several personnel
policies are Lead-the-market pay
especially relevant strategies
to recruitment:
Employment-at-will
policies

Image advertising
Image advertising, such
as in this campaign to
recruit nurses, promotes
a whole profession or
organization as opposed
to a specific job opening.
This ad is designed to
create a positive
impression of the
profession, which is now
facing a shortage of
workers.
Recruitment Sources: Internal Sources

Job Posting: the process of communicating


information about a job vacancy:
On company bulletin boards
In employee publications
On corporate intranets
Anywhere else the organization communicates
with employees
Advantages of Internal Sources

1. It generates applicants who are well known to


the organization.
2. These applicants are relatively knowledgeable
about the organizations vacancies, which
minimizes the possibility of unrealistic job
expectations.
3. Filling vacancies through internal recruiting is
generally cheaper and faster than looking
outside the organization.
One in Three Positions Are
Filled with Insiders
Recruitment Sources: External Sources

Direct applicants Public employment


agencies

Referrals
Private employment
agencies
Advertisements in
newspapers and
magazines
Colleges and
universities
Electronic recruiting
Figure 5.3: External Recruiting Sources
Percentage of Employees Hired
Evaluating the Quality of a Source

Yield Ratios Cost Per Hire


A ratio that expresses the Find the cost of using a
percentage of applicants who particular recruitment source
successfully move from one for a particular type of vacancy.
stage of the recruitment and Divide that cost by the number
selection process to the next. of people hired to fill that type
By comparing the yield ratios of of vacancy.
different recruitment sources, A low cost per hire means that
we can determine which source the recruitment source is
is the best or most efficient for efficient.
the type of vacancy.
Table 5.3:
Results of a Hypothetical Recruiting Effort
Your Experience

In your last job search, what was your


experience with a recruiter or other point of
contact before you were offered the job?
A. Lousy, I didnt take the job
B. Lousy, but I took the job anyway
C. Great, but I didnt take the job
D. Great, I took the job
E. The experience wasnt memorable.
Recruiter Traits and Behaviors

Characteristics of the Recruiter

Behavior of the Recruiter

Enhancing the Recruiters Impact


Recruiter Characteristics and Behavior

True = A False = B
Applicants respond more positively when the recruiter
is an HR specialist than line managers or incumbents.
Applicants respond positively to recruiters whom are
warm and informative
Personnel policies are more important than the
recruiter when deciding whether or not to take a job.
Realistic job previews should highlight the positive
characteristics of the job rather than the negative.
Figure 5.4:
Recruits Who Were Offended by Recruiters
Enhancing the Recruiters Impact

Recruiters should provide timely feedback.


Recruiters should avoid offensive behavior.
They should avoid behaving in ways that might
convey the wrong impression about the
organization.
The organization can recruit with teams rather
than individual recruiters.
Recruiting Exercise (1 of 2)

You are the regional HR director of the


restaurant chain (e.g., Ruby Tuesdays or TGI
Fridays) and responsible for recruiting all staff
for the restaurants in your region.
One of the stores in your region needs to hire
servers.
Recruiting Exercise (2 of 2)

1. What knowledge, skills, and abilities are


required for the positions you are recruiting?
2. Will your sources of applicants be internal,
external, or both? Explain.
3. What recruiting strategies will you use?
4. What metrics will you use to measure your
success?
Summary

The first step in human resource planning is


personnel forecasting. Through trend analysis and
good judgment, the planner tries to determine the
supply and demand for various human resources.
The next step is to determine the labor demand for
workers in various job categories. Analysis of a
transitional matrix can help the planner identify
which job categories can be filled internally and
where high turnover is likely.
Summary (continued)

To reduce a surplus, downsizing, pay reductions, and


demotions deliver fast results but at a high cost in
human suffering that may hurt surviving employees
motivation and future recruiting.
To avoid a labor shortage, requiring overtime is the
easiest and fastest strategy.
Internal recruiting generally makes job vacancies
more attractive because candidates see
opportunities for growth and advancement.
Summary (continued)

Lead-the-market pay strategies make jobs


economically desirable.
Internal sources are usually not sufficient for all of an
organizations labor needs.
Through their behavior and other characteristics,
recruiters influence the nature of the job vacancy
and the kinds of applicants generated.
Referensi

1. Noe , Hollenbeck, Gerhart & Wright,


Fundamentals of HR Management, 9th
Edition, Prentice Hall, 2015
2. Mathis & Jackson, HR Management,
southwestern college publishing , 2010
3. SAP HR050