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11 October 2017

Bending: Non-uniform loading


(Week 1 & 2)
PowerPoint Slides
by Dr CHIA Chee Ming
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11 October 2017

Learning Objective (s)


Students will learn to calculate shear force (SF) and
bending moment (BM) for beam subjected to non-
uniform distributed loading condition.
Students will gain an understanding on the relationship
between SF & BM for beam subjected to transverse
loading.
With the understanding on the relationship between SF
& BM, students will learn to sketch SF and BM diagram
in a much quicker way.

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Learning Outcome (s)


Students will be able to solve engineering problems
related to beam subjected to transverse loading.
Students will be able to calculate SF & BM of beam
subjected to both concentrated and distributed loading
condition.
Students will be able to understand the relationship
between SF & BM for beam subjected to transverse
loading.
Students will be able to sketch SF & BM diagram in a
much quicker way, using proven equations.

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Internal Forces and Moments

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Shear Force (SF) & Bending Moment (BM)

SF and BM can be plotted in


graphs called shear and moment
diagrams.
Positive directions for shear are
denoted by an internal SF that
causes clockwise rotation of
the member on which it acts and
by an internal moment that
causes compression or pushing
on the upper part of the member

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From the FBD of the left segment, we


apply the equilibrium equations,
P
F y 0; V
2
(1)

P
M 0; M
2
x (2)
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Left segment of the beam


extending a distance x
within region BC is as
follow,

P P
Fy 0; 2
P V 0 V
2
(3)

L P
M P x x M L-x
P
M y 0;
2 2 2
(4)

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Simple Bending Theory, Assumptions


Beam is initially straight and unstressed.
Material is homogeneous and isotropic.
Cross-section remain plane after bending.

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Example 1
Determine the internal normal force, shear force and the
bending moment acting at point B of the two-member
frame.

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Solution:
Member AC
MA = 0;
-400kN(4m) + (3/5)FDC(8m)= 0
FDC = 333.3kN
Fx = 0;
-Ax + (4/5)(333.3kN) = 0
Ax = 266.7kN
Fy = 0;
Ay 400kN + 3/5(333.3kN) = 0
Ay = 200kN
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Member AB
Fx = 0; NB 266.7kN = 0
NB = 266.7kN
Fy = 0; 200kN 200kN - VB = 0
VB = 0
M@B = 0; MB 200kN(4m) + 200kN(2m) = 0
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MB = 400kN.m 12
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Shear Force (SF) Diagram

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Bending Moment (BM) Diagram

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Example 2 (uniform loading)

Draw the SF and BM diagram for the beam shown.

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Solution:

2 regions of x must be
considered in order to describe
the shear and moment functions
for the entire beam.

0 x1 5 m,
Fy 0; 5.75 V 0 V 5.75 kN (1)
M 0; 80 5.75 x1 M 0 M 5.75 x1 80 kNm (2)

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Solution:

5 m x1 10 m,
Fy 0; 5.75 15 5x2 5 V 0 V 15.75 5 x2 kN (3)
x2 5
M 0; 80 5.75 x2 15x2 5 5x2 5 M 0
2

M 2.5 x22 15.75 x2 92.5 kNm (4)
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Example 3 (non-uniform loading)

Draw the SF and BM diagram for the beam shown.

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Solution:
The distributed load is replaced by its resultant force and
the reactions.
Intensity of the triangular load at the section is found by
proportion,

w w0 w x
or w 0
x L L

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Solution:

Resultant of the
distributed loading is
determined from the area
under the diagram,

Fy 0;
w0 L 1 w0 x
2

2 L
x V 0 V
2L

w0 2

L x 2 (1)

w0 L2 w0 L 1 w0 x 1
M 0; x x x M 0 (2)
3 2 2 L 3
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Graphical Method for Constructing Shear and


Moment Diagrams

Regions of Distributed Load


The following 2 equations provide a convenient means for
quickly obtaining the shear and moment diagrams for a
beam.

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Vertical equilibrium
dV
V wdx V dV 0 w
dx

Moment equilibrium

M Vdx wdx M dM 0
dx
2
dM
V
dx

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We can integrate these areas between


any two points to get change in shear
and moment.

- area under
Change in V wx dx distributed
shear
loading

M V x dx
Change in Area under
moment shear diagram

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Practice 1

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Practice 2

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Practice 3

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Conclusion/Summary
Positive direction for SF is denoted by an internal
vertical force that causes clockwise rotation of the
member on which it acts
Positive direction for BM is denoted by an internal
moment that causes compression or pushing on the
upper part of the member

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References:
Benham, P.P.; Crawford, R. J. and Armstrong, C. G. 1996,
Mechanics of Engineering Materials, 2nd ed, Prentice Hall.
Gere, J. M. (formerly Gere, J. M. and Timoshenko, S. P.)
2002, Mechanics of Materials, 5th SI ed, Nelson Thornes.

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Key terms:
Term Definition
Shear Force (SF) Internal reacting force of beam (parallel to
cross-section) subjected to bending.
Bending Moment Internal reacting moment of beam subjected to
(BM) bending.

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