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Definition of Curriculum
Implementation in this context refers to how the written curriculum is presented to
students and how teaching, learning and assessment actually happen.
Education systems, schools and teachers make numerous decisions as they translate
the requirements and advice of curriculum documents into meaningful and effective
learning activities in the classroom.
Good quality curriculum content is important to good learning outcomes for students, but
this content needs to be supplemented and supported by effective implementation.
A good quality curriculum not only prescribes what should be taught and learned in
the various subjects and grade or stage levels, but also how that curriculum should
be taught and assessed.
A good quality curriculum encourages and expects students to:
understand the purpose of classroom activities and participate actively in them;
know what they will learn and why, what the expectations of them are, and how
they will know that they have learnt well;
be open to new ideas;
be curious and willing to ask questions;
engage in assessing their own and other students learning;
as well as learning the content and associated skills, understand how they
accomplished this and try to become better learners; and
support and respect other students efforts to learn.
In the teaching and learning process, the other side of the coin is the teacher.
Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary roles of the teacher. A teacher
is a curriculum maker.
He/she writes curriculum daily through a lesson plan, unit plan or yearly plan.
The teachers prepare activities for the students to do.
The teacher addresses the goals, needs, interests, of the learners by creating
experiences from where the students can learn.
The teacher designs, enriches and modifies the curriculum to suit the learners
As a curriculum developer, teachers are part of textbooks committees, faculty
selection boards, school evaluation committee or textbook writers themselves.
Schools & Administrators
In school organization, there is always a curriculum manager or school
administrator. In fact, for school principals, one of their functions is being a
curriculum manager.
The school administrators play an important role in shaping the school
curriculum because they are the people who are responsible in the
formulation of the schools vision, philosophy, mission and objectives.
They provide necessary leadership in evaluating teaching personnel
and school program. Keeping records of curriculum and reporting learning
outcomes are also the managers responsibilities.
The school administrators have the responsibility of running the entire
school effectively. They have to oversee the smooth transition of the
child from one grade level to another and they should see to it that the
curriculum is implemented vertically or horizontally with very minimal
Effective parental involvement in school affairs may be linked to parent
educational programs which is central to high quality educational
experiences of the children.
In most schools the Parent Association is organized.
Education systems and authorities
Supporting teachers and schools in being innovative and creative.
Education systems and authorities should support teachers and schools in their efforts to
understand and implement the curriculum. A good quality curriculum may require
teaching approaches to be more innovative.
Ensuring assessments, formative as well as summative, reflect the curriculum.
A good quality curriculum needs to be supported by appropriate methods and strategies
for assessing student achievement as defined by the curriculum.
Providing the resources and equipment necessary to implement the curriculum
To be effective and successful, a good quality curriculum requires resources and
equipment. Education authorities should ensure that these are available, and that they
are distributed equitably.
Allocating time in flexible ways.
There are different approaches to specifying the time to be allocated to each subject or
Learning Area.