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.  Extracting information accurately and quickly is more significant than language details. READING SKILLS THE PURPOSE OF READING  Shift from Text As a Linguistic Object (TALO) to Text As a Vehicle of Information (TAVI).  Understanding the macrostructures comes before languages study.  Application of the information in the text is of paramount importance.  The reader first processes the language and then links the ideas to what is known.

THE BALANCE BETWEEN SKILLS AND LANGUAGE The reading component of an ESP course requires a balance between skills and language development  Skills to be learnt  Selecting  Using all the features of the textSkimming  Scanning  Identifying patterns  Using cohesive and discourse markers .

be designed to encourage the use of good skills 3. be used for a purpose 2.DESIGNING AND TEACHING READING COURSES The reading material will : 1. have follow up language work Using the Extracting the Selecting text information that has information that has been gathered been gathered .

Identify the purpose and scope of monologue 2. 2. Should the material adopt a task-oriented The teaching of listening approach in which students initially listen for comprehension specific information? 3. Deducing the speaker’s attitude 1. Note-taking in real time 5. LISTENING SKILLS LISTENING TO MONOLOGUE 1. Real time processing monologue 4. Recognise the role of discourse markers Micro Skills and Language 4. Sped of delivery Distinguishing fautures of 3. Recognise key lexical items related to subject/topic 5. What do we use for listening practice? . Recognise function of intonation to signal information structure 1. Phonology 2.Identify the topic of lecture and follow topic development 3. Should the teaching material focus on the micro- skills. Deduce meanings of words from contexts 6.

gestures. movements) .Includes the non-verbal and the verbal encouragement given to a speaker (NV physical expressions.It is about showing that we have been listening and understanding.Involves paraphrasing and summarising .It can involve speaking . . LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS IN ESP SPOKEN INTERACTION IN EAP AND EOP  ACTIVE LISTENING .

Structures needed: -Use of the auxiliary with subject/verb inversion -Wh. feelings -Clarification: checking understanding. confirming -Tactical: stall for time. Purposes: -Information: detail.words + auxiliary + inversion -Statements and rising intonation -Statements + tags In ESP a perspective based on the response the question will lead to is useful. to disturb. QUESTIONING It’s a skill needed for effective spoken interaction. . to show strengths and weaknesses of arguments. reasons.

moving papers. Syntactic clues: natural semantic or grammatic break. abscence of body language 2. Example : Telephone conversations. ONE TO ONE SPOKEN INTERACTIONS Many spoken interactions involve just two people. Gain entry at the end of the turn anticipate the conclusion of the turn and complete it for the speaker Handle the turn effectively judge how long is appropriate and to prevent interruptions judge when a contribution will be most effective know who will support an idea and get that support verbalised. Phonological signal: drop in pitch Non-verbal clues: looking around. use of conventional phrases that are not used elsewhere  MULTI-PERSON SPOKEN INTERACTIONS Recognising when the speaker is giving signals that s/he is ready to finish the turn. 1. .

Showing understanding is achieved through the use of paraphrasing . THE TEACHING OF SPOKEN INTERACTIONS In ESP courses there can be a good deal of listening and speaking going on. Listening practice usually places the learner as an outsider . summarising and questioning . Requiere the listener to be an insider. but generally there is not specific work on listening and speaking.

they can be very valuable if they are good and well The moves in the middle will depend on the used. Voice work: may include pronunciation but intonation hinders comprehension more. SPEAKING SKILLS KEY FEATURES OF ORAL PRESENTATIONS Structuring: there should be a start. and recognise the significance of visuals. coming say what the visual represents explain why the visual is being used highlight what is most significant. a middle and an end. information and argument. . There is specific spoken language associated with visual aids which will: signal that a visual aid is type and purpose of the presentation. volume and tone helps listeners follow both the structure of the variation may need to be worked on. Advanced signalling: pausing. speed of delivery. Phrasing. A good end is essential. it is what remains with Visuals: listeners.

TEACHING ORAL PRESENTATIONS Oral presentations work often concentrate on stand-up. prepared talk accompanied by visuals. for many business people the short. impromptu presentation in a meeting is a more common event. However. .

the language and the rhetoric of the genre skills of planning. WRITING SKILLS WHAT IS INVOLVED IN WRITING Knowledge of genre is a key element in writting. drafting and revising having in mind a reader. It involves an understanding of the expectations of the discourse community and of the conventions about the structure. Successful writers are those who are able to persuade readers of the validity of their arguments by using or adapting the conventions of the genre they are using while showing an awareness of the needs of the readership. .

with a focus on thinking and process. The process approach has emphasised the idea of writing as problem-solving. Thinking stage: Generate Ideas >>> Select Ideas >>> Group Ideas >>> Order Ideas Writing stage: Writing Task >>> Draft 1 >>> Feedback >>> Revision >>> Input >>> Draft 2 >>> Feedback >>> Revision >>> Draft 3 .APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF WRITING  THE PRODUCT APPROACH Refers to the concentration on the features of the actual text. the end product. which is analysed and then is used to write a similar text  THE PROCESS APPROACH Began as a reaction to the model-baes approch. Usually involves the use of a model text.

That context places certain constraints on what writers can write and on how they can express ideas. THE SOCIAL CONTRUCTIONIST APPROACH Writing is a social act in which writers have to be aware of the context in which they are writing.Evaluate the writing through peer review or reformulation .Carry out writing tasks showing awareness of the needs of individual readers and the discourse community and the purpose of writing. . .Develop rethorical awareness by looking at model texts. It encourages writers to consider their role as members of a discourse community and combines the strenghts of both the product and the process approaches: . Successful writing involves having an awareness of the community's values and expectations of text.Prectise specific genre features .

Practice specific genre features . The combination of the strengths of both the product and the process create the synthesis of approaches that follows the stages below: . Carry out writing tasks showing awareness of the needs of individual readers and the discourse community and the purpose of writing . A SYNTHESIS OF APPROACHES The process and the social constructionist approaches have generally been seen as two conflicting approach to the teaching of writing. Evaluate the writing . Develop rhetorical awareness .

Types Of Activities . The Writing Class .THE TEACHING OF WRITING .