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Belt Conveyor

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Mining industry deploys conveyor belt for transport of materials in many

Apron Feeder

Scalping grizzly feeder

crusher (Primary Crusher Discharge)
Vibrating screen

To Tert.






Level or inclined Conveyor receiving material at tail end and discharging at head en

Level Conveyor receiving material at any point through travelling Hopper and discharging at head end.
Level and inclined Conveyor receiving material at and near tail end,
having vertical curve to incline, and discharging at head end.

Level and inclined Conveyor with chute. Material received from bins
too close to elevated head end to permit use of vertical curve.
Inclined and level Conveyor receiving material at tail end and
discharging from level section through a movable Tripper.

Level Conveyor on raised structure with double-wing Tripper

forming storage piles on both sides of Conveyor.
Inclined Conveyor receiving material at tail end and discharging at
several points through a series of fixed Trippers.

Abrassive lump material

Chute as screen

Smaller Size Material

Fine size Material cushion

Loading of abrassive lump material on belt
Application and Limitations

A wider range of material can be handled which pause problems in other

transportation means. Belt conveyor can be used for abrasive, wet, dry, sticky or dirty
material. The lump size of the transported material is limited by the width of the belt.
Belts up to 3000 mm wide are used in mining industry.

Higher capacity can be handled than any other form of conveyor at a considerably
lower cost per tonne kilometer. Conveyor belts with capacity of 11000t/h and even
higher can be deployed to match with higher capacity mining machinery.

Longer distances can be covered more economically than any other transportation
system. A single belt conveyor or a series of belt conveyors can do this. Belt
conveyors can be adopted for cross-country laying.

By the use of many forms of ancillary equipment such as mobile trippers or spreaders
bulk material can be distributed and deposited wherever required.
Many other functions can be performed with the basic conveying like
weighing, sorting, picking, sampling, blending, spraying,
cooling, drying etc.
Structurally it is one of the lightest forms of conveying machine. It
is comparatively cheaper and supporting structures can be used
for many otherwise impossible structures such as crossing
rivers, streets and valleys.
The belt conveyor can be adopted for special purposes (fire
resistant, wear resistant, corrosion resistant, high angle
negotiation etc.) and can be integrated with other equipment.
It can be horizontal, incline or decline or combination of all.
Minimum labor is required for the operation and maintenance of belt
conveyor system.
In underground mine transport, belt conveyor can be used in thin
seams as it eliminates the rock works that might otherwise be
required to gain haulage height. Moreover, belt conveyor can provide
continuous haulage service from pit bottom to the surface.
The loading and transfer points need to be properly designed.

Numbers of protective devices have to be incorporated to save the belt from getting damaged by
operational problems.

The belt needs higher initial tension (40-200% of useful pull).

The use of belt is restricted by the lump size. If the maximum diagonal of a irregular lump is X then the
belt width (B) is approximately given by:
Where, B: Belt width, mm X: Longest diagonal of irregular lump, mm
a: Factor to account for grading. a is taken as 2.5 for graded material and 3 for un-graded material.
However, for particular material these values must be properly estimated.

Conveying of sticky material is associated with problems of cleaning and discharge causing poor

Higher elongation of the belt (4% elongation may take place at the working load) .
Types of Belt Conveyors

Permanent: This type of conveyors is installed for the life of the mine. They are used in main line,
slope, long overland installation, preparation plants and stockpiles.

Portable: These are characterised by relative ease of assembling and disassembling to facilitate
advances and recovery in development and retreat operations in underground mining.

Shiftable: Used in continuous surface mining this type of conveyor is mounted on skid or
supporting structures aligned together and the whole can be shifted transversely to follow the
advancing working face.

High Angle Conveyor: These are special type of conveyor belt arrangement used for negotiating
steeper angle of inclination. Such belts can work in slope up to 70-800. Sandwich belt conveyor is a
type of such belt conveyor.

Cable Belt Conveyor: Where the belt is carried on moving wire ropes and the tractive force is
applied through the rope to the belt is known as cable belt conveyor..

Pipe Belt Conveyor: The belt is made to form a pipe while running the main length of the conveyor.
At the receiving and discharge end the belt is like troughed belt conveyor. They are suitable for
having spillage free transportation and free from risk of polluting the environment.
Mobile Transfer Conveyor: Mobile Transfer Conveyors are installed between Bucket
Wheel/Chain Excavators and the shiftable bench conveyor allowing multi block and multi
bench operations to increase the block width and the block height. Thus, increasing the
time between two shifting operations of the bench conveyor results in a higher
utilization of the mining system.

Grasshopper style Mobile Transfer Conveyors: Installed as a chain like one

connected to the other are part of waste dumping. This can eliminate dump trucks from

Mobile transfer conveyor

Top Cover (Carrying Side)

End Cover End Cover


Bottom Cover (Non-Carrying Side)

Construction of conveyor belt.

Essential Belt Properties
The belt works as a tractive element as well as load-carrying element. It may be used for different kind of
material transportation at a higher speed ( 6-8 m/s). For this purpose the belt need to have the following
essential properties:
Transverse rigidity
Low mass per unit length
High strength
Simplicity and inexpensive
Longer life
Should not stretch under normal working stresses ,i.e., low relative elongation.
Wear resistant
Fire resistant
Recommended maximum belt speeds

Speed Speed Width (mm) Width

(m/sec) (fpm) (inches)
Coal, damp clay, soft 2.032 400 457.2 18
ore, fine crushed stone, 3.048 600 609.6-914.4 24-36
Over burden and earth 4.064 800 1066.8-1524 42-60
5.08 1000 1828.8-2413 72-95
Heavy, hard, sharp 1.778 350 457.2 18
edged ore. Coarse 2.54 500 609.6-914.4 24-36
crushed stone 3.048 600 over 914.4 over 36

Top C

Rubber Interply

Cross section of a multi ply conveyor belt.

Belt Fastener

Mechanical Belt joint


V- Plow

Self-adjusting unit eliminates the need to readjust to

accommodate blade wear.
Diagonal Plow Stainless steel turnbuckle permits precise adjustment so
the plow can be fine-tuned to the belt at installation and
eliminate unit vibration.
Can also be positioned directly behind the head pulley to
dump debris at the transfer point.

The diagonal deflector plow is installed on a 45 angle across the

belt to discharge debris to one side of the belt. In such cleaners
the blade is installed in a fixed position, eliminating bouncing
problems associated with some floating style plows.
Heavy-Duty Reversing Diagonal Plow

Twin-bladed plow is designed to clean belt in both

directions of travel. This cleaner discharges material
to either side of the belt. It is installed securely to
conveyor structure and can work on conveyors with
severe belt vibration.

Figure 5 Different types of roller supports

Different types of roller supports

Self aligning idler set is
used infront of the loading
point. This set of idlers can
rotate on a horizontal plan
depending on the belt sway
and restores true running
of the belt. Belt training
idlers should be spaced 30
to 50 m apart and at least
one such idlers should be
used on conveyors less
than 30m long. Such idlers
are not used in the areas of
belt transition.

Self aligning idler


A conveyor belt system uses different types of pulleys like end pulley, snub pulley, bend pulley

Belt trainer Belt Cutter

PT Smart trainer can be installed at the head pulley or

tail pulley, before or after the take-up, or virtually anywhere
mistracking occurs along the return belt.
The carrying side needs cleaning when carried material is sticky in nature. belt cleaner that uses a belt
with anti-stick coating and claims minimization of downtime for cleaning.

The performance of belt cleaner depends on:

Constant tension between the cleaner and the conveyor belt.

Condition of the conveyor belt.
Type of material sticking to the belt.
Drive Arrangement

Arrangement of Snub Pulley

Loose Snub Tight Snub

Tandem drive and increased wrap angle

Tensioning Arrangement
The purposes of take-up are:
To allow for stretch and shrinkage of the belt.
To ensure that the minimum tension in the belt is sufficient to prevent undue
sag between idlers.
To ensure that the tension in the belt in the rear of the drive pulley is sufficient
to permit such pulley to transmit the load.

1. Screw Take-up
2. Loop Take-up
3. Gravity Take-up
Screw take-up

Gravity Take up
Various Gravity Take up Arrangement
Belt Protection Controls:
devices provided for protecting conveyor belt system
Belt alignment control:
Belt should be aligned with the drive pulleys and the carrying and return idlers. Belt alignment sensors are
typically positioned along the edges of the conveyor fabric. They are usually at the discharge and at the
loading zones, however can be distributed over the length of the conveyor. Switches consists of Roller
Switches, Limit Switches, Proximity Switches, Photoelectric Switches, etc. When the edge of the belt
trips the alignement switch for a timed period, the conveyor is halted. In steel cord belts edge tracking is
done by using alignment sensors. This helps to get signature of tension distribution within the carcass which
in turn does the condition monitoring
Belt Overload:
The electric drive motor has overload protection. The motor overload can be a simple bi-metallic or
melting eutectic alloy or a complex computer based motor-thermal model. Sometimes belt weigh scales
are also used for overload protection.

Belt Slip:
Belt slip is the loss in traction of the drive pulley(s) to the belt cover. Belt slip can destroy a belt or drive
pulley. Belt slip protection provides a belt drive speed sensor that compares the present belt speed with the
belt intended speed. For constant speed belts belt slip monitoring is done by a slip switch with a setpoint
that trips the conveyor drive when the belt speed is below 80% of full speed. The belt slip switch is bypassed
during starting and stopping. For variable speed conveyor belt slip monitoring consists of a speed sensor
that measures the belt speed and compares with the speed reference sent to the drive system. When the
belt speed is below 80% of the intended speed the conveyor drive is tripped. A method to adjust and test belt
slip is normally provided in the belt control system.
Take-up Overtravel :

Overtravel limit switches can be placed at the far extremes of the counterweight or take up
device travel. In a gravity counterweight take-up, the top overtravel switch trip may suggest a
jammed conveyor belt condition. A bottom overtravel switch may indicate belt stretch, or a
broken belt fabric flight. Excessive take-up motion during starting and stopping indicate that the
type of drive control is either inadequate or that is not working properly.
Transfer Chute Plug:
If the conveyor transfers material through a transfer chute, the transfer chute plug monitors blocked
flow as blocked flow may damage the conveyor belt. Under blocked condition the transfer chute plug
switch trips the conveyor drive.
Bin Level Control:
If the conveyor belt is used to fill bins or stock piles over dumping may damage the belt. Bin level
sensors protect the belt from probable beltdamage. Simple hanging tilt switch or analogue devices
like ultrasonic, radar or laser devices may be used.

Pull-chord Stop Switches:

These are emergency switches that can be actuated by pulling a chord provided along
the belt conveyor.

Rip Detectors:
Rip detectors provide belt protection in case of a rip or tear of the belt. Simple rip detector is spill
switch located below the conveyor near the loading point. There are complex rip switches available,
which require periodic maintenance.
Fire Detection:
Thermal trip switches are provided with smoke sensors, CO sensors or fibre optic
temperature sensors.

Dust Sprays:
Water or chemical based dust suppressing system can eliminate or reduce
dust problems in certain special conveyor belt installations
Belt Conveyor Trouble Shooting
(The number refers to the list below the table.)

Cause Complaint Cause

Complaint In order of In order of probable
probable occurrences
Belt runs off at tail 7 15 14 17 21 Excessive wear, including 12, 25, 17, 21, 8, 5
pulley rips, gouges, ruptures, and
Entire belt runs off at all 26, 17, 15, 21, 4, 16 Excessive bottom cover 21, 14, 5, 19, 20, 22
points of the line wear
One belt section runs 2, 11, 1 Excessive edge wear, 26, 4, 17, 8, 1, 21
off at all points of the broken edges
Belt runs off at head 15, 22, 21, 16 Belt hardens or crack 8, 23, 22, 18
Belt slip 19, 7, 21, 14, 22 Covers become checked or 8, 18
Belt slip on starting 19, 7, 22, 10 Longitudinal grooving or 14, 21, 22
cracking of top cover
Excessive belt stretch 13, 10, 21, 6, 9 Longitudinal grooving or 14, 21, 22
cracking of bottom cover
Belt breaks at or behind 2, 23, 13, 22, 20, 10 Fabric decay, carcass 12, 20, 5, 10, 8, 24
fasteners; fasteners tear cracks, ruptures, soft spots
loose in belt(gouges)
Vulcanised splice 13, 23, 10, 20, 2, 9 Ply separation 13, 23, 11, 8, 3
1.Belt bowed: Avoid telescoping belt rolls or storing them in damp locations.

2.Belt improperly spliced or wrong fasteners: Use correct fasteners. Retighten after running for a short
while. If temporarily spliced remove belt splice and make new splice. Set up regular inspetion

3.Belt speed too fast: Reduce belt speed

4.Belt strained on one side: Allow time for new belt to break in. If belt does not break in properly or is
not new, remove strained section and splice in a new piece.

5.Breaker strip missing or inadequate: When service is lost, install proper breaker strip ( Breakers are
woven fabric of nylon &/or polyster placed above the carcass to dissipate impact energy and to
prevent belt puncture)

6.Counterweight too heavy: Recalculate weight required and adjust counterweight accordingly.
Reduce take-up tension to point of slip then lighten slightly.

7.Counterweight too light: Recalculate and adjust or screw take-up accordingly.

8.Damage by abrasive, acid, chemicals, heat etc: Use belt designed for specific purpose. Repair cuts.
Use enclosure where needed.
9. Differential speed on dual pulleys: Make necessary adjustments

10. Drive underbelted: Recalculate maximum belt tensions and select correcxt belt. Determine if
extension is feasible or another belt to be installed. Check the carcass is rigid enough for load,
replace if service is lost.

11. Edge worn or broken: Repair edge. If the edge is out of square or badly damage replace the
worn portion of the belt.

12. Excessive impact of material on belt or fasteners: Use correctly designed chutes and baffles.
Make vulcanised splices. Instal impact idlers. Where possible load fines first. Where material is
trapped under skirts , adjust skirtboards to minimum clearance or install cushioning idlers to
hold belt against skirts.

13. Excessive tension: Recalculate and adjust tension. Use vulcanised splice within recommended

14. Frozen Idlers: Free idlers. Lubricate. Improve maintenance. Dont over lubricate.

15. Idlers or pulleys out of square with centre line of the conveyor: Realign. Install limit switches for
greater safety.

16. Idlers improperly placed: Relocate idlers or insert insert additional idlers spaced to support
17. Improper loading, spillage: Feed should be in direction of belt travel and at belt speed, centred on
the belt. Control flow with feeders, chutes and skirtboard.
18. Improper storage or handling: Refer to the manufacturers instructions for storage and handling.
19. Insufficient traction between belt and pulley: Increase wrap angle with snub pulley. Lag drive
pulley. In wet condition use grooved lagging. Install correct cleaning devices for safety.
20. Material between belt and pulley: Use skirtboard properly. Remove accumulation. Maintain
21. Material build-up: Remove accumulation. Install cleaning devices, scrapers and inverted V
decking. Improve housekeeping.
22. Pulley lagging worn: Replace worn pulley lagging. Use grooved lagging for wet conditions.
Tighten loose and protruding bolts.
23. Pulleys too small: Use large diameter pulleys.
24. Radius of convex vertical curve too small: Increase radius by vertical realignment of idlers to
reduce excessive edge tension.
25. Relative loading velocity too high or too low: Adjust chute or correct belt velocities. Use impact
26. Side loading: Load in the direction of belt run and at the centre of the belt.
27. Skirts improperly Placed: Use adjustable skirtboards and check that it does not rub the belt.
This animation demonstrates a new concept for an In-Pit Crushing & Conveying system consisting of a
semi-mobile crushing station PX100, 4 conveyors including a ramp conveyor and a shiftable conveyor
of in total appr. 4 km length, and a compact-type spreader PA100 with a 60 m receiving boom and a 50
m discharge boom. The system is designed to handle 20 Mbm overburden per year with a nom.
capacity of 9000 mtph and max. capacity of 10000 mtph.
Double belt conveyor animation

Pipe conveyor animation

Stacker animation

Factors in sizing a Belt Conveyor

Material density
Edge distance
Distance between the edge of the material and belt
Belt speed
Lump size and size distribution
Surcharge angle
Troughing angle and length of the individual rolls
Belt inclination
Factors in sizing a Belt Conveyor
Belt Conveyor Capacity (Q, m3/hr)
Q = A x V x 3600
A = cross-sectional area, m2;
V = Belt speed, m/sec;
Mass handled (T, ton/hr)
= material density, ton/m3.
The area required to be carried
A = T/( x V)