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Differential Amplifiers and

common mode feedback

Differential amplifiers
Cancellation of common mode signals
including clock feed-through
Cancellation of even-order harmonics
Increased signal swing

Symbol:
Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In,
Differential-Out Op Amp

peak-to-peak
output voltage
2OCMR

Output common mode range (OCMR)

= VDD-VSS - VSDPsat - VDSNsat
Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In, Differential-
Out Op Amp with Push-Pull Output

Able to actively source and sink output current

Output quiescent current poorly defined
Cascode Op Amp with Differential-
Outputs, push-pull output
Differential-Output, Folded-
Cascode

OCMR = VDD -VSS - 2VSDP(sat) -2VDSN(sat)

Quite limited
Two-Stage, Differential Output,
Folded-Cascode

M11-M13 and M10-M12 provide level shift

Common Mode Output Voltage
Stabilization
Common mode
drift at output
causes differential
signals move into
triode region
Common Mode feedback
All fully differential amplifier needs CMFB
Common mode output, if uncontrolled,
moves to either high or low end, causing
triode operation
Ways of common mode stabilization:
external CMFB
internal CMFB
Cause of common mode problem
Unmatched quiescent currents
Vbb=VbbQ+
Vbb I2 Vin=VinQ
Vbb=VbbQ

Vo1 Vo2

Vin
I1

Vo1Q
Vo1
Vin=VinQ+Vin actual Q point
M2 is in triode
If Vo VOCM I y i.e. Vyy
If Vo VOCM I y i.e. Vyy
Vxx Ix

Vo

Ix(Vo)
VOCM
Vin

Iy(Vo)
Vyy
Iy
Vo

needneg. feedbackfromVo to V yy
Basic concept of CMFB:

Vo+ Vo+ +Vo-

CM 2
Vo- measurement
Voc

-
Dvb e VoCM
CMFB
+
desired
common mode
voltage
Basic concept of CMFB:

CM 2
Vo- measurement
Voc

-
Dvb e e VoCM
CMFB
+

Find transfer function from e to Voc, ACMF(s)

Find transfer function from an error source to Voc Aerr(s)
Voc error due to error source: err*Aerr(0)/ACMF(0)
example
Vb2

CC CC
Vi+ Vi- Vo+ Vo-

VCMFB Vb1

-
+ Vo-
Example

Voc

VoCM

VDD

M7A 150/3 M2A 150/3 M2B 300/3 300/3

75/3
M13A M13B
BIAS4
1.5pF 1.5pF
M7B
75/3
BIAS3
M3B
OUT+
averagerOUT-
20K 20K
M3A
300/2.25 300/2.25

300/2.25 300/2.25
M6C 75/2.25
IN- IN+

M6AB M1A M1B Source

M12A
M12B

follower
1000/2.25
75/2.25 1000/2.25
200/2.25
BIAS2
M11 M10 M9A M9B
CL=4pF 4pF
150/2.25 50/2.25 50/2.25
BIAS1
M8 M5
200/2.25 M4A M4B
150/2.25 50/2.25 50/2.25

VSS

Folded cascode amplifier

Resistive C.M. detectors:

Vo Vo
R1 R2
, if R1 R2
Vo+ Vo-
2
use R1 , R2 very large
- difficult to achieve
- especially when Vo is
at an cascoded node
Resistive C.M. detectors:

Vo.c.

R1 R1
Vo+ Vo-

Vi+ Vi-
O.K. if op amp is used in a resistive
feedback configuration
& R1 is part of feedback network.
Otherwise, R1 becomes part of g0 & hence
Buffer Vo+, Vo- before connecting to R1.

Voc
Vo+ Vo-

R1 R1

Simple implementation:
source follower

Why not:

Vo.c.
Vo+ Vo-

* Initial voltage on cap.

Vo Vo
, if C1 C2
2
Prob : at high freq.
C1 C2
AC diff short
Use buffer to isolate Vo node:

or resistors
Switched cap CMFB
Vo+ 1 2 1
VoCM.

Vo-
VoCM.
To increase or decrease the C.M. loop gain:
e.g.

Vo.c. Vo.c.d. Vo.c. Vo.c.d.

VC.M.F.B.
VC.M.F.B.
Another implementation
Use triode transistors to provide isolation
& z(s) simultaneously.

VGS1, VGS2>>VT
Voc

Vo+ Vo-
M1 M2

In that case, circuit above M1,

M2 needs to ensure that M1, M2
can be a c.s. are in triode.
Vo Vo
2

Example:

Input state

Vo- Vo+
Vb

M1 M2

e.g. Vo+, Vo-2V at Q & Vb 1V ,

Then M1&2 will be in deep triode.
If Vo , Vo
Vo- Vo+ Voc
VG1 , VG 2
Vb1
R M 1 , RM 2
Vb2
V X ( I const )
VX
but V X to Vo ,Vo
is cascoded C.G.
M1 M2
Vo , Vo
Two-Stage, Miller, Differential-In, Differential-
Out Op Amp

M10 and M11 are in deep triode

Vo++ Vo-
2
VoCM.

VCMFB

Vo Vo
VCMFB
2
gain can be large

Vo+
Note the difference
Vo- from the book
accommodates much
larger VoCM range
Small signal analysis of CMFB
Example:

IB VCM IB
M3 M4

Vo+ M1 M2 Vo-
-i
+i
+i
M5 +i
+i -i
VCMFB
-i -i
i=0 2i
Differential Vo: Vo+ by Vo, Vo- by Vo
Common mode Vo: Vo+ by Vo, Vo- by Vo

DVo
Di g m1 g m1 g m 2 g m3 g m 4
2
1 g m1
DVCMFB 2Di k
g m5 g m5
k DVo
IB VCM IB
M3 M4

Vo+ M1 M2 Vo-
+i
+i
M5
-i -i
VCMFB
i=0 2i
i7 M7

+ 1
-2i M6 -2i
- gm6
To increase gain :
1
DVG 7 2Di
g m6
g m7
Di7 DVG 7 g m 7 2Di
g m6
g m7
Di5 2Di1
g m6
g m1 g m 7
DVCMFB 1 DVo
g m5 g m 6
* gain by geometric ratios can be made accurate
CMFB loop gain: example
Vb2

CC CC
Vi+ Vi- Vo+ Vo-

VCMFB Vb1

VCMFB Voc Vo+

-
+ Vo-
Vo Vo
gain from VCMFB Voc
2

-gm5vro2

-gm5vro2gm6

Vo

gm5v g m5 g m6
Aocmc
v g ds 2 g ds6 g ds7

Poles: p1
p2
z1 same as before
VDD

M7A 150/3 M2A 150/3 M2B 300/3 300/3

75/3
M13A M13B
BIAS4
1.5pF 1.5pF
M7B
75/3
BIAS3
M3B
OUT+
averagerOUT-
20K 20K
M3A
300/2.25 300/2.25

300/2.25 300/2.25
M6C 75/2.25
IN- IN+

M6AB M1A M1B Source

M12A
M12B

follower
1000/2.25
75/2.25 1000/2.25
200/2.25
BIAS2
M11 M10 M9A M9B
CL=4pF 4pF
150/2.25 50/2.25 50/2.25
BIAS1
M8 M5
200/2.25 M4A M4B
150/2.25 50/2.25 50/2.25

VSS

Folded cascode amplifier

Removing the CM measurement

Vo+ VoCM

Vo-

VCMFB

CMFB diff amp.
VDD=+1.65V

Vo1 Vo2
M21 M22 M23 M24

M1C M2C
IDC=100A VCM

M13
Vi1 M2 Vi2
M1

M14 M51 M52 M25

-VSS=-1.65V
CMFB with current feedback
M3 M4
IB

Vo+ Voc
CM VoCM
Vo- detect M5
M6 M7

M1 M2
IB VDD VSS
desired Q : I 3 I1 , VoCM
4 2
If Vo Vo by DVo , Voc by DVo
Di1 , Di2 by DVo g m 6
(equivalen t to VG1 , VG 2 by DVo )