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CCSI_3G RNO BASIC TRAINING

Prepare By: Peter Wylson Marpaung.


3G NETWORK TOPOLOGY
3G TECHNOLOGY USING CDMA
CDMA operates by using CODES to discriminate between users.
CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users
3G Spread data power using 3.84 Mchips/s bandwidth.

A Spreading radio channel


Despreadin
g
A
A A
Data + Noise

Transmitter Receiver
3G TECHNOLOGY USING CDMA
Many user after spread then combined to become a composite signal.
At receiver, the composite signal have dispreading using a orthogonal code to separate the
user data.

Many code channels are individually


spread and then added together to
create a composite signal
Wcdma Spread Spectrum Principles
SHANON Formula

C = B*log2(1+S/N)

Where,
C is capacity of channel, b/s
B is signal bandwidth, Hz
S is average power for signal, W
N is average power for noise, W

It is the basic principle and theory for spread spectrum


communications.
Wcdma Spread Spectrum Principles

Higher Noise -> Reduce Channel capacity


3G TECHNOLOGY USING CDMA
Before the spread result combined become a composite signal, it is processing using
orthogonal code as differentiators at receiver next.

X
Code1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 Code1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1
Code2 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 Code2 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1
Mul -1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 Mul +1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1
Sum -2
Sum 0
Non-orthogonal
Orthogonal

Orthogonal Code is:


While result of multiplying and sum is 0
Direct spread technique
S1 S1xC1

W
Spreading

S2XC2 Air Interface


S2

S
[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC
1
N
=S1 (S1xC1)+(S2xC2)
Despreading

[S1xC1+S2xC2]x
C1xC2=0,
C2
C1,C2,orthogonal
=S2
3G CODE TREE

SF is Spreading Factor. The value is double number. From 1 until 256.


Spreading Process of WCDMA
Symbol
Chip
Data Spread Data
3.84Mcps

3.84Mcps

OVSF Code Scrambling Code

A A
cch1

B BC
cch 2 B cscrambling A Modulatio
n
C
cch 3 C
3G SF THROUGHPUT
Modulation Type:
QPSK using 2 bit/symbol.
16QAM using 4 bit/Symbol.
64QAM using 6 bit/symbol.

3G Chip Rate: 3.84 Mcps

Formula throughput per cell : ChipRate


Modulation Type CodeNumber
SF
Example:
If 1 cell has HSDPA service activated with HSPDSCH Code value = 8. That cell has 64QAM Modulation
activated.
So Maximum HSDPA cell throughput become:

3.84Mcps
6 8 11.520Mbps
16
And if at that cell has 20 HSDPA user online with same priority, then every person get DL throughput:

11 .520 Mbps
576 Kbps
20
3G SF16 (HSDPA) THROUGHPUT

Choose your cell HSDPA throughput base on costumer request. This can happen
while CQI >25 and RF condition is good.
3G R99-HSDPA-HSUPA
3G RELATED PARAMETER
3G POWER CONTROL
1. Transmit power on all users must be carefully controlled so their signals reach the base station at the same
signal level and at the absolute minimum power level necessary to ensure acceptable service quality.
2. Interference in 3G are coming from UE (between User).
3. Many user will causing Load Increment
4. Many user will causing increment of noise.
5. Increment of Noise will degrade Ec/No.
6. The purpose of DL power control: Saving power resource of NodeB, reducing interference to other NodeB.
7. The purpose of UL power control: Overcoming Near-Far effect, save power of UE

Power Power

f
f

BETTER !!!
WRONG !!!! Power control technology will reduce the
Every UE has different UL Power, this will cause interference among each UEs
capacity decrement and degradation of Ec/No due to and increase system capacity .
Noise.
3G POWER CONTROL
There are 3 type of power control in WCDMA:
1. Open Loop Power Control.
UTRAN Give Order to UE regarding initial power base on DL receive level (RSCP).

2. Close Loop Power Control * Inner Loop (Between UE and NodeB)


NodeB and UE have discussion regarding current SIR compare to SIR Target. It will check for 1500times/second.
3. Close Loop Power Control * Close Loop (Between RNC and NodeB)
NodeB and RNC have discussion regarding current BLER compare to BLER Target. Result of discussion is inner
loop SIR target adjustment.
3G POWER CONTROL
Open Loop Power Control.
UTRAN Give Order to UE regarding initial power base on DL receive level (RSCP).
3G POWER CONTROL
Close Loop Power Control * Close Loop (Between RNC and NodeB at dedicated mode)
NodeB and RNC have discussion regarding current BLER compare to BLER Target. Result of discussion
is inner loop SIR target adjustment.
BLER HIGH & Quality Low Increase SIR Target
BLER Low & Quality High Decrease SIR Target

Close Loop Power Control * Inner Loop (Between UE and NodeB at dedicated mode)

SIR Target < Current SIR Reduce Power


SIR Target > Current SIR Increase Power
3G POWER CONTROL
Close Loop Power Control * Inner Loop (Between UE and NodeB at dedicated mode)

SIR Target < Current SIR Reduce Power


SIR Target > Current SIR Increase Power
3G POWER CONTROL
Power Control Also Triggered by 3G Cell System Load.
Cell Load < CellUnderrunThd = Increase DL power
Cell Load > CellOverrunThd = Decrease DL power

This is called : Cell Breathing. System will adjust coverage to safe his system load balance.

Too small value will faster cell breathing. Too high will causing system congestion. Please set it
base on traffic habit.
3G LOAD CONTROL
Breath effect of cell
With the increase of activated terminals,
interference increase
the increase of high speed service,the
increase of interference
The shrink of cell coverage area
Coverage blind spot occurs
Drop of call will happen at the edge of cell
3G Handover
Soft handover
Intra-RNC, inter-Node B
MOD UCELLINTRAFREQHO:;
Inter-RNC

Softer handover
Same Node B, Inter- sector

Hard handover :
Intra-frequency handover
Inter-frequency handover MOD UCELLINTERRATHOCOV:;
Inter-system (3G&2G) MOD UCELLINTERFREQHOCOV:;
Inter-mode (FDD&TDD)
3G Soft Handover

AS MN MN AS
MN MN

Soft handover has more than 1 Radio Link Connection while handover event. Like UE touched by
so many hand.
3G Soft Handover

Soft handover has more than 1 Radio Link Connection while handover event. It have Active set
(AS), Monitoring neighbor (MN) and DN (Detected neighbor) if founded.
From above capture, it have :
1. More than 1 AS (Means: He touched by 3 hand).
2. He has Some MN (Means: he has several neighbor created that detected during log file collection)
3. He has 2 DN (Means: He has several uncreated neighbor relation that catch inside neighbor table.
3G Soft Handover
Active Set:
The set of cells connected with UE;
User information is transmitted from these cells.
Monitor Set:
The set of cells not within the active set but being monitored by a UE
according to the adjacent node list allocated by UTRAN.
Detect Set:
The set of cells in neither the active set nor the monitor set.
3G Soft Handover Event

Event 1A to Event 1D related to Active Set Activity.


Event 1E and 1F related to Monitoring Set Activity.

Important to know:
1A is to add new AS and change MN become AS
1B is to remove an AS from AS list
3G Soft Handover
NodeB NodeB
UE DRNC SRNC
DRNS) (SRNS)
Measurement
report

RL creation request
A RL setup request

RL setup response RL setup response

Active set update command

Active set update completion

B RL Deletion request

RL Deletion response

Active set Update is the unique signaling for SHO.


3G Soft Handover

Why we need T (Delay for trigger time) ?? Because to prevent unnecessary event
activation.
TEMSEVENT 1A

29
TEMSEVENT 1A

30
TEMSEVENT 1B

31
3G Soft Handover
Conclusion:
Event 1A is to add neighbor as active set. We can faster SHO with below
parameter:
1. MOD UCELLINTRAFREQHO: TrigTime1A= xx;
Make xx to smaller value. So it will be faster execution. Be
carefully: Too small value will cause ping pong SHO at several case
2. MOD UCELLINTRAFREQHO: IntraRelThdFor1ACSVP=xx,
IntraRelThdFor1ACSNVP=xx, IntraRelThdFor1APS=xx;
Make xx to bigger value. So it will more MN can be absorb. Be
carefully: Too big value will cause service drop at several case

Event 1B is to remove an AS from active set list. We can faster or longer


remove a cell from AS using above concept (Trigger time and Reporting
range).
3G Hard Handover

AS AS AS

Hard handover has only 1 Radio Link Connection while handover event. UE already
disconnected from the old Connection while setup a new connection are on progress.
3G Hard Handover
Target Node Original
UE B NodeB SRNC

Measurement report

RL setup request
RL setup response

Reconfiguration command

Reconfiguration completion
RL deletion request

RL deletion response

Reconfigure command is the unique signaling for hard handover.


3G hard Handover Event

Compress Mode was activated and deactivated from 2D (Start Measure) and 2F (Stop
Measure) Event. And he filter the other system candidate from event 3 activity.
3G hard Handover Event

Attention please: If you put 2D at maximum value, then it will hard to share traffic
from 3G to 2G. It will cause congestion in 3G and dragging in 3G edge coverage. So be
carefully. And Using 2D and 2F parameter ypu can reduce system load and reduce
Service drop.
3G hard Handover Event

While interfreqho an InterRATho event triggered together, then


RNC should give decision. Which one to be executed. Set it at
UCELLHOCOMM
3G WCDMA CELL RE-SELECTION

For A:
1.Receive level of the FDD cell > Average receive level of the current serving cell + FDD Q offset;
The FDD cell meets the following condition in the case of any neighboring 2G cell: Receive level of the FDD cell > Receive
level of any neighboring 2G cell + FDD Q offset;
2. Ec/No of the FDD cell > FDD Qmin - FDD Qmin Offset;
3. Receive level of the FDD cell > "RSCP Threshold;
3G WCDMA CELL SELECTION
Rules:
A. 3Gto2G reselection Threshold can not same as 2GtoFDD reselection threshold for Ec/No and RSCP.
Otherwise it will trigger ping pong cell reselection. 3G {Qqualmin + SSearchRAT} >= 2G FDDQmin.

B. 3G Sintrasearch > 3G Sintersearch > SSearchRAT.


C. Please check 2G to 3G and 3G to 2G relation. Those should be both way created.
D. 2G:
Too Low FDDQMIN or FDDRSCPMIN will increase traffic and drop in 3G.
Too High FDDQMIN or FDDRSCPMIN will increase traffic in 2G due to late traffic share to 3G.
E. 3G:
Too Low SSearchRAT where combine with low Qqualmin will increase traffic and drop in 3G. Due to
late reselect to 2G at 3G Edge coverage. Worst also while he make a call at very low coverage.
Too High SeacrhRAT will increase traffic in 2G due to UE already trigger RAT reselection while 3G RF
still good.
Adjust Qqualmin will impact to SSearchRAT/Ssintrasearch/Ssintersearch. You will change all trigger
threshold.
3G WCDMA CELL SELECTION PARAMETER
3G WCDMA CELL SELECTION PARAMETER
3G WCDMA Dictionary
RRC (Radio Resources Control) is a signaling and control protocol which make connection
from UE to UTRAN which provides information transfer service to the NAS (Non Access
Stratum).

UE need RRC setup for every service requested.

CN

RANAP

RRC
UE RNC RNSAP
RNC

NBAP

NBAP Node B Application Part


Node B
RANAP: Radio Access Network Application Part
RNSAP: Radio Network Subsystem Application Part
RRC: Radio Resource Control
3G WCDMA Dictionary
RAB (Radio Access Bearer) consist of RB (Radio Bearer) and RL (Radio Link). It connect UE
to Core Network.

RB (Radio Bearer): The service provided by the Layer 2 for the transfer of user data
between UE (User Equipment) and UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network).

RL (Radio Link): RL is a logical Connection between single UE (User Equipment) and a


single UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) access point.
3G CALL SETUP PROCESS
As mentioned before, UE need RRC setup for every 3G service requested. Afterward
setup a RAB connection.

RRCConnectionSetup
SuccessRatio

RABAssignment
SuccessRatio
3G CALL SETUP PROCESS
Call Setup Success is
Success to setup RRC Connection and Success setup RAB Connection.

Call Setup Success Rate is


RRC Setup Success Rate * RAB Setup Success Rate

Means: If you have 1 problem (RRC or RAB) then your CCSR become worst.
Become more worst if both problem (RRC an RAB)
RRC & RAB PROBLEM
FACTOR TABLE in IUB

Smaller value you set for every parameter in


MOD TRMFACTOR, it will reduce IuB
Load. But smaller also make your
throughput become slower.

Be carefully to balance both. Base on needed


Call Admission Control
A. ALGORITHM_OFF: Disable uplink call admission control
algorithm.
B. ALGORITHM_FIRST: The load factor prediction algorithm will
be used in uplink/downlink CAC.
C. ALGORITHM_SECOND: The equivalent user number algorithm
will be used in uplink/downlink CAC.
D. ALGORITHM_THIRD: The loose call admission control
algorithm will be used in uplink/downlink CAC.
Call Admission Control

System load threshold Remaining Capacity

Apply access service Increasing volume of load

yes
Access

Increasing volume of load <


Remaining Capacity
no
Reject
UL Call Admission Control
I total_existing +I > Ithreshold
Threshold per service type

Forecast Interference Increasing volume caused by


new service.

Iown-cell
RTWP
(Received Total Wide Power) Iother-cell
~
N0

UL Capacity limited base on RTWP measurement.


UL Call Admission Control

If you set to HIGHER Value, then it will open more capacity for new services. CSSR
improved. But system become more overload.
DL Call Admission Control
P total_existing + P >= Pthreshold
DL Total Power Threshold per cell
DL Service Load Per Cell

Forecast increasing output power of Node B


caused by new service

TCP, Node B report to RNC


Transmitted Carrier Power*Pmax

DL Capacity limited base on DL Total Power measurement.


DL Call Admission Control

If you set to HIGHER Value, then it will open more capacity for new services. CSSR
improved. But system become more overload.
3G Load Reshuffle and Load management

Word Reshuffle means: Change or Adjust

With Reshuffle (Mod UCELLLDR), we can reduce cell load which impact to KPI performance.
With Load Management (MOD UCELLLDM), we can set value to trigger UCELLLDR active.

So Means:
UCELLLDM contain parameter for trigger UCELLLDR
And
UCELLLDR contain parameter and action for reduce cell load.
3G Load Reshuffle and Load management
3G Load Reshuffle (MOD UCELLLDR)
When system in overload condition we can adjust some action which will be done by cell itself.
a) NOACT: No load reshuffling action is taken.
b) INTERFREQLDHO: The inter-frequency load handover is performed.
c) BERATERED: Channels are reconfigured for the BE service.
d) QOSRENEGO: The renegotiation on the QoS of the uncontrollable real-time service is performed.
e) CSINTERRATSHOULDBELDHO: The inter-RAT SHOULDBE load handover of the CS domain is performed.
f) PSINTERRATSHOULDBELDHO: The inter-RAT SHOULDBE load handover of the PS domain is performed.
g) AMRRATERED (AMR service rate decreasing): The setting of the TFC subset and the negotiation of the service rate
can be performed for the AMR voice service.
h) MBMSDECPOWER (MBMS power limiting): The MBMS service is configured with the minimum power.
i) CODEADJ (code tree reshuffling): The fragments of the downlink code tree are arranged.
j) PSINTERRATSHOULDNOTBELDHO: The inter-RAT SHOULDNOTBE load handover of the PS domain is performed.
k) PSINTERRATSHOULDNOTLDHO: The inter-RAT SHOULDNOTBE load handover of the PS domain is performed.

The LDR takes the actions in the preset sequence and judges whether each action is successful. If an action is
unsuccessful, the LDR turns to the next action. If an action is successful, a parameter is set to NOACT, or all the
preceding actions are taken, the downlink LDR is finished, and the system waits for the next triggering of the LDR.

The inter-frequency load handover has no impact on the QoS of users and can balance the cell load, so the inter-
frequency load handover usually serves as the first action.

The BE service rate reduction is effective only when the DCCC algorithm is enabled.

You can set cell action base on your idea.


3G Load Reshuffle (MOD UCELLLDR)

You can set cell action base on your idea.


3G Load Management (MOD UCELLLDM)

If you put UL/DL trigger Threshold too HIGH, it will cause faster UCELLLDR working. Then
some resources will waste.

If you put trigger Threshold too Low, it will cause late UCELLLDR working. Then cell
become bad overload (system become unstable).

Please set Trigger and release threshold with > 10% different to prevent ping pong
UCELLLDR action.
3G WCDMA

BASIC SYSTEM KNOWLEDGE


3G WCDMA FRAME
1 3G WCDMA FRAME has Period 10ms.
1 3G WCDMA FRAME has Bandwidth 3.84
Mchip/s.
1 3G WCDMA FRAME Slot has Period:
10ms 2
ms 0.67ms
15 3
1 3G WCDMA FRAME Slot has bandwidth:
3.84Mchip / s
2560Chip / s
15
3G WCDMA FRAME

Every Frame in Super frame has number. It is SFN (System Frame Number)
Channel Type
Logical channels:
Describe what is transported (i.e., the information to be transmitted)

Transport channels:
Describe how the logical channels are to be transmitted.
(Coding scheme, data rate, TFCI etc.)

Physical channels:
Represent the transmission media providing the platform through
which the information is actually transferred. (Frequency, scrambling
code etc.)
Logical Channels
Control Channel (CCH) 1. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
2. Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
3. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
4. Common Control Channel (CCCH)

Traffic Channel (TCH) 1. Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)


2. Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)

Transport Channel
Common Transport 1. Broadcast Channel (BCH)
Channels 2. Paging Channel (PCH)
3. Random Access Channel (RACH)
4. Forward Access Channel (FACH)
5. Common Packet Channel (CPCH)
6. Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)
Dedicated Transport 1. Dedicated Channel (DCH)
Channel
Physical Channel
Uplink Physical Channels 1. Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
2. Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
3. Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Downlink Physical Channels 1. Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)


2. Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)
3. Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)
4. Synchronization Channel (SCH)
5. Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
6. Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
7. Page Indication Channel (PICH)
8. Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)
3G SYSTEM INFORMATION
SIB 1: SIB 2:
3G SYSTEM INFORMATION
SIB 7:
CONCLUSION-1
We use CDMA as Multiple access type in WCDMA to increase traffic capacity.

In WCDMA, 1 UE has 1 UL Scramble Code to access the network. So every user in 3G WCDMA
separated by UL Scramble code.

In WCDMA, 1 Cell was separated with another cell by DL Primary Scramble Code (MOD
UCELLSETUP).

Traffic in CDMA should limited even as theoretical can handle as many traffic. If too many UE in 1
3G WCDMA cell can cause increasing of Noise which can degraded Ec/No value in 3G Cell. Noise
in 3G are coming from UE side. My 3G Cell phone is disturber for surrounding 3G cell Phone

Ec/No in 3G was affected by:


1. High User Number/ High Traffic Number
2. Bad CoverageRSCP (Receive Signal Code Power)
3. High Cell system Load
CONCLUSION-2
In 3G WCDMA, every user data spread in 3.84 Mchip/s then multiply with Orthogonal Code
(OVSF) as data differentiator at receiver.

Orthogonal Code or Code tree is a limited resources in 3G Cell. He is SF1 till SF 256 at Downlink.

We can know DL Throughput/ cell/ SF with below formula:

ChipRate
Modulation Type CodeNumber
SF
DL Throughput/ Cell become smaller if more user using that SF as PS service.

ChipRate
Modulation Type CodeNumber
SF
UserNumber
There are 3 Modulation type that using in 3G: R 99 QPSK ( 2 bit / Symbol )
QPSK ( 2 bit / Symbol )
HSDPA 16 QAM ( 4 bit / Symbol )
64 QAM ( 6 Bit / Symbol )
CONCLUSION-3
Below is DL Throughput/Cell Table for HSDPA (SF16) using different modulation type:
CONCLUSION-4
Solution for High user number and high system load is Traffic Share.

Traffic Share in same 3G carrier can be done with new site proposal and antenna tilting (Up tilt
or Down tilt) activity.

If New Sites proposal takes long time to execute, we can do some strategy to solve traffic
share.
1. If High user (off course we can not ask them (one by one)) to turn off their mobile phone,
isnt it?). We can try to make PS throughput become slow. So user will go out from their
PS service activity. Then cell load become decrease. Load Decrease = Improvement
Ec/No.
2. Antenna Tilting activity.
Too much Down tilt in 3G is not good, due to will reduce DL Coverage (Increase drop
call) and make UE TX Power become higher (Will disturb surrounding UE) because
small UL Coverage.
Some case, uptilt 3G Antenna is the solution. The purpose is to stronger DL Coverage
at Bad UL TX Power spot.
CONCLUSION-5
3G Power Control has 3 Type:
i. Open Loop Power Control (From NodeB to UE) to Set initial MS UL Transmit
Power value.

ii. Close Loop Power Control (From NodeB to UE) to Safe service quality with
coverage adjustment
SIR Target < Current SIR Reduce Power
SIR Target > Current SIR Increase Power

iii. Close Loop Power Control (From RNC to NodeB) base on BLER value, RNC will
change NodeB SIR Target which will impact Cell Coverage.
BLER HIGH & Quality Low Increase SIR
BLER Low & Quality High Decrease SIR
CONCLUSION-6
3 Type handover is 3G WCDMA:
a. Soft handover (Between 3G Cell in same frequency and different site)
b. Softer handover (between 3G Cell in same frequency and same site)
c. Hard handover (Intra-frequency handover/Inter-frequency handover/Inter-system (3G&2G)/Inter-mode
(FDD&TDD))

Soft handover and Softer handover has Event 1A till 1F. We can focus to event 1A and 1B.
Soft handover Event 1A to add a MN cell become AS
1. MOD UCELLINTRAFREQHO: TrigTime1A= xx;
Make xx to smaller value. So it will be faster execution. Be carefully: Too small value will cause ping
pong SHO at several case
2. MOD UCELLINTRAFREQHO: IntraRelThdFor1ACSVP=xx, IntraRelThdFor1ACSNVP=xx, IntraRelThdFor1APS=xx;
Make xx to bigger value. So it will more MN can be absorb. Be carefully: Too big value will cause service
drop at several case

Soft handover Event 1B to remove a AS cell become MN

MN= Monitoring Neighbor

DN= Detected neighbor. Carefully for this, due to uncreated high level neighbor will cause interference and pilot
pollution.

AS= Active Set (Maximum 3). Base on parameter value:


CONCLUSION-7
Compress Mode is an event where 3G UE start to measure other frequency. Other frequency are 3G
Other Frequency (F2), 2G GSM 900, 2G DCS1800.

Compress mode Triggered by Event 2D (Start to measure)

Compress mode stopped by Event 2F (Stop To measure)

If you put 2D at smaller value (Ex: -110dBm or Ec/No:-24) then you will have :
overload 3G Cell due to late traffic share trigger.
3G Service drop at 3G edge border, due to hold longer in 3G till bad RSCP or Ec/No.

If you put 2D at higher value (Ex: -60dBm or Ec/No:-5) then you will have :
overload 2G surrounding Cell capacity due to big handover attempt from 3G to 2G.
IRAT become worst, due to 2G target congested.

Rules: Event 2F Threshold > Event 2D Threshold and has spacing 3 dB


CONCLUSION-7
2 important Type of Admission control Algorithm:
1. ALGORITHM_FIRST: The load factor prediction algorithm will be used in
uplink/downlink CAC.
2. ALGORITHM_SECOND: The equivalent user number algorithm will be used in
uplink/downlink CAC.

UL Capacity limited by RTWP and DL Capacity limited by DL Total Power.

Cell Load Reshuffle Algorithm (UCELLLDR) and Cell Load Management (UCELLLDM) are
working together to reduce cell load with several action.

Service Success rate in 3G are contain of RRC Success Rate and RAB Success Rate. If
one of them was fail, means: Cell CSSR is bad.