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CCSI_2G RNO BASIC TRAINING

Prepare By: Peter Wylson Marpaung.


2G NETWORK TOPOLOGY
Call Phases
Overall Call Success Rate

Call Setup Success Rate Call Completion Rate

SDCCH TCH
Blocking Blocking
SDCCH
(system) (system)
Success Rate
and and

SDCCH TCH Call


call Blocking
Blocking

get establish establish call


get get establish release
SDCCH SDCCH TCH phase
service TCH TCH phase
connection connection
connection
Mobile Originated Call - Speech (1)
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR
Sdcch_Seiz_At
CH. REQUEST (RACH)
(and) Sdcch_Busy_At
CH.ACTIVATION or Ghost_Ccch_Res
ACK.
Sdcch_Assign
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN(AGCH)
Sdcch_Seiz_Orig
SERVICE REQUEST (SDCCH) or Succ_Seiz_Term
or Succ_Emerg_Call
ACK. or Sdcch_Call_Re_Est
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST (SDCCH) or Sdcch_Loc_Upd
or Imsi Detach (S7)
AUTHENTICATION RESP. (SDCCH)

CIPHERING MODE COMM. (SDCCH)

ACK.

TMSI REALLOCATION COMMAND (SDCCH)

ACK
Check
SETUP (SDCCH) Restrict.
Mobile Originated Call - Speech (2)
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR
SETUP (SDCCH)
CALL PROCEEDING (SDCCH)
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
PHYS. CONTEXT REQUEST

PHYS. CONTEXT CONFIRM Tch_Request + Start of


Tch_Norm_Seiz BSC traffic
CH.ACTIVATION or Tch_Req_Rej_Lack Measurement
ACK.
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (SDCCH)

SERVICE REQUEST (FACCH)


+ Start of
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE (FACCH) MSC traffic
Measurement
CH.RELEASE
ACK.

ALERTING (FACCH)
CONNECT (FACCH)
CONNECT ACK. (FACCH)
Mobile Originated Call - Speech (3)
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR
CONNECT ACK. (FACCH)

MEAS. REPORT (SACCH)

DISCONNECT (FACCH)

RELEASE (FACCH) + End of


MSC traffic
RELEASE COMPL. (FACCH) Measurement
CH. RELEASE (FACCH)

SACCH RELEASE

DISC. (FACCH)
+ End of
RF.CH. RELEASE
BSC traffic
ACK. Measurement
ACK. & CLEAR COMPLETE

SCCP RELEASE

ACK.
Dropped Calls
Dropped Calls
Dropped calls show the number of abnormal disconnections during call setup or during
conversation. From a subscriber point of view, the most serious dropped calls are those that
interrupts an ongoing conversation, i.e. a call dropped on the TCH.

1.Radio Link Failure


Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link time-out counter is decreased by 1.
If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not exceed
the initial value.
The initial value is set by the parameter RLT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by
SACCH Multi Frame for time-out in the BSS.
If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSS, there
will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release) sent to the
mobile station and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the
MSC.
To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting, the BSS now waits RLT SACCH periods before
the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel.
Radio Link Timeout BSS Radio Link Timeout MS
because MS Should release radio channel first
1. Radio Link Timeout BSS Radio Link Timeout MS
2. because MS Should release radio channel first
3. Too High Radio Link Timeout BSS can cause congestion due to longer channel holding time.
4. Too High Radio Link Timeout MS can cause costumer complain due to connect no voice.
Causes of Radio Link Failure
Radio Link Failure event are due to below problem:
Interference
Internal interference
External interference
Equipment interference
Poor coverage
Coverage hole
Island sites
Uplink/downlink imbalance
Improper parameter setting
Radio link timeout, SACCH multi-frames
Handover parameters
Power control parameters
Equipment problem (Antenna, feeder, combiner, TRX)
Clock problem
Transmission problem

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Radio Link Failure- Interference
Category
Co-channel interference
Adjacent-channel interference
Inter-modulation interference and other external interference

C/I : C/A :
GSM Recommendation >9 dB GSM Recommendation >-9 dB
Planning Criteria >12 dB (Non Hopping) Planning Criteria >3 dB
Planning Criteria >9 dB (Hopping) C/A is to measure Adjacent channel Interference
C/I is to measure Co channel Interference tolerance. tolerance.
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Radio Link Failure- Interference

C/I : C/A :
GSM Recommendation >9 dB GSM Recommendation >-9 dB
Planning Criteria >12 dB (Non Hopping) Planning Criteria >3 dB
Planning Criteria >9 dB (Hopping) C/A is to measure Adjacent channel Interference
C/I is to measure Co channel Interference tolerance. tolerance.
Page 13
Radio Link Failure- Interference
Analysis:
1. If Scan-TRX of cell results in the interference band 3, 4, and 5, usually the interference problem
should be taken into consideration.
2. If there are too many times of good Rx-Level but low Rx-Quality, it means: co-frequency or
adjacent frequency interference or external interference.
3. Handover measurement function from outgoing handover attempts distribution. If there are too
many times of handover caused by UL/DL Quality, it indicates possibly there is interference.
4. See from Scan TRX for Rx-Quality level of TRX for reference.
5. See from Scan TRX for Rx-Level and Rx-Quality upon call drop for reference.

Action:
First check equipment problems for inter-modulation interference. Mostly is bad feeder
installation or bad hardware output signal.
Perform drive test to check interference area and distribution of Rx-Quality to find the
interferer frequency for internal interference. Then do Cell/Cluster MAL/MAIO/HSN
retune.
Further search for the interference source with the spectrum analyzer to search
external interferer then escalate to proper part. Mostly repeater or illegal transmitter,
then escalate to proper part.
Activate Frequency hopping, DTX (Discontinuous Transmit) and power control functions
to reduce internal interference of the system. This is parameter setting.

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Radio Link Failure- Interference

Not Overshoot, but has ICM band 5 and Bad UL Signal Quality

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Radio Link Failure- Interference
Sample of Clear spectrum result Sample of external interference from CDMA which
impact to Telkomsel cells performance

DL CDMA Band suspected has too high power that disturb TSEL UL GSM Band (900.2Mhz).

16
Radio Link Failure- Interference

Consider as interference issue.


17
Radio Link Failure- Coverage
1. Island Sites/Standalone sites
Island sites is a site which work alone to cover wide traffic area.
2. Coverage hole: uncovered area between cellsBlank Spot.
3. Signal attenuation: serious fading occurs during signal propagation so that
handover cannot be implemented in time and this causes a call drop.
4. The adjacent cell definition: incomplete neighbor relation definition, so that
MS keeps conversation in the current cell until it goes beyond this cell coverage
edge and as a result, call drop occurs.
5. Imbalance UL/DL: If the uplink signal coverage is larger than the downlink
signal coverage, the downlink signal of the cell edge will become weak and can
easily be submerged by the intensive signals of other cells. While if the
downlink signal coverage is larger than the uplink signal coverage, MS has to
remain under this intensive signal. However, if the uplink signal is too weak or the
voice quality is too bad, call drop will occur.

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System Balance

Double UL receiver = Double UL Receive power (UL Coverage become wider))


Radio Link Failure- Coverage
Uplink Loss is Large (Uplink Coverage is small)

Downlink Loss is Large (Downlink Coverage is small)

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Radio Link Failure- Coverage
Analysis:
Drive test result is the best information to found the coverage problem.
1.Idle Receiving level report show proportion of low receiving level times is too large.
2.Inter-cell handover measurement function, the level when triggering a handover is too low and the
average receiving level is too low.
3.Receiving level during a call drop is too low and the TA value before a call drop is big (Check from Scan-
TRX report).
4.From scanning result, founded undefined adjacent cell receiving level is too high (over-shooting
coverage).The average level of undefined adjacent cells is too high (isolated island phenomenon).
5. In outgoing-cell handover measurement function, the handover success rate to a certain adjacent cell is
low.

Solution for Coverage:


Adjust network parameters
1. Activate EDGE handover
2. Faster Edge (ULEDGETHRES/DLEDGETHRES) and Interlayer handover (HOTHRES)
3. Adjust Cell Reselection Parameter (CRO/PT/CRH/RXMIN)
Add new sites
Increase antenna gain (change antenna type)
Adjust antenna direction (Tilt / Azimuth)

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2. Layer 2 Time-Out
T200 is a timer of acknowledgement transmission from BTS to MS through LAPD. When BTS transmits a
acknowledgement message to MS, T200 times is started in LAPD. If this acknowledgement message is not
received by MS until T200 timer is expired then the transmission will be repeated (retransmission).The maximum
retransmission is N200+1 times. T200 will be restarted in each retransmission. So, N200 is the maximum number
of retransmission of LAPD (Layer-2). If until N200+1 times of retransmission the acknowledgement message, MS
still doesnt receive this message, then the connection will be dropped.

Longer T200 value, means longer BSS to wait.


Longer T200 value, means longer channel will hold by an UE. This will cause congestion for sites
which have hi Channel utilization.

Shorter T200 Value , means Faster BSS to trigger disconnection. This will cause low SDSR.
Shorter T200 value , means easy for BSS to release channel which hold by UE previously. This will
reduce congestion at cell channel due to shorter channel holding time.
3. Excessive Timing Advance
The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged during the time of disconnection, the last Timing Advance value
recorded was higher than the Max TA Parameter. This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide
coverage area.
Action:
Check if the cell parameter Max TA is < 63.
Check if the co-channel cells are overshooting.
Solution:
Set Max TA to a value close to 63.
Activate TAHOEN.
Faster handover trigger due to TA -> Adjust TALIMIT to proper TA value base on site to site distance.
Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.

4. Low Signal Strength on Downlink or Uplink or Both Links


Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls
as well as so called coverage holes. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls. Building shadowing could be another reason.
Action:
Check coverage plots.
Check output power.
Check power balance and link budget.
Check if Omni site.
Check antenna configuration & type.
Check antenna installation.
Perform drive tests & site survey.
Check TRX with high Fail Number.
Solution:
Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel.
Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station.
Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes.
Block/unblock TRX
Adjust Power control parameter (SET GCELLPWRBASIC/SET GCELLPWR2/SET GCELLPWR3)
DLAFSREXQ DLAFSREXQ DLAHSREX DLAHSREX ULAFSREXQ ULAFSREXQ ULAHSREX ULAHSREX DLRXLEVP DLRXQUAL
Parameter UALHIGHT UALLOWTH QUALHIGH QUALLOWT DLMAXDO UALHIGHT UALLOWTH QUALHIGH QUALLOWT ULMAXDO ROTECTFA PROTECTFA
type HRED RED THRED HRED WNSTEP HRED RED THRED HRED WNSTEP CTOR CTOR
Before 16 16 18 18 8 16 16 18 18 8 10 60
After 14 14 16 16 4 14 14 16 16 4 10 65
On 7th Nov. the power control optimization, improved DL/UL quality to reduce drop
calls due to handover.
DLFSREXQU DLFSREXQU DLHSREXQU DLHSREXQU ULFSREXQU ULFSREXQU ULHSREXQU ULHSREXQU ULRXQUALP DLRXLEVPR DLRXQUALP
Parameter ALHIGHTHR ALLOWTHRE ALHIGHTHR ALLOWTHRE ALHIGHTHR ALLOWTHRE ALHIGHTHR ALLOWTHRE ROTECTFAC OTECTFACT ROTECTFAC
type ED D ED D ED D ED D TOR OR TOR
Before 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 65 10 65
After 14 14 15 15 14 14 15 15 75 15 75

On 16th Nov. the power control optimization, improved DL/UL quality to reduce drop
calls due to handover.
5. Poor Quality on Downlink or Uplink or Both Links
Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. Faulty MAIO assignment can cause
frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality.
Action:
Check C/I and C/A plots.
Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem).
Check MAIO, HOP, HSN parameters.
Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SFH).
Check for External Interference.
Perform drive tests.
Solution:
Change BCCH frequency.
Change BSIC.
Change MAIO, HOP, HSN.
Change MAL.

6. Sudden Loss of Connection


There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal
strength, such as when subscribers enter into buildings, elevators, parking garages, etc., very sudden and severe occurrence of
interference, MS runs out of battery during conversation, Handover Lost, BTS HW faults, Synchronization or A-bis link fault
(transmission faults), and MS Faults.
Action:
Check BTS Error Logs, Alarms and Fault Codes.
Check Fail number per TRX and TS.
Check Transmission Link (A-bis).
Check LAPD Congestion.
Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss
Solution:
Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms.
Reset TRX with high Fail Number.
Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable.
increase Transmission Capacity
Investigate HO Lost Problem
7. Improper feature activation
Feature activation which activated not in proper cell will cause new problem.
Incorrect use of radio features such as Dynamic Power Control, handover, Intra-Cell Handover, Frequency Hopping, etc.
Action: Check Feature parameter setting.
Solution: Correct strange and erroneous parameter setting. Below is the sample

Adjusted 119 cells INTRACELLHOEN YES->NO at 16 Nov, Observe the performance of the adjusted,
Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State decreased, Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable
State did not significantly improve. Significantly improved the overall call drop number.
8. Bad Parameter Configuration
Some idle and dedicated parameter which adjusted not in rule will cause KPI degradation.
Action: Check parameter setting.
Solution: Correct strange and erroneous parameter setting. Below is the sample

Parameter type T3103A T3103C T7 T8 T3109 T3105 MAXRESEND

Before 15000 15000 10000 16000 27000 7 30


After 20000 20000 22000 22000 30000 15 60

After the cell Handover parameters optimization, improved the handover performance to
reduce drop calls due to handover.
SDCCH Drop Performance
Probable Reasons of Drops on SDCCH
Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink
The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites, wrong output power, shadowing, no indoor coverage or network
equipment failure.
Action: Check coverage plots. Check output power. Perform drive tests. Check BTS error log
Solution:
Add new sites.
Increase output power.
Repair faulty equipment.
Adjust TRX POWER parameter (POWT/POWL)
Adjust antenna direction & Tilt

Poor Quality on Down or Uplink


Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. Check frequency plan. Perform drive tests.
Solution:
Change frequency.
Adjust TRX POWER parameter (POWT/POWL)
Move SDCCH to BCCH TRX

Too High Timing Advance


Action: Check if the cell parameter Max TA is < 63. Check if the co-channel cells are over-heard.
Solution: Set Max TA to a value close to 63. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power, etc. for co-channel cells.

Mobile Error
Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Another reason is that the MS is
damaged and not working properly.
Action: .Check MS type from Core team.
Solution: Inform operator.
Probable Reasons of Drops on SDCCH
Subscriber Behavior
Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas, choosing ill-advised
locations to attempt calls, etc.
Action: Check customer complaints and their MS.

Batery Flaw
When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation, the call will be registered as dropped call due to low
signal strength or others.
Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Check if DTX uplink is used.

Congestion on TCH
The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH.
Action: Check TCH congestion
Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell (Direct retry), Cell Load Sharing,
HCS, Half rate parameter(TCHAJFLAG,TCHBUSYTHRESH) etc.
Handover Performance
Handover Performance
Handover is a key function in a GSM network and a key technology of mobile communication system
which make continued conversation become possible. If the handover performance is poor the
subscriber will perceive the quality of the network as bad.

MSC 2
BSC 1 MSC 1
target
intra
inter
cell source
BSC
MSC controlled
out-
going

in- inter BSC 2


MSC controlledcoming cell
Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance

Bad handover Parameter Setting


A bad setting of handover control parameters might result that the handover will seldom rank the cell
as a candidate.
Action: Check parameter setting.
Solution: Correct bad parameter setting (GCELLHOBASIC/GCELLHOEMG/GCELLHOCTRL, etc)

Unnecessary Neighboring Cell Relation


None or very few handovers might indicate an unnecessary neighboring cell relation.
Action: Check neighbor cell relations
Solution: Check if the relations really should be defined. Remove unnecessary cell relations.
Maximum relation are 32 for inter2G and 32 for Inter System (2g to 3G).
But recommended are 15 for each handover type. To reduce signaling load.

The Base Station is Defined But Not in Service.


Action: Check reason for BTS not in service.
Solution: Take action to set the base station in service.

HW faults.
Action: Check BTS error log.

Wrong Output Power due to Faulty Transceiver


Action: Check output power setting. Check BTS error log
Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance
Wrong External Cell Configuration
This will cause no handover decisions to the an external cell.
Action: Check external cell data (BCCH/NCC/BCC/LAC/CI)
Solution: Change it to correct Value.

Permited Network Color Code problem


If NCCPERMIT doesnt include neighboring cells NCC, there will be no handovers.
Action: Check NCCPERMIT.
Solution: Add NCC of neighbors to NCCPERMiT.

Wrong Use of Layer


Action: Check Layer related parameters. Wrong layer will influence traffic share strategy. Then it will give impact to other
KPI.
Solution: Change to proper value. SET GCELLBASICPARA: LAYER= x;

Poor inter-MSC/BSC handover performance


If the cell is at the border of inter-BSC or inter-MSC, poor inter-MSC/BSC handover performance will cause few or no
handover attempts.
Action: Check inter-MSC/BSC handover performance

The MS Measures Signal Strength of Another Co- or Adjacent.


Action: Check frequency plan..Perform drive tests.
Solution: Decrease interference. .

Bad Use of Radio Network Features


Incorrect use of radio features such as Dynamic Power Control, handover, Intra-Cell Handover, Frequency Hopping, etc.
Action: Check Feature parameter setting.
Solution: Correct strange and erroneous parameter setting.
Probable Reasons of Bad Handover Performance
Congestion
A high congestion might lead to dragged calls (handover performed at a improper location) and a lot of unsuccessful
handovers.
Action: Check TCH congestion at both origin and destination cells.
Solution: Add more TCH capacity. Activate Half rate feature (TCHAJFLAG), Adjust Share traffic parameter.

Timer Expire After MS is Lost (T3103A/C,T7,T8,etc)


The MS never answers the base station.
Action: Check coverage. Check interference. Longer the timer may improve it, but will make longer channel holding time.

Link Connection or HW Failure


Action: Check BTS error log. Perform site visit. Perform link performance measurements.
Solution: Repair faulty equipment.

Bad Antenna Installation


Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Check antenna cabling.
Solution: Adjust antenna installation, antenna type or cabling.

Antennas Connected to Wrong Feeder


Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation. Check antenna cabling.
Solution: Correct the antenna to the right sector.

Incorrect Down Tilt


Action: Perform site survey and check antenna installation.
Solution: Correct antenna tilting. To much down tilt value will cause blank coverage and dragging. Too Big tilt value will
cause overshoot till N Layer, which neighbor not create at N layer area.
Link Connection or HW Failure

TRX346 & 223 Hardware problem of site 2131103_AntsnKecilTimur. After


solved the problem, the incoming handover success number became
normal.
SDCCH Congestion
Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion
Low Availability
Action: Check SDCCH Availability. Check if the channels are manual, control or automatic blocked.
Solution: Change and repair faulty equipment. Review the O&M procedures.

Increasing Traffic Demand


The high traffic could be related to an occasional event or due to a long term growth.
Action: Check if short term traffic growth. Make trend comparisons. Check SDCCH dimensioning.
Solution: Increase the number of SDCCH channels. Note, that an increase may lead to the need for new
transceivers.

Long Mean Holding Time


If the mean holding time is long, this generates a higher traffic load.
Action: Check SDCCH Mean Holding Time.

Too Frequent Periodic Registration


Action: Check Random Access Distribution. Check the timer T3212 in the BSC and the parameters
BTDM and GTDM in the MSC
Solution: Decrease the periodic registration (t3212) and Adjust CRH (Cell Reselection Hysteresis).
Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion
Location Area Border Cell
If the cell is situated on a misplaced Location Area border, this means that unnecessary many normal LUs are
performed.
Action: Check site position and location area border. Check Location Update Performance. Check parameter CRH
etc.
Solution: If the site is located close to major road or railway, consider to move the Location Area border. Increase
the hysteresis CRH. The CRH is the hysteresis value used when the MS in idle mode crosses a LA border. The
.
default value for this parameter is 4. If a high number of Location Updating occurs in a Location Area border cell,
a higher CRH can be set in order to reduce the number of LUs.

Extensive SMS Usage


Extensive SMS usage increases the SDCCH traffic and could cause congestion if badly dimensioned SDCCH
channels.
Action: Check SMS activity.
Solution: Re-dimension the SDCCH channels with consideration taken to SMS usage.

Cell Broadcast Used


Action: Check if Cell Broadcast is active. .If active, check if it is used by the operator.
Solution: Remove Cell Broadcast if not used (SDCCH_CBCH).

IMSI Atach/Detach in Use.


An introduction of IMSI attach/detach will increase the traffic on SDCCH. However, the benefits are that the
paging success rate will increase. The recommendation is to use Attach/Detach.

BTS /Cell Software Hang


Action: Reset BTS . It will restart all hardware onsite.
Probable Reasons of SDCCH Congestion due to Long Mean
Holding Time
Congestion on TCH
Action: Check TCH Congestion
Solution: Increase the TCH capacity.

Congestion on Signaling Routes


Action: Check signaling performance & transmission capacity.
Solution: Add more transmission capacity or re-route traffic if possible.

False Accesses
No response from MS after Channel Request. The system waits about T200 seconds before performing a
disconnection and the channel is available again.
Action: Check frequency plan. Check interference.
Solution: Improve frequency plan and reduce interference. Reduce T200 SDCCH value.

Faulty Transceiver
Action: Check BTS error log.
Solution: Change & repair faulty equipment
TCH Congestion
Probable Reasons of TCH Congestion
Increasing Traffic Demand
The high traffic could be related to an occasional event or due to a long term growth.
Action:. Check if short term traffic growth. Make trend comparisons..Check TCH dimensioning. Check the use of
congestion relieving features such as Assignment to Worse cell, Cell Load Sharing and HCS.
Solution: Increase the number of transceivers. But check for frequency availability.

Bad Dimensioning
Bad allocation of TCH in a system may cause unnecessary congestion. Investigate if possible to move transceivers
from non-congested areas to congested areas (Rebalancing). Of course, the base station type, current number of
transceivers, floor space, combiner type, etc., should be considered before a recommendation to move
transceiver could be made.
Action: Check TCH traffic and dimensioning.
Solution: Re-dimension the TCH.

Hardware Fault & Installation Fault


Faulty equipment will lead to that all time slots could not be used for handling traffic causing congestion. Low
availability can happen if the channels have been manually or automatically blocked and taken out of service.
Action: Check TCH Availability. Check TCH blocking.
Solution: Change and repair faulty equipment. Review the O&M procedures.
Probable Reasons of TCH Congestion
High Antenna Position
A high antenna position could mean a too large service area. Also antennas placed on hilltops will cover large areas.
A large coverage area might mean that the cell takes a lot of traffic.
Action: Check antenna height. Check antenna type. Check antenna tilt
Solution: Lower antenna if there is no risk for loss of coverage (no coverage at all). Tilting of the antenna or
changing antenna type may also decrease the coverage area.
Wrong Use of Layer
Action: Check Layer related parameters. Wrong layer will influence traffic share strategy. Then it will give impact to
other KPI.
Solution: Change to proper value. SET GCELLBASICPARA: LAYER= x;
Low Handover Activity
A low handover activity may lead to congestion if the MS is forced to stay on a cell longer than necessary.
Action: Check if congestion in neighboring cell. Check handover performance. Check neighboring cell definitions.
Missing relations
could cause handover problems.
Solution: Correct handover parameters such as too high or too low hysteresis/Threshold
values, missing neighbor relations, one-way handovers.
Low Congestion in Surrounding Cells
Action: Check congestion in neighboring cells. Review neighbor cell list. New relation could relieve the congestion.
Solution: Add new neighbor cells if appropriate. Then adjust CRO/GCELLHOBASIC/GCELLHOEMG parameter.
PS Access Success Rate
Probable Reasons of Low PS Access Success
Radio Channel Congestion
High PS traffic compare to available PS channel.
Action:. Check if PS has higher traffic load but CS is not. Or PS and CS has same high load.
Solution: Add more PS capacity (TCHFR or PDTCH)SET GTRXCHAN and adjust PS channel conversion threshold.

TCHs are set to TCHHR


While a TCH is on TCHHR status, then it can not become a PS channel.
Action: Check PS traffic compare to TCHFR+PDTCH.
Solution: Change TCHHR to TCHFR as initial channel state.

Fail Conversion from TCH to PDTCH


While PDTCH capacity in a cell already full, then system will try to convert TCHFR to PDTCH. But it will fail if TCH in
congestion state
Action: Check TCH Availability. Check TCH blocking.
Solution: Change and repair faulty equipment. Review the O&M procedures. Do CS traffic share to improve PS capacity.

Imbalance/Overload PDTCH distribution at DSP board.


DSP use in BSC to process PS service before forward to SGSN. When DSP load is more than 80% then some cells under this
DSP will have low PS accessibility.
Action: Check DSP load distribution for every slot number.
Solution:
If Imbalance load: try to make Cell-DSP mapping become automatic (SET PSCELLTODSP: IDXTYPE=BYBSC;)
If Overload DSP: Add more DSP board.

Abis Congestion
2G system using PCM30 technology. 1E1=2.048Mbps. 1 E1=32 Abis Timeslot. 1 Abis timeslot=4 Sub slot.
Action: Check Abis Load between E1 if Site has more than 1 E1. Sometime, 1 Sites has 3 E1 (example), but load mostly at
E1 number 2. This is not good for TR which connected to E1 number 2.
Solution: Balance E1 Load with TRX-E1 mapping. Add E1 if existing E1 already has >80% utilization.
E1 Description

1 E1 contain 32 timeslot (0-31)


1 Timeslot in E1 contain 4 Sub slot.
1 E1 =2.048 Mbps
1 Timeslot in E1 = 2.048 Mbps/32 = 64 Kbps
1 E1 Sub slot in E1 = 64 Kbps/4 = 16 Kbps

If user get 1 E1 sub slot and single/alone TBF in 1 PDTCH, then he has
16 Kbps throughput at maximum (Theoretical). Then we have coding
scheme to compress the data become smaller. GPRS has CS1-
CS4/EDGE has MCS1-9.
Probable Reasons of Low PS Access Success
HI TBF number In Uplink and Downlink
High PS traffic compare to TBF capacity in 1 PDTCH.
Action:. Check for maximum TBF in BH.
Solution: Adjust UL/DL multiplexing. Too high will cause throughput degradation/Too Small will cause high
throughput but small TBF capacity.

Parameter LQCMODE T3168 UPDYNCHNTRANLEV DWNDYNCHNTRANLEV PDCHUPLEV PDCHDWNLEV

Before LA 500ms 40 40 70 80

After IR 1000ms 20 20 70 160


LQCMODE: Use IR can to obtain better effect when the UM transmission quality is poor.
T3168:Decrease the number of times of MS no response .
UPDYNCHNTRANLEV: Faster uplink switch PDCH request.
DWDYNCHNTRANLEV: Faster downlink switch PDCH request.
PDCHDWNLEV:TBF to increase the number of carrying PDCH.
GPRS AND EDGE
Both GPRS and EDGE using same 2G GSM technology. EDGE developed to improve
2G data Rate better than GPRS.
EDGE is a method to increase the data rates on the radio link for GSM. Basically,
EDGE only introduces a new modulation technique and new channel coding
that can be used to transmit both packet-switched and circuit-switched voice and
data services.

Although GPRS and EDGE share the same symbol rate, the modulation bit rate differs.
EDGE can transmit three times as many bits as GPRS during the same period of time. This is the main reason
for the higher EDGE bit rates.
GPRS AND EDGE

EDGE using GMSK for MCS1-4 then 8PSK for


MCS5-9.

GPRS using GMSK modulation technology.

Both GPRS CS1 to CS4 and EGPRS MCS1 to


MCS4 use GMSK modulation with slightly
different throughput performances. This is
due to differences in header size (and payload
size) of the EGPRS packets.
Frequency Hopping
There are 3 Types of Frequency Hopping:
1. Baseband Hopping (BB)
Baseband Hopping concept, assign Frequency for every TRX in a cell.
This Frequency planning method has less capacity, because limitation TRX count base on frequency availability. 1
TRX= 1 Frequency

Minimum MAL Frequency should provide/Sites= Count TRX Hopping

2. Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SFH)


SFH 1*3
SFH 1*1
SFH Concept offer more TRX capacity with efficient frequency management. Result are:
increment capacity which improve CS and PS performance
Improved voice quality and prevention of dropped calls in GSM

Minimum MAL Frequency should provide= 2 * Count TRX Hopping * 3

3. Enhanced SFH
Frequency Hopping Parameter

MAL (Mobile Allocation Set):


MA is the set of available RF bands when hopping, containing at most 64 frequency
carriers. The frequency being used must be those of the available frequency
MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset)
MAIO is used to define the initial frequency of the hopping.
Be careful to configure the MAIO of same timeslot in all channels, otherwise
interference occurs.
HSN (hopping sequence number)
HSN is used to define the hopping sequence from one frequency list.
HSN=0 cycle hopping.
HSN0 random hopping. Every sequence number corresponds a pseudo
random sequence.
Baseband Frequency Hopping Mapping

Every TRX have 1


Frequency result. If we
have 4 TRX then we
should have 4 clean
frequency.
SFH 1*3 Frequency Hopping Mapping

MAL is drawn up from high to low

Every sector has different MAL.


MAIO is depend on TRX HOPPING Count.
SFH 1*1 Frequency Hopping Mapping

Every sector has Same MAL.


MAIO is depend on TRX HOPPING Count.
Cell Selection / Reselection
Cell Selection and Reselection Parameter
C1 is a cell selection algorithm employed in GSM and GPRS. The algorithm uses the
power received from cells plus additional parameters in order to assess the cell that
will provide the best radio connection for the MS (Mobile Station).

C2 is the GSM cell reselection algorithm. Once the MS (Mobile Station) has camped
onto a cell it will continue to assess the surrounding cells to ensure it is monitoring
the cell that will offer the best radio connection. As the user moves the camped on
cell may become unsuitable. This situation will generate a cell reselection.

C31 is a criteria based algorithm used as part of the GPRS cell reselection process. It is
used to assess if prospective cells qualify as reselection candidates prior to applying
the C32 GPRS cell reselection algorithm.

C32 is the GPRS cell reselection algorithm. Once the MS (Mobile Station) has camped
onto a cell it will continue to assess the surrounding cells to ensure it is monitoring
the cell that will offer the best radio connection. As the user moves the camped on
cell may become unsuitable. This situation will generate a cell reselection.
Cell Selection Parameter
C1 = (Amax(B,0))
where
A = Average Received level from Cell RX_ACCESS_MIN (in dBm)
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P (in dBm).
The Average received level (AV_RXLEV) is found by averaging RXLEV samples over a period.
RX_ACCESS_MIN is a cell parameter which set minimum allowed RXLEV for an MS to access that cell.
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH is the maximum TX power an MS may use when accessing the system (using RACH).
P is the maximum RF output power of the MS, usually 33dBm for a handheld GSM900 and 30dBm for a handheld
GSM1800 MS. Often the latter term in C1 equals 0 and equation (1) can be simplified to;

C1 = AV_RXLEV RX_ACCESS_MIN

For example, if the minimum allowed level to gain access to a cell is 100dBm and the received average
level at the cells BCCH frequency is -80 dBm, MS calculates C1 as +20 for that particular cell. MS camps
to the cell with the highest C1 value.
There is an exception to the standard procedure described above. When MS evaluates C1 values for cells
belonging to a different Location Area (LA), it subtracts a parameter called CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS
from the C1 value, which means that those cells are given a negative offset. The reason for this is that
changing LA requires a Location Update (LU) procedure that consumes network signaling capacity. Thus,
by assigning a negative offset to C1, unnecessary LUs caused by slow fading can be reduced. MS receives
information of the cell dependent CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS values through BCCH.
Cell Re-Selection Parameter
Cell reselection criterion C2 is defined as
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET TEMPORARY_OFFSET*H

when
timer T > PENALTY_TIME then H=0 >>>> C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
timer T PENALTY_TIME then H=1 >>>> C2=C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET TEMPORARY_OFFSET
Penalty Time=31 >>>> C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

BCCH Re-selection in Border LAC

Higher CRH value will hold an UE in a


cell longer. Then give decrement of
Location update attempt.
2G SYSTEM INFORMATION
IMPORTANT TO KNOW
System Information Overview

SYSTEM INFORMATION sent on BCCH


SYSTEM INFORMATION Includes:
1, 2, 2BIS, 2TER, 3, and 4 Used by MS in idle mode.

SYSTEM INFORMATION sent on SACCH


SYSTEM INFORMATION Includes:
5, 5BIS, 5TER, and 6 Used by MS in Dedicated mode.
IDLE SYSTEM INFORMATION
SYSTEM INFORMATION 1: SYSTEM INFORMATION 3:
Cell Channel Description Cell Identity
contains all the frequencies used in this cell LAI( location area identity)
Control Channel Description
RACH Control Parameter
MS ATTACH/DEATTACH allowed Indicator ATT, BS-AG-
BLKS-RES, CCCH-CONF, BA-PA-MFRMS, and T3212.
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2: Cell Option (BCCH
Neighbor Cell Frequency Description Cell Selection Parameter
NCC permitted RACH Control Parameter
RACH Control Parameter
SYSTEM INFORMATION 4:
LAI
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2BIS: Cell Selection Parameter
RACH Control Parameter
Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description
CBCH Channel Description
RACH Control Parameter CBCH Mobile Configuration
SI4 Rest Oct. (parameters related to cell reselection)
SYSTEM INFORMATION 2TER :
Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description SYSTEM INFORMATION 7 & 8:
Cell reselection parameter indicator (PI)
MS using dual band Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ)
Cell Bar Access (CBA)
Cell_Reselect_Offset (CRO)
Temporary Offset (TO)
Penalty Time (PT)
DEDICATED SYSTEM INFORMATION
SYSTEM INFORMATION 5:
Neighbor Cell BCCH Frequency Description.

SYSTEM INFORMATION 5BIS:


Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description

SYSTEM INFORMATION 5TER:


Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description
Only dual band MS can read information.

SYSTEM INFORMATION 6:
Cell Global Identity (CGI)
LAI
Cell Option
NCC Permitted
2G CHANNEL CONFIGURATION
IMPORTANT TO KNOW
Important Type of TRX Channel Type
TCHFR(TCH Full Rate)
Can automatically converted to PDTCH at PS BH base on Dynamic PDTCH Conversion parameter
It has 13 kbit/s
TCHHR(TCH Half Rate)
Cannot automatically converted to PDTCH at PS BH base on Dynamic PDTCH Conversion parameter
It has 5.6 kbit/s
SDCCH8(SDCCH8)
Contain 8 sub slot = 8 user at same time
MBCCH(Main BCCH)
Every cell in 2G should have BCCH for system information broadcast
CBCCH(Combined BCCH)
BCCH + CCCH
BCH(BCH),
Extended BCCH
BCCH_CBCH(BCCH+CBCH)
BCCH + Cell Broadcast
SDCCH_CBCH(SDCCH+CBCH)
SDCCH/4+ Cell Broadcast
PDTCH
For Static PS Channel
DL have 16 TBF at maximum an UL have 7 TBF capacity at Maximum
Other:
PBCCH_PDTCH(PBCCH+PDTCH),
PCCCH_PDTCH(PCCCH+PDTCH),
DPDCH(Dynamic PDCH)
Some Sample of Parameter Adjustment
reference
1. Power Control 3
2. INTRACELLHOEN
3. EDGESTAT1/ EDGELAST1
4. EGPRS11BITCHANREQ/LQCMODE
5. MAXRESEND
6. SUPPSDLPC
Power Control 3 Implementation CR

Site Information

1. Change power control type II to power control type III for all cells of cluster Kudus on Mar 26.
2. Type III have more efficient power control than power control II.
3. All CS KPI improve after adjust.
Power Control 3 Implementation
Site Information
CSSR increased after
adjusted

SDSR increased after


adjusted
Power Control 3 Implementation
Site Information
TDR decreased after
adjusted

HOSR increased after


adjust.
INTRACELLHOEN CR

Site Information

1. Adjust parameter INTRACELLHOEN from Yes to No for all NPI cells on February 10.
2. All cells use the RF Hopping, the all TRX quality almost same in the one cell due to use the same frequency.
3. TDR improve after adjust. but HOSR decreased due to more HO requests in the case of bad quality.
INTRACELLHOEN
Site Information

CSSR increased after


adjusted

SDSR increased after


adjusted
INTRACELLHOEN
Site Information

TDR decreased after


adjusted

HOSR decreased after


adjust.
EDGESTAT1/ EDGELAST1 CR

Site Information

1. Adjust EDGESTAT1/ EDGELAST1 to faster for all cells of cluster Kudus on Mar 12
2. MS easier to execute EDGE Handover in the case of the poor Receive Level.
3. TDR &HOSR improve after adjusted.
EDGESTAT1/ EDGELAST1
Site Information
TDR decreased after
adjusted

HOSR increased after


adjusted
EGPRS11BITCHANREQ/LQCMODE CR

Site Information

1. Adjust NO to YES for EGPRS11BITCHANREQ for all cells of cluster Kudus on February 15
2. Speed up the MS access to PDCH channel.
3. IRs error correction better than LA.
4. The PS performance improved after adjusted.
EGPRS11BITCHANREQ/LQCMODE
Site Information

TBF completion Success rate increased after adjusted


EGPRS11BITCHANREQ/LQCMODE
Site Information

Uplink TBF establish


Success Rate
increased after
adjust

Downlink TBF
establish Success
Rate increased after
adjust.
MAXRESEND CR

Site Information

1. Adjust 40 to 150 for MAXRESEND for all cells of cluster Purwokerto on February 15
2. The CS performance improved after adjusted.
MAXRESEND
Site Information
Uplink TBF establish
Success Rate
increased after
adjust

Downlink TBF
establish Success
Rate increased after
adjust.
MAXRESEND
Site Information
TDR decreased after
adjusted

HOSR increased after


adjust.
SUPPSDLPC
Parameter Summary

1. Feature activation for PS power control for cluster 4 of Yogya on Apr 12.
2. Reduce the PS interference of CS. improve the quality of CS.
3. The TDR&CSSR&HOSR improved after adjusted. But SDSR decreased due to many cells still have
interference.

CR

Page 81
SUPPSDLPC
Parameter Summary
CSSR increased after
adjust

SDSR decreased after


adjust.
SUPPSDLPC
Parameter Summary
TDR decreased after
adjusted

HOSR increased after


adjust.