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II.

THE
ENLIGHTENMENT IN
EUROPE

Textbook pages:
195-201
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
During the Scientific
Revolution, philosophers
reevaluated society:
Reevaluated government & religion

Promoted new forms of


education
Enlightenment:
An intellectual movement that
stressed reason and the power of
the individual
Directly challenged absolutism
TWO VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT
Thomas Hobbes:
Leviathan 1651
Humans are naturally selfish & wicked
Cannot be trusted
Must hand their power over to a strong
ruler
Gain law & order in exchange
Social contract: agreement by which
people limit their rights to create an
organized society
TWO VIEWS ON GOVERNMENT
John Locke:
Humans have the ability to govern
themselves & society
Born with three natural rights:
Life, liberty, & property
Government should protect these rights
People can overthrow a government that fails
to protect their rights
Government comes from the people
THE PHILOSOPHES ADVOCATE REASON
Philosophers: social thinkers in France during
the Enlightenment
Inspired by Hobbes & Locke
Five concepts at the core of their beliefs:
Reason: truth can be discovered through reason and logic
Nature: what was natural was also good and reasonable
Happiness: reject the idea that life is preparation for the after
life, instead life is about well-being on Earth
Progress: society and humanity can improve
Liberty: call for the freedoms in the English Bill of Rights for
everyone.
THE PHILOSOPHES ADVOCATE REASON
Franois Marie Arouet -
Voltaire
Wrote 70+ Enlightenment-
based books & essays
Argued for tolerance, reason,
freedom of religion, & freedom
of speech
I do not agree with a word
you say, but will defend to the
death your right to say it...
THE PHILOSOPHES ADVOCATE REASON
Baron de Montesquieu
On the Spirit of the Laws - 1748
Argued for the separation of
government powers:
Legislative: writes and enacts laws, declares
war, & taxes
Executive: implements & enforces laws
Judicial: interprets laws

Checks and balances - measures


to prevent the one branch of
government from dominating
THE PHILOSOPHES ADVOCATE REASON
Jean Jacques Rousseau:
The Social Contract - 1762
Humans are born free; society
corrupts them
EVERYONE is equal
Good government is freely formed by
the will of the people (determined
through voting)
Social contract: agreement between
individuals, NOT the government - to
lead government
THE PHILOSOPHES ADVOCATE REASON
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria:
Laws should be written to preserve
order not punish crimes
Criticized abuses of justice:
Torturing of suspects
Irregular proceedings
Cruel punishments
Argued against the death sentence -
inhumane
WOMEN AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Enlightenment only focused on the liberties
and rights of men
Women were second class citizens
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Right of Woman - 1792
Argued that women deserve an education
too
Women are virtuous, useful, & equal to men
Women should enter the fields of medicine
& politics
LEGACY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
The Enlightenment challenged
monarchies, the union of church and
state, & social classes
Produced three long-term effects:
Belief in progress: advancement
of people & society
Secular outlook: science before
religion; religious tolerance
Importance of individuals:
people before the church & state