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LTE Introduction

01 December 2014
What is LTE (Long Term Evolution)?
New standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and
terminals. Commonly marketed as 4G LTE.

Reduced latency of 10-20 ms round trip time over radio (subjected to


implementation conditions)

900 MHz band in Indonesia, technology neutrality

Next level after 3G/UMTS/HSPA Technology

Strictly IP based, pure data network without any circuit-switched technology


Redesign & simplification of Network Architecture to an all IP based system with
reduced latency.

First commercially launched in Dec 2009 by Telia Sonera


Downlink rate of up to 150 Mbps (assuming we are run 20 MHz Bandwidth). Uplink
data rate of up to 75 Mbps.
Most widely used FDD Bands in World Wide LTE Networks

Only 5 networks has launched LTE using 900 MHz as a single-band or multi-band
deployment
( Vodafone Czech Rep, KT South Korea, Tele2 Sweden, TeleNor Sweden,
ChungHwa Taiwan )
Source : GSA, 14 August 2014
LTE-FDD Devices

Source : GSA, 14 August 2014


World-wide LTE900 devices based on Device Type

335 LTE900 devices (as of 14 Aug 2014)


# of smartphones increased by 50% since 2014. Source : GSA, 14 August 2014
LTE RADIO BASICS

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LTE Radio Technologies

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing)
For Downlink
SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access)
For Uplink
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
Increase capacity

The use of OFDM and SC-FDMA helps to reduce power consumption, resulting in higher RD power
amplifier efficiency (less battery power used by handset devices)
Downlink - FDM versus OFDM

3G: In units of 5 MHz


LTE: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
Downlink OFDM

Reduce ISI effect by


multipath

Guard against frequency


selective fading

Improved spectral
efficiency

ISI : Inter-symbol interference


Uplink - SC-FDMA

Advantage of SC-FDMA is low PAPR (Peak to Average Power


Ratio) increasing battery life
LTE versus LTE-Advanced
Technology LTE (assuming 20 MHz bandwidth) LTE-Advanced

Peak data rate Down link (DL) 150 Mbps 1 Gbps

Peak data rate Up link (UL) 75 Mbps 500 Mbps

Transmission Bandwidth (DL) 20 MHz 100 MHz

Transmission Bandwidth (UL) 20 MHz 40 MHz (requirements as defined by


ITU)
Mobility Optimized for low speeds (< 15 Same as that in LTE
km/hr)
High performance at speeds up to
120 km/hr
Maintain links at speeds up to 350
km/hr
Coverage Full performance up to 5 km a) Same as LTE requirement
b) Should be optimized or
deployment in local
areas/micro cell environments

Scalable Bandwidths 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 & 20 MHz Up to 20 100 MHz

Capacity 200 active users per cell in 5 MHz 3 times higher than that in LTE
Multi-Antenna Transmission Techniques

SDMA = space division multiple access


MIMO = multiple-input / multiple-output
MIMO in Cellular Systems
MIMO in Cellular Systems

Trade off between Throughput versus Coverage


- Large path loss & high interference at cell edge Beamforming
- Low path loss & low interference at cell center spatial multiplexing
Cell peak throughput for Different Bandwidths

Note :
a) There is dependencies on antenna capabilities at base station site & mobile device
b) Watch out for in-building performance where only SISO is available.
LTE User Equipment (UE) Capability

User equipment Maximum L1 Maximum number Maximum L1


3GPP release
category datarate downlink of DL MIMO layers datarate uplink
Release 8 Category 1 10.3 Mbit/s 1 5.2 Mbit/s
Release 8 Category 2 51.0 Mbit/s 2 25.5 Mbit/s
Release 8 Category 3 102.0 Mbit/s 2 51.0 Mbit/s
Release 8 Category 4 150.8 Mbit/s 2 51.0 Mbit/s
Release 8 Category 5 299.6 Mbit/s 4 75.4 Mbit/s
Release 10 Category 6 301.5 Mbit/s 2 or 4 51.0 Mbit/s
Release 10 Category 7 301.5 Mbit/s 2 or 4 102.0 Mbit/s
Release 10 Category 8 2,998.6 Mbit/s 8 1,497.8 Mbit/s
Release 11 Category 9 452.2 Mbit/s 2 or 4 51.0 Mbit/s
Release 11 Category 10 452.2 Mbit/s 2 or 4 102.0 Mbit/s
LTE EPC
(Evolved Packet Core)

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3GPP Architecture

Radio Network Core Network


PSTN
A
Network
CS
Abis

2G BTS BSC MSC/MSS MSC/MSS


HLR PSTN
Gb IuCs DSP MAPGW

SS7 ITP/STP
OCS
UE IuB

3G SMSC
USSDGW
SCP

IN
NodeB RNC DT

MKIOS
IuPs

S1-MME
Gn
PS PCR
UE F Prov Billing
4G
Gx

MME SGSN GGSN


eNodeB S11 S6a Gi
HSS P
S1-U CEF INTERNET

WIFI
SGW PGW
WIFI AGG Gate
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Network Evolution

3GPP Rel 99 3GPP Rel 7 3GPP Rel 8 onwards


(2000) (2007) (2009/2010)
GGSN : gateway GPRS service node
PDN PDN PDN MME: 4G SGSN
MS : handset
NodeB: base station
PDN : packet data network
P+S-GW: 4G GGSN
GGSN GGSN P+S-GW RNC : radio nework controller
SGSN : serving GPRS service node
User
SGSN plane SGSN MME
traffic
through
RNC RNC
all nodes
User User
NodeB NodeB plane
eNodeB plane
essentially directly
outside between
MS MS SGSN MS RAN and
GW1

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In EPC/LTE Architecture

All RNC functions are moved to the NodeB


SGSN Control Plan functions to the MME
GGSN functions to the SAE GW (P-GW, S-GW)

The PDN can be the Internet, a corporate network or a dedicated


service network.

The EPS backbone (EPC) interconnects the following hosts:


- MME (mobile management entity)
- HSS (home subscriber server)
- PCRF (policy and charging rules function)
- Serving gateway (SGW)
- Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW)

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EPC Architecture for 3GPP Networks

IP Networks
HLR / HSS S6a
SGi
S4 Rx
Gr PDN GW Gx
PCRF
S5
S3 S11
SGSN MME Serving GW

Iu CP
Gb S1- S1-U
S1-MME
BSC RNC Iu UP
IuR eNodeB X2
BTS NodeB

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LTE Network Elements

Evolved Node B (eNodeB)


Support LTE air interface
Provides radio resource management functions

Serving Gateway (SGW)


Provides mobility
Responsible for Routing and Forwarding

Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN GW)


Provides connectivity to Internet
Provides QoS and Mobility Between 3G and non 3G networks

Mobility Management Entity (MME)


Manages user equipment mobility, identity and provides security
Operates in control plane and provides authentication
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Operator Requirements and Benefits

Dramatic uptake in broadband data


Migration to LTE:
From existing WCDMA/GSM networks
From existing CDMA networks
High interest in service convergence
Fixed and wireless
Broadband triple play with mobility
WLAN access integration
Increased expectation for value-add services
DPI, policy, charging (subscriber management)
Focus on total cost of ownership
Network simplification, shared resources

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Benefits of EPS

Reduces TCO
Reduction in number of core network nodes
Converged wireless & wireline service delivery & operations
Common services across a multitude of access networks, from
GSM/WCDMA to LTE and 3GPP2 (CDMA)

Enhances experience
Higher definition graphics, faster movement
More life-like experience
Faster response

Increases revenue
Meets user demands for new services & multi-play capabilities
High peak rates
Efficiency enables competitive pricing

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Driving Forces for LTE/EPC

Efficiency
Fewer payload carrying nodes between subscriber & service
Shorter latency (service access response, mobility)
Lowering costs
Lower cost per transmitted bit
Improving services
High throughput to enable advanced services
Common user service provision for all of access technologies
Making use of new / re-farmed spectrum
More efficient radio utilization (new modulation concept,
increased spectrum flexibility
Better integration with other open standards
Efficient mobility between 3GPP & non-3GPP using the same user
service provision (GSM, WCDMA, LTE, CDMA2000, WLAN)

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Whats Next?

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Whats Telkomsel Plan Moving Forward

Roll out LTE with an initial small pilot launch in part of Jakarta and Bali by
1Q2015.

Design blue print (including network dimensioning, architecture design for


LTE implementation in top mobile broadband cities

Re-farming of existing frequencies while lobbying for more frequencies


resources from the regulatory/government.
Explore Channel Aggregation
OVERALL LTE STRATEGY

WIFI Offload
Consistent Reliable Leverage Wi-Fi for congested
Network spots
#1 Consistent Throughput of EAP-SIM for seamless login
1.5~5Mbps 80% Premium
of the time Network Enhanced
Network CE Mobile
Coverage
Best in Quality App ??
#2 Widest Coverage, & Availability, (TBC)
Focus on ID coverage
#3 Capacity
#4 Lowest Drop-Call

Revenue Optimize/
Growth Transform
Postpaid Costs
Cost Optimization
Costs per Mbps: 4G
Roaming < 3G < 2G
Prepaid
OVERALL MOBILE NETWORK STRATEGY

Telkomsel Desired Service


Core
Carriage

#2: #4:
#1: #3:
- Widest Coverage & - Integrity of call
- Consistency of - Capacity - Lowest
Availability beyond - Lowest Drop call
1.5-5Mbps DL Congestion
regulator requirement - Network wide <
throughput 80% - Call Attempt Success
- Focus on indoor 0.8%
of the time Rate > 98%
- Top x buildings (
- User able to
public /
send/receive 98% of
commercials,
the time.
malls, Gapari)
- 99.4% Availability
Areas of Innovation
TCP Optimization
Improve fast recovery to fast throughput under intermittent bad radio
conditions

Video Optimization PoC


Possibility of connecting to Video Optimizer platform
Reduce pixilation and frozen screen during live video streaming.

Roaming
Initial target launch for at least roaming destination
Proposed 1 overseas operator per month.

EAP-SIM Authentication with WiFi-Offload


Available only for Telkomsel LTE subscriber.
Selective areas as not revenue generating

CS (Circuit Switched Fall back)


Equipped with MTRR (mobile terminating roaming retry)
Selective fall back to either 3G or 2G based on measurement reports
Improve voice setup success rate
Fast return to 4G LTE upon completion of voice call
Circuit Switched FallBack

2G
Fixed / Foreign
Network

DUAL
3G ACCESS

CSFB

4G Signaling
Voice call
1xMME 1x S-/P-GW
C S Fallback MTRR
Interesting URL

SingTel ClearVoice
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=myDveymu5TA

SingTel 300 Mbps


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HewfvCNT0c