Leadership

Beginning of any revolution

Leadership 
Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of some common objectives  Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm. And doing it willingly 

Some cultures, especially those with a
reverence for age and wisdom, see leadership as a standard part of the life-cycle of a person

The noun leadership has 4 meanings: 
Meaning #1: the activity of leading Synonym: leading  Meaning #2: the body of people who lead a group Synonym: leaders  Meaning #3: the status of a leader  Meaning #4: the ability to lead

Theories of leadership: 
James MacGregor Burns
James MacGregor Burns (1978) wrote that a study of the definition of the word leadership revealed 130 definitions. However, several generally-accepted variations on the definition appear in the management and leadership literature Burns concluded by presenting five characteristics of leadership, namely: o o o o o Collective Dissension Causative Morally purposeful Transforming leadership is elevating 

Ronald Heifetz
Ronald Heifetz (Heifetz 1994) described the difference between a descriptive view and a prescriptive view of leadership. A descriptive view describes leadership and how it occurs, and a prescriptive view suggests how it should occur. The notion of "adaptive work" forms a central concept of Heifetz¶s prescriptive view. Heifetz pointed out that people fail to adapt to new and unsettling situations through six avoidance mechanisms:

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

1. blaming others 2. finding scapegoats 3. externalizing the enemy 4. denying that a problem exists 5. jumping to conclusions

‡ 6. finding a distracting issue 

George Terry
o George Terry (Terry, G. 1960) has defined leadership as: "the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives". o If we define leadership simply as "influencing others to some purpose" and we define followership as "becoming influenced by others to accept (willingly or un willingly) some purpose", then leadership and followership emerge as two sides of the same coin.

Qualities of leadership: 
Focus-committment  Serve others first  Dedication  Optimism  Understanding others problem  Vision

The approach of listing leadership qualities, often termed "trait theory´

Categories or Types of Leadership: 
Actual - giving guidance or direction, as in the phrase "the emperor has provided satisfactory leadership"  Potential - the capacity or ability to lead, as in the phrase ³"she could have exercised effective leadership´"; or in the concept ³"born to lead´ Leadership can have:  Formal aspect - as in most political or business leadership  Informal aspect ± as in most friendships

Several types of entities may provide or exhibit leadership: 
A person in the position or office of authority, such as a President  A person in a position or office associated with expertise, skill, or experience, such as a team leader, a ship's captain, a chief engineer, or a parent  A group of respected people, (called a "reference group" by sociologists) such as business commentators or union spokespersons  A product that influences other product offerings in a competitive marketplace

What makes effective leadership? 
Moulding a group of people into team  Leaders know to make people function on a collaborative way & motivate them to excel in their performance  The simplest way to measure the effectiveness of leadership involves evaluating the size of the following that the leader can muster.  Leaders know how to balance members quest with goal of producing synergy

Leadership ³Styles´ 
Vision.  Passion and self-sacrifice.  Confidence, determination, and persistence.  Image-building  Role-modeling  Selective motive  Inspirational communication

Leaders 
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
(October 2, 1869 ±to January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement 

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
(born July 18, 1918) was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections 

Indira Nehru Gandhi
was born on November 19, 1917 and would be the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru. Being influenced and inspired by her parents, Indira Gandhi rose to power in India and eventually became prime minister 

Rahul Sharad Dravid
(born 11 January 1973 in Indore, Madhya Pradesh) is an Indian cricketer, and the current captain of the Indian cricket team. 

Adolf Hitler
(April 20, 1889 to±April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933, and Leader of Germany from 1934, until his death. He was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, better known as the Nazi Party. 

Dhirubhai Ambani
(December 28, 1932 to July 6, 2002) was an Indian business tycoon and founder of Reliance Industries Limited 

Three most common ways leaders help people succeed includes: o The challenge: o Build confidence: 1. Recognize good and improved performance 2. Empower people 3. Build people¶s knowledge & skills o Coaching: 1. Showing trainees what¶s good performance 2. Giving feedback : be timely, be specific, be

Leadership - helping people to succeed

Leadership by group: 
More than one person provides direction to the group as a whole.  Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs, or downsizing  In some situations, the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive - either by draining the resources of the group as a whole, or by impeding the creativity within the team, even unintentionally  A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams

Co-leadership 
As a compromise between individual leadership and an open group, leadership structures of two or three people or entities occur commonly  Ancient Rome preferred two consuls to a single king, and the Roman Empire grew to accommodate two Emperors - those of the East and of the West ± simultaneously  The Middle Ages saw leadership divided between the secular and spiritual realms between Emperor and Pope

Divided leadership 
Whereas sometimes one can readily and definitively identify the locus of leadership, in other circumstances the situation remains obscured  Pre-modern Japan offers a classical example: the emperors provided symbolic and religious leadership, but the shoguns embodied virtually all political and administrative leadership

Scope of leadership: 
One can govern oneself, or one can govern the whole earth  In between, we may find leaders who operate primarily within: families, bands, tribes, states and nations, empires  Intertwined with such categories, and overlapping them, we find religious leaders, work-place leaders and leaders of voluntary associations.

Summary: 
What is leadership?  Theories of leadership by o James MacGregor Burns o Ronald Heifetz o George Terry  Qualities of leadership  Categories or types of leadership  Several types of entities may provide or exhibit leadership 

What makes effective leadership?  Leadership styles  Some of the leaders: o Mahatma Gandhi o Nelson Mandela o Indira Gandhi o Rahul Dravid o Adolf Hitler o Dhirubhai Ambani 

Leadership by group  Co-leadership  Divided leadership  Scope of leadership

References: 
www.wikipedia.com  www.webopedia.com  www.nwlink.com  www.answers.com  www.google.com  www.kings.edu

Presented by: 
Christopher Uzhuthuval(Roll no: 371)  Kedarnath vaishampayan (Roll no: 372)  Chaitrali Vengurlekar (Roll no: 375)  Kashyap Vasani (Roll no: 374) Thanks to teachers who allowed us to perform this presentation & also thanks to students

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