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DESIGNING

RELATIONAL
DATABASES
VIEW MODELING
Identify the entities
Construct a data model showing entity
associations
Add primary keys and attributes to the
model
Normalize the data model and add foreign
keys

Construct the physical database


Prepare the user views
Identify the entities
ENTITY
Anything for which one wishes to capture, store
and process data

Two or more occurrences

Contributes at least one attribute not


provided for by other entities
ROOM SUBJECT
Construct a data model
showing entity associations
ASSOCIATION
Relationship among two or more entities
Often through an ER Diagram
One to one (1:1)

One to many (1:M)

Many to many (M:M)


ROOM SUBJECT
Add primary keys and
attributes to the model
PRIMARY KEY
Logically defines nonkey attributes and uniquely
identifies each occurrence in an entity
ATTRIBUTE
Characteristics, properties or elements that
define an entity
OCCURRENCE
A record in an entity
ROOM SUBJECT
Room Number Subject Code
Capacity Subject Title
Type Units
Normalize the data model
and add foreign keys
FOREIGN KEY
Primary key of an entity embedded in another
entity to serve as a cross-reference or a link
ROOM SUBJECT
Room Number* Subject Code*
Capacity Subject Title
Type Units
Subject Code** Room Number**
ROOM CAPACITY TYPE SUBJECT
NUMBER CODE
1 40 Airconditioned IT-AC41

2 40 Non- IT-AC41
airconditioned

3 50 Airconditioned SOCOR11

4 45 Non- IT-AC41
airconditioned

4 45 Non- SOCOR11
airconditioned
ROOM SUBJECT
Room Number* Subject Code*
Capacity Subject Title
Type Units

SCHEDULE
Schedule No.*
Subject Code**
Room Number**
Day
Time
Construct the physical
database
Creating the actual tables and filling them out
with data

Prepare the user views


USER VIEW
Combinations of data in a database that a user
can see
R O O M
ROOM CAPACITY TYPE
NUMBER
1 40 Airconditioned

2 40 Non-airconditioned

3 50 Airconditioned

4 45 Non-airconditioned

5 30 Airconditioned
SUBJECT
SUBJECT SUBJECT UNITS
CODE TITLE
IT-AC41 Auditing in a CIS 3
Environment

SOCOR11 Social Orientation 1.5


1
SCHEDULE
SCHED. SUBJ. ROOM DAY TIME
NO. CODE NO.
1 SOCOR11 1 M 7:00-8:30

2 SOCOR11 1 T 11:30-1:00

3 SOCOR11 2 W 1:00-2:30

4 IT-AC41 2 SAT 9:00-12:00

5 IT-AC41 3 SAT 1:00-4:00

6 IT-AC41 4 SUN 4:00-7:00


STUDENT VIEW
SUBJ. ROOM DAY TIME UNITS
CODE NO.

SOCOR11 1 T 11:30-1:00 1.5

IT-AC41 3 SAT 1:00-4:00 3


EMBEDDED
A U D I T
M O D U L E
Specially programmed modules embedded in a
host application that select and record
predetermined types of transactions for subsequent
analysis
A D VA N TA G E S
Reduces the auditors
workload in selecting
samples for testing

Aids management in its


monitoring activities
DISADVANTAGES
Decreased operational
efficiency
Questionable module
integrity

Higher overhead costs


THANK YOU