Introduction to Ethernet

Switches
ontents
Ethernet/802.3
CSMA/CD
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
,er 2 Ethernet Switches
ridge vs. Layer 2 Switch
,er 3 Ethernet Switches (Routing Switches)
#4:ter vs. Layer 3 Switch
Router Acceler,tor or Router Booster
Pr4d:ct P4siti4ning
802.3 SMA/
,rrier Sense Multiple Access with ollision etection]
802.3 St,nd,rd Evolution
802.3 Reference Model
%pic,l Node H,rdw,re
Ethernet SMA/
Ethernet SMA/ with
ollision
!,cket Form,ts
· 802.3 !,cket Form,t
1010..1010 10101011
· Ethernet !,cket Form,t
1010..1010 11
Pre Pre- -
ambIe ambIe
62 Bits 62 Bits
Syn Syn
2 Bits 2 Bits
Type Type
FieId FieId
2 Bytes 2 Bytes
estin,tion Address Fields
I/G U/L
Organizati4nally Uniq:e IdentiIier
Assigned by IEEE
Vend4r Assigned
24 bits 24 bits
0 ÷ Individu,l Address
1 ÷ Group Address
0 ÷ Glob,ll Administered Address
1 ÷ oc,ll Administered
F,st Ethernet (802.3u)
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 12
802.3u Function,l Overview
Gig,bit Ethernet (802.3z)
802.3z MA ontrol
,rrier Extension
Extend ,rrier to 512Bte
Achieve ,ccept,ble perform,nce
Extension is non-d,t, smbols
DA SA Type/LEN DATA FCS Preamble Extension SFD
64 Bytes Min Frame
512 Bytes Min
Duration of Carrier Event
Fr,me Bursting
Extend first fr,me if necess,r
%r,nsmit ,nother fr,me if burst timer not expired
Inter p,cket g,p is s,me smbols ,s extension
Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3 Extension ÌPG
Frame 1 ÌPG Frame 2
512 ytes
8192 (8K) ytes
802.3z Full uplex
SMA/ !,r,meters
ontents
Ethernet/802.3
CSMA/CD
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
,er 2 Ethernet Switches
ridge vs. Layer 2 Switch
,er 3 Ethernet Switches (Routing Switches)
#4:ter vs. Layer 3 Switch
Router Acceler,tor or Router Booster
Pr4d:ct P4siti4ning
An Ex,mple Network

st Qtr 2nd Qtr
0 20
40 60 80
st Qtr 2nd Qtr st Qtr 2nd Qtr
0 20
40 60 80
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
0
20 40
60 80
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
0
20 40
60 80
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
0 20
40 60 80
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
0
20 40
60 80
st Qtr 2nd Qtr
#4:ter
#4:ter
#4:ter
T࠾
ridge ridge
ɐT࠾
ɐT࠾
ridge
ridge ɐT࠾
ɐT࠾
ɐT࠾
Bridges - ,er 2
Extends , AN b rel,ing fr,mes
Forw,rd fr,mes b,sed on ,er 2 ,ddress
High throughput ,nd low l,tenc
ow per port cost
%r,nsp,rent
Oper,te ,ccording to IEEE 802. 1 st,nd,rd
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 22
Bridge Functions (1)
e,rning
#ec4rds addresses appearing in SA Iields in the address table (Filtering
Database) with the ass4ciated p4rt
Filtering
II DA exists and the same as inc4ming p4rt, then discarding the l4cal Irame
Forw,rding
II DA exists and n4t the same as inc4ming p4rt, then I4rwarding the Irame
Flooding
II DA d4es n4t exist, I4rward t4 all p4rts except the inc4ming p4rt
Aging
Time 4:t address entries peri4dically
Sp,nning %ree (!rotocol)
L44p res4l:ti4n
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 23
Bridge Functions (2)
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 24
Multi-!ort Bridge
!&
Multi-!ort Bridge
C4llisi4n
D4main
C4llisi4n
D4main
Packet Mem4ry
· One segment per port
· !,cket forw,rding vi, !&
· Onl one p,cket to be processed
in one time
· %he bridge perform,nce relies
on the computing power of !&
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 25
Ethernet Switch
irespeed Bridge]
Ethernet Switch
Switch Fabric
· One st,tion per port
· !,cket forw,rding vi, H/
· H,ndle multiple p,ckets
in one time
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 26
ontents
Ethernet/802.3
CSMA/CD
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
,er 2 Ethernet Switches
ridge vs. Layer 2 Switch
,er 3 Ethernet Switches (Routing Switches)
#4:ter vs. Layer 3 Switch
Router Acceler,tor or Router Booster
Pr4d:ct P4siti4ning
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 27
I! Routing
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 28
%r,dition,l Router
MAC MAC
:s
DMA
TransIer
Memor
- Packet :IIer
- #4:ting Tables
Route !rocessor
- Address L44k:p
- #4:ting Pr4t4c4ls
MAC MAC
#4:ted Packets
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 29
AN Switching
Old !,r,digm]
AN orkgroup computing (807 |oca|, 207 |nter-
subnet traff|c)
L4cal Iileservers, printers, etc
Requirements:
High speed layer- 2 switches
#4:ters t4 pr4vide br4adcast c4ntainment, inter- w4rk
gr4:p c4mm:nicati4n, sec:rity
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 30
AN Switching
New !,r,digm]
Glob,l computing (807 |nter-subnet, 207 |oca| traff|c)
ontent rich ,pplic,tions incre,se congestion
Requirements:
High perI4rmance thr4:gh4:t netw4rk
#4:ting c4ntr4ls where services are accessed
PerI4rmance 4I Layer 2 switches
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 31
H,rdw,re-B,sed Router
Switching Fabric
L2
Table
L3
Table
F,st !,th
Route !rocessor
- #4:ting Pr4t4c4ls
Memor
- #4:ting Tables
Slow !,th
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 32
Routing Switch
irespeed H,rdw,re B,sed Router]
The performance of Layer 2 switching
The inteIIigence of Layer 3 routing
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 33
Multi-,er Switching
1 2 3 4 5 6
I! Router
, b c
,er 2 switching
,er 3 (I!) switching
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 34
Applic,tions
--24 ports 0|00Hb 24 ports 0|00Hb
Rout|ng 8w|tch Rout|ng 8w|tch
3e(ve( Fa(r 3e(ve( Fa(r
L2 3W|lcr
Accourl|rd Accourl|rd
0epa(lrerl 0epa(lrerl
Varulaclu(|rd Varulaclu(|rd
0epa(lrerl 0epa(lrerl
Adr|r|sl(al|or Adr|r|sl(al|or
0epa(lrerl 0epa(lrerl
Varadererl Varadererl
Corso|e Corso|e
8ma|| to H|d 8ma|| to H|d--s|zed ßus|ness s|zed ßus|ness
L2 3W|lcr
L2 3W|lcr
L2 3W|lcr
L2 3W|lcr
L2 3W|lcr
Software
Engineering
Hardware
Engineering
Quality
Control
Sales /
Marketing
Subnet 1
Subnet 2
Subnet 3
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 35
Routing Switch Evolution
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 36
I!v4 He,der Form,t
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 37
Sending I! !,ckets
Router Router
Intr,-Subnet ommunic,tion
%est under M,sk %est under M,sk is 'tr:e¨.
Next h4p`s address is exactly the
destinati4n MAC address.
Inter-Subnet ommunic,tion
%est under M,sk %est under M,sk is 'Ialse¨.
Next h4p`s address is the r4:ter`s
MAC address.
H4st1
H4st2
Inter-Subnet
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 38
Switching ecisions (1)
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 39
Switching ecisions (2)
Does the Destination MAC
Address == Switch's
MAC Address?
Layer-2 switching using
Destination MAC Address
No
Yes
Does the Destination IP
Address == Switch's
IP Address?
ncoming
Packet
Forward P datagram to CPU
as Management Frame
Yes
No
Layer-3 forwarding or
routing of packet
Search for
Destination
Address in
switching database
as Destination IP
Address found in
database?
rite MAC
address of Next
Hop to Destination
MAC Address
Update Source
MAC address
Decrement "Time
to Live", and
recalculate ÌP
Header Checksum
Use uP ÌP Protocol
software for route
resolution
No
as Destination Address
Resolved?
Yes
Yes
Layer-3 forwarding to
Next Hop Address
Layer-3 forwarding to
DefauIt Routing Address
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 40
ontents
Ethernet/802.3
CSMA/CD
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
,er 2 Ethernet Switches
ridge vs. Layer 2 Switch
,er 3 Ethernet Switches (Routing Switches)
#4:ter vs. Layer 3 Switch
Router Acceler,tor or Router Booster
Pr4d:ct P4siti4ning
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 41
Switching %erminolog
AN Switch
Routing Switch
Layer 2 device I4r segmentati4n
and Iast I4rwarding
Layer 3 Switch that /408 c4ntain
#4:te Server and T4p4l4gy Pr4t4c4ls
Router Acceler,tor
-Layer 3 (IP) I4rwarding devices
-D4es 349 necessarily c4ntain
#4:te Server and T4p4l4gy Database
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 42
Router Front-End !rocessor
#4:ter
Router
Acceler,tor
#4:ter
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 43
Adv,nt,ges
No Infr,structure Imp,ct
Reduced !rice
Incre,sed !erform,nce
M,ximum Sc,l,bilit
Implement,tion ost
N4 new pr4t4c4ls
1/10th 4I r4:ter price
($500 vs. 5.000/100M port)
10~20x 44st
#4:ting pr4t4c4ls - n4t Spanning
Tree
A little higher than LAN switch
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 44
e,rning/Forw,rding in
Router Acceler,tor
Router
Acceler,tor
#4:ter
Aetwork Ports Aetwork Ports
Router Ports Router Ports
0,733: packets Ir4m r4:ter p4rts
F47,7/3: packets Ir4m netw4rk p4rts
and r4:ter p4rts
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 45
An Ex,mple of Inter-Subnet
ommunic,tion
Router
Acceler,tor
Aetwork Aetwork
Ports Ports
Router Router
Ports Ports
FF
aa
aa
AA
??
##
FF
aa
aa
AA
??
##
1
2
3
4
A2
SA2
s4:rce Ethernet address (SA3)
s4:rce IP address (SI!)
destinati4n Ethernet address (A3)
destinati4n IP address (I!)
(A#P#eq)
aa
rr
aa
AA
rr
##
(A#P#es)
IP MAC
BB rr
HOST
ARP c,ch0
BB cc 3
IP MACs:b p4rt
#4:ter Accelerat4r
P c,ch0
port 4
port 3
rr
aa
AA

(IP Pkt)
cc
rr
AA

port 4
port 4
#4:ter
#4:ter
HOST
803/ , p,ck09
t4 destinati4n IP: BB
Test :nder Mask: Ialse
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 46
Route Once. Switch M,n
Router
Acceler,tor
#4:ter
Inter Inter- -Subnet tr,ffic: Switched r,ther th,n Routed Subnet tr,ffic: Switched r,ther th,n Routed
r4:ting
switching
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 47
Issues of n,mic Routing
Router
Acceler,tor
#4:ter
4 3 2 1
1 2 4
3
Router
Acceler,tor
#4:ter
4 3 2 1 null
1 2 3 4
O&%-BAN route refresh
IN-BAN route refresh
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 48
Routing Switch vs. Router Acceler,tor
Routing Switch
#4:te c4nstr:cti4n by #IP 4r
OSPF
L4ngest-match preIixes l44k:p
Layer 2 & 3 switching
Router Acceler,tor
#4:te c4nstr:cti4n by IP learning
Exact-match IP address l44k:p
Layer 3 switching
Additi4nal r4:ter`s p4rts (d4:ble
increase 4I the n:mber 4I p4rts)
H4st M4vement between s:bnets
Dynamic r4:te
IP m:lticast
VLAN management
Network %echnologies
Acute ommunic,tions orp.
Victor Y,o-%zung ,ng
ytw(ac:tec4mm.c4m.tw
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 50
ontents
F,st I! ookup Mech,nisms
L4ngest PreIix Match (LPM)
Direct L44k:p and Indirect L44k:p
Switch Architectures
Design C4nsiderati4ns
Switch Fabric
%r,ffic Scheduling Algorithms
eighted #4:nd-#4bin
eighted Fair Q:e:ing
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 51
Gener,l Model of , Routing
Switch
I!
I!
O!
O!
Input !ort
ontroller
Output !ort
ontroller
Packets
Packets
Packets
Packets
Switching F,bric
(IP-in,
P4rt-4:t, Next-h4p-MAC)
Standard interIaces
Pr4prietary internal architect:re
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 52
Routing in ,n Ethernet Switch
1. Next-h4p MAC s:bstit:ti4n
2. Transp4rt 4I packets Ir4m the inp:t t4 the appr4priate 4:tp:t
Switch Fabric
Inp:t
p4rt
Inc4ming O:tg4ing
I! !ort
Next-hop
MA
O:tp:t
p4rt
:IIers
Routing %,ble
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 53
%hree M,or Functions
I! ookups
Switching
Output Scheduling
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 54
!,cket/Flow l,ssifier
QoS-Re,d
Select p,ckets b,sed on the he,der
MF (M:lti-Field) ClassiIier
classiIy packets based 4n a c4mbinati4n 4I 4ne 4r m4re header
Iields (s4:rce/destinati4n address, pr4t4c4l, s4:rce/destinati4n p4rt)
ow - A sequence of p,ckets sent from ,
p,rticul,r source to , p,rticul,r destin,tion
forw,rded through p,rticul,r ports with ,
p,rticul,r QoS
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 55
I! Routing
ongest !refix M,tch (!M)
omposing of I! Route !refix
PreIix Address
General IP address
PreIix Mask (PreIix Length n)
C4ntin:4:s n-bit 1 Ir4m high t4 l4w (n ÷ |0, 32|, PreIix Length n)
IP #4:te PreIix ÷ PreIix Address & PreIix Mask
ongest !refix M,tch
PreIix Match means the c4ntin:4:s n-bit 4I destinati4n IP (DIP)
address are the same with the IP #4:te PreIix 4I length n.
L4ngest PreIix Match is t4 ch44se the item which has the l4ngest preIix
length 4I all matched r4:te preIixes in the r4:ting table.
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 56
An Ex,mple
DÌP
139.118.58.9
140.114.178.66
140.114.128.3
140.114.78.8
168.98.122.3
Route Lookup
Bit Map
10001011011101100011101000001001
10001100011100101011001001000010
10001100011100101000000000000011
10001100011100100100111000001000
10101000011000100111101000000011
140.114.35.1 10001100011100100010001100000001
Matching Entries' No.
0
2
9
2, 7
Null
2
Longest Match
139
140.114
140.114.128
140.114.78
NULL
140.114
Entry No.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Routing Table
Prefix Address Prefix Mask Length
139
11111111000000000000000000000000
8
140.116
11111111111111100000000000000000
15
140.114
11111111111111110000000000000000
16
140.115
11111111111111110000000000000000
16
140.118.168
11111111111111111100000000000000
18
168.98.177
11111111111111111111000000000000
20
140.114.36
11111111111111111111110000000000
22
140.114.78
11111111111111111111111100000000
24
140.117.168
11111111111111111111111100000000
24
140.114.128.0
11111111111111111111111111000000
26
140.117.188.98
11111111111111111111111111111111
32
ÌP Route Prefix
10001011000000000000000000000000
10001100011101000000000000000000
10001100011100100000000000000000
10001100011100110000000000000000
10001100011101101010100000000000
10101000011000101011000100000000
10001100011100100010010000000000
10001100011100100100111000000000
10001100011101011010100000000000
10001100011100101000000000000000
10001100011101011011110000000000
Port
6
9
1
8
8
10
3
2
16
4
18
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 57
192.168.1.x/25
192.168.1.x/24
A Re,l-orld onfigur,tion
3 2
1
Internet
DIP÷192.168.1.210
LPM
#4:ter
0.0.0.0
192.168.1.127
192.168.1.x
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.x
..
1
32 Me
24 3
32 Me
25 2
.. ..
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 58
Routing %,ble vs. ,er 3 %,ble
CPU
Link Ìnterfaces

Switching Fabric
Forwarding
Engine
ipaddr ipmask gateway iIn4 . . .
140.96.x.x 2 . . .
Routing %,ble Routing %,ble
MAC Address
(MSB)
Port_out
Static
Age
High-Priority
CPU
0 31 63 15
ÌP Address
MAC Address (LSB)
reserved
Block
,er3 %,ble ,er3 %,ble
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 59
I! Routing Engine
Header
Verification
TTL
Decrement
and
Checksum
Update
MAC
Address
Substitution
Route
Lookup
3
2

B
i
t
s

E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

D
a
t
a

B
u
s
3
2

B
i
t
s

Ì
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

D
a
t
a

B
u
s
ÌPS
BE
Bottleneck
of
Forwarding Engine
SBS
N
e
x
t

H
o
p
Speedup b ASI h,rdw,re
ASI I! Forw,rding Needs
Header VeriIicati4n
#4:te L44k:p (4ttleneck)
MAC Address S:bstit:ti4n
TTL Decrement and Checks:m
Update
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 60
Route ookup Engine
!rim,r Go,l
Speed:p and Scale the Operati4n
Mem4ry Accesses Times
Size 4I F4rwarding Table
ookup Mech,nisms
Fast IP L44k:p Mechanisms
Direct L44k:p
Indirect L44k:p
Indirect L44k:p with #ed:cing Next H4p Array
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 61
ifficult of I! ookups
An Illustr,tive Ex,mple
Address: 1011 0001 1000
0
1
0 1
1
1
0
1
0
1
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 62
irect ookup
ÌPv4 Address

Directly Spread
for
Exactly Matching
Next Hop Array (4 GB)
32 Bits
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 63
Indirect ookup
Segment Offset ÌPv4 Address
16 Bits 16 Bits

Segmentation Table
(64K Entries)

64 KB
Next Hop Array
Next Hop
Point to Next Hop Array
Segment
Offset Offset

64 KB
Next Hop Array
Offset

64 KB
Next Hop Array
Offset

64 KB
Next Hop Array
Offset

64 KB
Next Hop Array

Pointer/Next Hop
Format
32 Bits
Value < 256 ==> Next Hop (ithout NHA)
Value > 255 ==> Pointer
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 64
Indirect ookup with
Reducing Next Hop Arr,
Segment ÌPv4 Address
16 Bits

Segmentation Table
(64K Entries)

2
k
0
Bytes
Next Hop Array
Next Hop
Point to Next Hop Array
Segment
Offset(k
0
) Offset(k
1
)

2
k
1
Bytes
Next Hop Array
Offset(k
i
)

2
k
i
Bytes
Next Hop Array
Offset(k
i+2
)

2
k
i+2
Bytes
Next Hop Array
Offset(k
3
)

2
k
3
Bytes
Next Hop Array

Format
Pointer/Next Hop
4 Bits to indicate
Offset length - 1
28 Bits
Value < 256 ==> Next Hop (ithout NHA)
Value > 255 ==> Pointer
k Bits
Offset(k)
16-k Bits
Remainder Bits
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 65
ontents
F,st I! ookup Mech,nisms
L4ngest PreIix Match
Direct L44k:p and Indirect L44k:p
Switch Architectures
Design C4nsiderati4ns
Switch Fabric
%r,ffic Scheduling Algorithms
eighted #4:nd-#4bin
eighted Fair Q:e:ing
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 66
esign onsider,tions of
Ethernet Switch
8
Ethernet Switch Ethernet Switch
2 . . .
packet
.
.
.
1 2
1
N
. . .
1
N
.
.
.
Tw4 mai4r I:ncti4ns: packet r4:ting and 4:tp:t p4rt c4ntenti4n res4l:ti4n
:IIer placements: inp:t b:IIer, internal b:IIer, 4:tp:t b:IIer, 4r c4mbinati4ns
O:tp:t-q:e:ed (n4nbl4cking) switch pr4vides the best delay/thr4:ghp:t perI4rmance
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 67
Input vs. Output Queuing
Input Queue Output Queue
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2
1
1 1
2
1 1
2 2
2 1
2 1
2
2
1
1
1 1
2
2
Thr4:ghp:t 4I an inp:t-q:e:ed
switch is limited t4 58.6° d:e t4
0,/419h030 ( c4ntenti4n
The c4mplexity 4I an 4:tp:t-q:e:ed
switch is :s:ally higher I4r 343-4ck3
97,38107
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 68
!erform,nce of Input ,nd
Output Queuing
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 69
Ethernet Switching
e-multiplexing
Separates inc4ming packets based 4n destinati4n IP address
Routing
M4ves packets t4 4:tp:t p4rt
Multiplexing ,nd Scheduling
C4mbines traIIic streams at 4:tp:t p4rt, taking int4 acc4:nt Q4S
parameters
Buffering
Needed t4 abs4rb sh4rt b:rsts with4:t packet l4sses
isc,rding
Ch44ses packets t4 discard when b:IIers are exha:sted
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 70
Switch F,bric l,ssific,tion
8w|tch Fabr|c
t|me d|v|s|on space d|v|s|on
shared
memory
shared
med|a
s|ng|e path mu|t|-path
crossbar
fu||y
|nterconnected
banyan
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 71
Sh,red-Medi, Switch
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 72
Sh,red-Memor Switch
MUX
and
S/P
DMUX
and
P/S
RAM
. . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
O Seq:entially serve each inp:t and 4:tp:t p4rt
O Q:e:es are managed as a set 4I linked lists
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 73
Requirement of Memor
B,ndwidth
: n:mber 4I p4rts
': p4rt speed
Memor B,ndwidth÷AJ
Example: 32-line switch with line speeds 4I 150 Mbps
Mem4ry andwidth ~ 9.6 Gbps
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 74
Full Interconnected Switch
F,bric
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 75
%he Knockout Switch:
eh et a (1987)
0
1
-1
Input
R
...
0
R
...
-1
...
Filters
Kn4ck4:t
c4ncentrat4r
Output
hen # eq:als 8 and the inp:t l4ad is cl4se t4 100 percent (:nder :niI4rm traIIic),
the pr4bability 4I l4ss d:e t4 4:tp:t c4ntenti4n is bel4w 10E-6.
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 76
B,n,n Networks
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 77
ontention Resolution
M,n techniques for contention resolution
Inp:t b:IIering
O:tp:t b:IIering
Fabric b:IIering
Switch speed:p/replicati4n
No single technique works well in ,ll c,ses
Switches emploing 2 or more techniques do well
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 78
ontents
F,st I! ookup Mech,nisms
L4ngest PreIix match
Direct L44k:p and Indirect L44k:p
Switch Architectures
Design C4nsiderati4ns
Switch Fabric
%r,ffic Scheduling Algorithms
eighted #4:nd-#4bin
eighted Fair Q:e:ing
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 79
!,cket Scheduling in ,n
Ethernet Switch (1)
1
2
n
.
.
.
!roblem: when and in what 4rder t4 service b:IIered packets (q:e:es) t4 meet
Q4S g:arantees.
ifficulties:
M:ltiple c4nstraints (delay, bandwidth, iitter, l4ss rate)
C4mplexity 4I implementati4n
Netw4rk l4ad Il:ct:ati4ns
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 80
!,cket Scheduling in ,n
Ethernet Switch (2)
Tw4 c4nIlicting g4als:
Sh,ring: t4 increase :tilizati4n 4I netw4rk res4:rces
Isol,tion: t4 minimize eIIect 4I 4ne Il4w 4n the Q4S experienced by
an4ther
Sched:ling alg4rithms (service disciplines) m:st make trade4IIs between
sharing and is4lati4n.
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 81
Scheduling !olicies
Scheduling policies m, be either:
ork onserving - Link is 3ot all4wed t4 g4 idle :ntil all q:e:es
empty, even iI q:e:ed packets are n4t yet sched:led t4 be transmitted
FCFS (FIFO)
Strict Pri4rity Q:e:ing
Fair Q:e:ing
eighted #4:nd-#4bin Q:e:ing
eighted Fair Q:e:ing
Non-ork onserving - Link is all4wed t4 g4 idle iI q:e:ed
packets are n4t yet sched:led t4 be transmitted
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 82
FFS Queuing
All packets placed in the same q:e:e in Fist C4me
First Served 4rder
The single q:e:e is sched:led each time the physical
layer can accept a new packet
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 83
FFS Queuing Ex,mple
M:x
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 84
FFS Queuing: !ros ,nd ons
!ros
Extremely simple
L4w 4verhead
Maximizes sharing (n4 is4lati4n)
ons
All packets placed in the same q:e:e
G:aranteed, est-EII4rt, :rsty, etc.
ith4:t separati4n 4I est-EII4rt Il4ws, delays cann4t be
c4ntr4lled
Cann4t be :sed t4 g:arantee Q4S
:rsty Il4ws ca:se delay variati4n I4r all 4ther Il4ws
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 85
Strict !riorit Queuing
All packets classiIied as g:aranteed-Q4S 4r n4t
Each class given a diIIerent q:e:e
The classes/q:e:es are sched:led in pri4rity 4rder
II the highest pri4rity q:e:e has a packet, it g4es
II n4t, iI the sec4nd highest pri4rity has a packet, it g4es, etc.
ithin a class, all packets still sched:led in FCFS 4rder
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 86
Strict !riorit Queuing
Ex,mple

l
,
s
s
i
f
i
e
r
!
r
i
o
r
i
t
i
z
e
r
1
2
3
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 87
Strict !riorit Queuing:
!ros ,nd ons
!ros
Still very simple with l4w 4verhead
M:ltiple traIIic classes/q:alities 4I service is4lated Ir4m
each 4ther
ons
G:aranteed Il4ws with large b:rst sizes ca:se large delay
variati4ns I4r 4ther Il4ws in the same class
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 88
F,ir Queuing
Fair Q:e:ing was devel4ped t4 ens:re Iairness and
prevent b:rsty Il4ws Ir4m interIering with 4ther Il4ws.
Fair Q:e:ing sets :p 170, between each Il4w
Each Il4w is all4cated its 4wn dedicated q:e:e.
Each 4I the q:e:es are serviced 430 p,ck09 ,9 , 920.
Als4 called per-Il4w q:e:ing.
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 89
F,ir Queuing Ex,mple

l
,
s
s
i
f
i
e
r
S
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 90
F,ir Queuing: !ros ,nd ons
!ros
4:nded delays
:rsty Il4ws d4n`t ca:se delay variati4n in 4ther Il4ws
Excellent I4r giving Iair treatment t4 many best-eII4rt Il4ws
ons
#eq:ires per-Il4w q:e:es
High 4verhead and c4mplexity
Each Il4w is given the same am4:nt 4I bandwidth
Cann4t s:pp4rt many Il4ws with a large diIIerence in bandwidth
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 91
eighted Round-Robin Queuing
eighted #4:nd-#4bin was devel4ped t4 all4w Fair
Q:e:ing t4 be :sed with a large n:mber 4I Il4ws with
a wide variati4n in bandwidth.
Very similar t4 Fair Q:e:ing
Each Il4w is all4cated its 4wn dedicated q:e:e.
Each 4I the q:e:es are serviced 4ne-at-a-time, in
4rder, b:t when a q:e:e is serviced, it may send m4re
than 4ne packet.
Am4:nt is limited t4 a predetermined n:mber.
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 92
eighted Round-Robin
Queuing Ex,mple

l
,
s
s
i
f
i
e
r
S
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
1
5
20
100
2
65
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 93
eighted Round-Robin Queuing:
!ros ,nd ons
!ros
Fl4ws can be given c4ntr4lled am4:nts 4I bandwidth
4:nded delays
ons
Slightly higher 4verhead and c4mplexity than Fair Q:e:ing
Delay variati4n may be high
S:m 4I all weights 4I 4ther Il4w in w4rst case
Sends very b:rsty traIIic t4 d4wnstream switch
May degenerate maxim:m b:rstiness t4 d4wnstream
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 94
An Improved RR Scheduling
Algorithm
AA
FF
E

BB
#4:nd Cycle 1
Round cle 2
The adiacent visit t4 A are separated by either three 4r Iive 4ther visits.
hat is s4l:ti4n I4r a large n:mber 4I r4:nd cycles t4 have a smaller
inter-service delay iitter?
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 95
eighted F,ir Queuing
eighted Fair Q:e:ing was devel4ped t4 have all 4I
the advantages 4I eighted #4:nd-#4bin, b:t t4
eliminate the b:rstiness.
The q:e:es are sched:led 4:t-4I-4rder 4n precisely
their req:ired Ireq:ency.
hen a q:e:e is sched:led, it may send exactly 4ne
packet.
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 96
Sorted !riorit Mech,nism
Switch
Pri4rity
Assignment
Ordering and
Transmissi4n
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 97
eighted F,ir Queuing Ex,mple

l
,
s
s
i
f
i
e
r
S
c
h
e
d
u
l
e
r
Q:e:es alm4st empty
1
5
20
100
2
65
s4rted 4n pri4rity
Ac:te Intr4d:cti4n 98
eighted F,ir Queuing:
!ros ,nd ons
!ros
Extremely Iine c4ntr4l 4ver bandwidth
Can c4mpensate I4r delay and iitter acr4ss switch
ons
Very c4mplex
#eq:ires q:e:e s4rted 4n timestamp c4ntaining 4ne packet
Ir4m each q:e:e
Simple timestamp c4mp:tati4n alg4rithm can intr4d:ce
iitter

4390398 
907309

   
$

 907309.

89907309..

94747#4:907448907 !74/:..08 #4:93$9.9!489433 .07$9.8 .-9907309 .007.08 7/0.08 #4:907..07907309$9. #4:907. .8 .07$9.07907309$9.

  $.

.08894843090.943( . .7707$0380:950.

3/.7/.4:943 .  $9.

  #010703.04/0 .

70 ..7/.%5.4/0.

907309$.

 .

907309$.

9 4843 .

9         W 907309!.09472..09472.98 W   !..9 !70 !70 .2-0 $3 98 98      %50 0/ 908 .!..09472.

943//70880/8 -98 -98 .0893.

 &.

 7..3./:.943./2389070///7088 4.&36:0/039107 8830/- '03/478830/ 4-./2389070/ 3/.//7088 74:5//7088 .

89907309   : ..

  ::3. .07.:90 3974/:.943 .0 .943.

-9907309    ..

  43974 .

-05071472.0 9038438343 /.059.7707903843 903/..2-0 $  $ %50.0.77079490 .3.9.0...82-48 !70.

 % $ 903843 90837.94341.20 9083 :7.039 .7707.

7 %7.3490717.20 .20130.588.09.201-:78992073490570/ 39075.20:7893 903/178917.2082-48.3829..80903843 7.088.20 7.20 908   908 903843 7.7.20 ! ! 7.20 7.

  ::50 .

$.

!.209078 .7.

4390398 907309.

   $.

 907309.

.89907309.

08 #4:907.-9907309 .08 #4:93$9..8 .08 7/0.8 .007. ..94747#4:907448907 !74/:. #4:907.9!489433 .07907309$9.07$9.07907309$9.07$9.

2500947     89 "97 3/ "97     89 "97 3/ "97     89 "97 3/ "97 #4:907 T 7/0 T 7/0 T #4:907 .3.

  T T 7/0 #4:907 T       89 "97 3/ "97    89 "97 3/ "97    89 "97 3/ "97 .

903.7/ ..07 903/8. 45075479.7/08 .208-.317.489 %7.-70.208 47.90.80/43.07.3/4.//7088 974:5:9.7039 507.47/394  89.7/17.385..3/.

20.//70880397085074/.943 .550.547980. $5.7/3 10898.-0 9073 .:90 3974/:.7/94.20.20 44/3 1/408349089 147.3/908.3/349908...4235479 3 %204:9.//70889.90/5479 9073 10898.83..884..20 47.9438  0.7/3904.83.7/39017.80 990.733$10/8390.9.733 #0.7/0:3.4235479 903147.-.47/8.4 4457084:943 .17.//708808.333%700 !7494.4235479 903/8.059903.

7/0:3.:90 3974/:.943 .9438  .

09147.0880/ 3430920 W %0-7/05071472.:90 3974/:.3.3 .943 .090247 4843 42..07008 4390.425:93540741!& :9 !4797/0 !& !.0994-0574..!& W 34305.:9 !4797/0 W 308020395075479 W !.3 4843 42.7/3...

 708500/7/0( W 3089.09147.9435075479 W !.7/3....907309$9.

098 3430920 907309$9. $9..943 .:90 3974/:. W .-7.. .3/02:9505.

4390398 907309.

   $.

 907309.

,89907309

,-9907309 

,07907309$9.08 
7/0;8 ,07$9. 

,07907309$9.08 #4:93$9.08
#4:907;8 ,07$9.

#4:907..007,94747#4:907448907
!74/:.9!489433 
.:90 3974/:.943

!#4:93 

.:90 

3974/:.943

48  %7.-08 :8 #4:90/!.38107 0247 !.09:1107 #4:93%..%7.:90 3974/:..08847 //708844:5 #4:93!7494.098     ./943.#4:907 #4:90!74.943 .

  3907 8:-30997.08 #4:907894574.:79 .3  /!.07 89. #06:7020398 8500/.89..:90 3974/:.078 5739078 09.439..943 80.425:93  4..32039 3907 47 74:5.422:3.11./..10807. 4./0-74./2( 4774:5.943 .$9.7.

11.70..08 ./2( 4-.55..94383...70.97.0789.439748070807.0974:4:930947 #4:93. 4390397.3 0!.08.80.4308943 #06:7020398 5071472.3..:90 3974/:.3..041.943 ..$9.0880/ !071472.7.425:93  3907 8:-309  4.

7/.:90 3974/:.08847 #4:93!7494.48 0247 #4:93%. ..9  %.80/#4:907 #4:90!74.-7.-08 $4!.70 .9 $9.943 .-0  %.-0 .89!.3.

041.#4:93$9.80/#4:907( %05071472.:90 3974/:.3 %039003.70.3.041.943 .0789. 708500/.0774:93 .7/.

3 .       .07$9.3 .07 ! 89.:90 3974/:.3 !#4:907 . .:9 .943 .0789.

94/ 80/:83088 .9438 $2.792039  54798 .94/ $2.55.943 05..02039 43840 $9.3. /23897.

7/.70 330073 ":.  #4:93$9. $419. $9.9 43974 $.08.70 330073 .

 $9.:90 3974/:.792039 $:-309 $07.7093 $9. $:-309 .4:393 05.. .792039 $9.07. .3:1. $9.72 $:-309 ..943 .9:73 05.

943 .4:943 .#4:93$9..:90 3974/:.

943 .9 .0.!.:90 3974/:./07472.

. $:-309422:3.//708889074:907 8 ..:90 3974/:.80 0945 8.$03/3!!.//7088 ..//7088 3907 $:-309422:3.990 /0893.943.//708880.943 .8 8 97:0 0945 8.943 %089:3/07.098 3907 $:-309 489 #4:907 489 397.943 %089:3/07..8 8 1.

8438  .943 .30.:90 3974/:.$9.

-.09 $0.09 408900893.8.-.90! 0.//7088 0. 8 //7088 08 408900893.147 0893.7/347 74:93415.30.7.0 .8:2 08 .07 147.0 .943 //7088$9.7/394 0945//7088 .943 //7088 &5/.7/!/.943 .07 89.020397.90$4:7..80 08 4 &80:!!!7494.80893.7/394 01.4 8419.3/ 70./070.07 147.7014774:90 7084:943 790 .943//7088 .:9#4:93//7088 .$9.9.294!& .9..80 ..//70884109 45940893.943 //70883 89.9.8438  3.20 4 .943! //708814:3/3 /.0/ .423 !. 8 !//7088 4 08 47.3/.702039%20 94.07 147.7.943! //7088$9.3:83 0893.3.:..943//7088 #084.:90 3974/:.80893.

4390398 907309.

   $.

 907309.

.89907309.

8 .08 #4:907.-9907309 . .08 7/0.08 #4:93$9.94747#4:907448907 !74/:.07$9.007.:90 3974/:..943 .07$9.9!489433 ..07907309$9.07907309$9. #4:907.8 .

:90 3974/:. #4:907.439.439.7/3/0.80 .07$9.9/408 .7.3/%4544.3 #4:90$07.007.$9.07.07 ! 147.088.943 .9..3%072344 .3/1..08 408349 30.07.3/%4544!7494.947 #4:93$9.48 $9.89147.7/3 .943 .0147802039. .-.3 #4:90$07.07/0..9.

08847 #4:907 ..:90 3974/:.943 .947 #4:907 #4:907 .#4:9077439 3/!74.007.

08 4317...897:.0/!7.943489 #0/:.9 2502039.48 990079./.-9 43057494.39.70.3.389...9:7025.2:2$.80/!071472.0 3.0 . .

 94174:90757.0  .8  .

943 .48 349$5.333 %700 . 5479  = 4489 #4:9357494.:90 3974/:.

733.0.

.7/33 #4:907..947 #4:907!4798 #4:907 .7/35.098174274:90754798 47.47..:90 3974/:.943 .09817423094754798 .947 0.007..007.3/74:90754798 0947!4798 #4:907 .7335.

.007.250413907 $:-309 422:3..943907309.0 8:.//7088  /0893...943 94/0893..//7088 $ 84:7...    5479 .947 5479  .0!.5..943!...//7088 $! /0893.943 . .943! %089:3/07.. 77 5479 #4:907 #4:907.09 !  !  77 .3. !!9   ...80 0947 !4798  . 77 .0907309....//7088 ! #!*#08  $% #!.   ## 5479 #4:907 !4798 #4:907 .5479 .947 !.  77 ## #!*#06  $ 84:7.0  $% 803/.:90 3974/:..81..007.   ##  77     #4:907 .

947 #4:907 3907 3907 $:-30997.$9.0/7.943 ..007.3 74:93 #4:907 .#4:90 3.:90 3974/:.9079..0 $9.3 89.11.3#4:90/ .

947     #4:907 .007.943 .007.88:08413.#4:93  74:90701708      #4:907 ...947    #4:907 &% 74:90701708     3: #4:907 .:90 3974/:.2.

007.943-#!47 $! 43089 2.:90 3974/:.89 '2.943 .2.0789.//708844:5 .8 #4:907..!.947 #4:93$9.43897:..57010844:5 .3 //943.74:907 854798 /4:-0 3.943-!0..74:90 !2:9..3 #4:907..#4:93$9.947 #4:90.02039 .07 89.733 .3.02039-090038:-3098 3.9 2. #4:90.70.9.007.9.8041903:2-074154798 4894.43897:.

.9438475 '.:90.4 %:3..422 .0947%0.3 9.947.:90422:3.34408 .42 9 .

4390398 .0/:347928 090/#4:3/ #4-3 090/. ! 70.944:5 $9.944:5.9..:90 3974/:.9438 $9.11.89!44:50.3/3/70.7":0:3 .9:708 083438/07.90.. %7.-7.943 .3828 43089!701.$.7.

3.098 ! ! !.739073.. ! 3  !479 4:9 09 45  !...0307.#4:93 $9.4/041.08 !745709.7/39071.9:70 .943 .90. :95:9!479 4397407 $9.098 35:9!479 4397407 $9..098 !.:90 3974/:..3/.7.098 ! ! !..-7.

:90 3974/:. :11078 :95:9 5479 #4:93%.#4:933.943 .557457.904:95:9 .-7..3907309$9. 35:9 5479 $9..-0 3.423 ! :943 09 45 !479   09 458:-899:943  %7.385479415.09817429035:99490.

943 .9438 !44:58 $9.:90 3974/:.%700.3 :95:9$.47:3.0/:3 .

!.09..

098-.88107 "4$ #0../ $00..8815.88107 .0.943414304724700../07  :9 0/ .80/43900.80/43.098-.95.4.42-3./07 10/8 84:7..

//7088 57494.943.0./0893.4 84:7.

0415.79.094.:.79.:.:.943 147.7"4$ .943 .7/0/974:5. 5.:.7547989.9435479 4 806:03.5.79.:90 3974/:.7/0893.. 5./0893.79.09880391742.784:7.

:90 3974/:.2.!.0/74:9057010839074:939.9. ! 42548341!#4:90!701 !701//7088 0307.9.943 .943! !  .8 43089!701.3890.20990!#4:90!701410393  43089!701.8 !7010393 4393:4:83 -91742944 3 ( !7010393 !#4:90!701!701//7088 !701.9.890430895701 03941.9..4393:4:83 -941/0893.//7088 !701.!#4:93 43089!701. !701.894.-0 .//7088.70908.20.9.448090902.

:90 3974/:.250 3974           !701//7088                              #4:93%.943 .          &   .339708 4                                            :         43089.9.-0 !701.9.5 .8            039            !#4:90!701                                                             !479            !                         #4:9044:5 9.3.

 47/431:7.943 !    3907309                  0  0  #4:907  !     .#0.

     .

:90 3974/:.     .943 .

:90 3974/:. 70807.07%. 47.//75*2.943 .07%.8.9.#4:93%.-0 !& #4:93%.0/ $9.1*34          $9.7/3 330 .3.-0.8 ..-7.-0 5*.-0 339071.90.08  !//7088 !479*4:9  !7479 !& 4.   //7088 $ //7088 $ 0 .

!#4:93330
$500/:5-$,7/,70 $!47,7/300/8 
0,/07'071.,943 
989073,,9,:8 9839073,,9,:8 0,/07 '071.,943 499030. 41 47,7/3330 !$

#4:9044:5 499030. //7088$:-899:943 %%0.702039,3/0.8:2 &5/,90

#4:90 44:5 

%% 0.702039 ,3/ 0.8:2 &5/,90 $$  //7088 $:-899:943 0945 

.:90 

3974/:.943

#4:9044:5330
!72,74,
$500/:5,3/$.,090 507,943 
0247..08808 %208  $04147,7/3%,-0 

44:50.,3828 
,89!44:50.,3828 
70.944:5  3/70.944:5  3/70.944:59#0/:.3094577, 

.:90 

3974/:.943

11.:941!44:58 
3:897,9;0,250 
//7088         

.:90 

3974/:.943

:90 3974/:.943 ./ 147 .9$570.944:5 98 !.9.70.  .9.3 094577.//7088 70..

3/70.//7088 98 $02039 98 11809 '.9 !43907.944:5 !.:00945 94:9 '.:0!43907 472.

 .-0  39708 11809 11809 11809 11809 11809  094577.0945 98 0945 !43994094577.943 .:90 3974/:. $02039 $02039.  094577.943%.  094577.  094577.  094577.

:0!43907 472.3/0798 '.3/70. 98 11809  98 $02039  98 #02.3094577.9 !43907.:00945 94:9 '.944:59 #0/:.

0945 98 98943/.90 11809039  !.-0  39708 11809  11809  11809    11809  11809    908 094577. $02039 $02039.   908 094577.943 ..   .//7088 0945 !43994094577.943%.  908 094577.:90 3974/:.   908 094577.   908 094577.

9.:90 3974/:.944:5.7.943 .3/3/70.90.9:708 083438/07.9438 $9.3828 43089!701.944:5 $9.$.4390398 ... 70.89!44:50.0/:347928 090/#4:3/ #4-3 090/.-7.7":0:3 .11. %7.

3/4:95:95479.-:1107 4:95:9-:1107 47...083438/07..943841 907309$9.439039437084:943 :11075.42-3.09         907309$9.471:3.   5..02039835:9-:1107 39073.9438 :95:9 6:0:0/ 343-4.3 89.   %42./0890-089/0.0974:93.94385.574.

:90 3974/:.3.0 .943 .974:5:95071472.

8290/94 /:094 0.:90 %0.335:9 6:0:0/ 89.4250941.35:9.3 97./ 41 90 30   .8:8:.38107 3974/:.07147343-4.43903943 .8  :95:9":0:3 35:9":0:0                  :95:9":0:0   %74:5:941.943 .34:95:9 6:0:0/ 89.

3.:90 3974/:.3/ :95:9":0:3 .!071472.04135:9.943 .

085.4235..:90 3974/:.098-.943 .7.11.209078 :11073 00/0/94.94:95:95479 9.7/3 448085...907309$9.0948808 8..3394..28.-847-8479-:789894:95.098944:95:95479 :9503.3 0 2:9503 $05.09894/8.943!.8970.80/43/0893.//7088 #4:93 4.:890/ ..9083.7.3/$.0/:3 42-30897.7/03-:11078.4:39"4$ 5.700...

920/.-7.3 .:90 3974/:...881.7488-.4330... 8305.943 .9 .-7.7 1: 3907.9 2:9 5.843 85.943 $9.3.843 8.0/.$9..90/ -.70/ 20247 8.70/ 20/.

$. .70/ 0/.$9.943 .:90 3974/:.

70/ 0247$9. # & .3/ $.$.

3/ !.!     & .

$ O $06:039.702.00.3.3/4:95:95479 O ":0:08.807.:90 3974/:.943 .8.0/..8094130/898 .35:9.

:90 3974/:.#06:702039410247 .3//9' .943 .250 3089.9308500/841 -58 0247.3//9 3:2-074154798 '54798500/ 0247.3//9 -58 .

:3907.943 .-7. .:90 3974/:. .90/$9.4330.

3/9035:94.%034.0397.4:9 .   35:9    9078 # # 34. 90574-.11.  009.943 .947 :95:9    03#06:.439039438-04   .43.:90 3974/:.48094 507.039 :3/07:3147297.-941488/:0944:95:9.8.4:9$9./8.

943 .3.309478 .:90 3974/:..

390.43903943#084:943 .36:08147.-7.-:11073 $9.439039437084:943 35:9-:11073 :95:9-:11073 .8500/:5.

:90 3974/:...080254347247090.36:08/40 .943 483090.705.36:047803.943 .808 $9..

944:5.7.11.943 .3/3/70.944:5 $9.9:708 083438/07.90.3828 43089!7012..4390398 .7":0:3 . %7.89!44:50. 70.-7.0/:347928 090/#4:3/ #4-3 090/.$..9.:90 3974/:.9438 $9.

947/0794 807.43897.943 .:908 :950.398 /0.7.09$.9:..0-:11070/5.. -.:90 3974/:.098 6:0:08 942009 "4$:.943 09474.0/:33..3 907309$9./1:.3/3.3//9 9907 4887.90 42509412502039.!.9438 .    3 !74-0203.39008 11.

941430144390"4$050703.5308 2:892..0/8.0/:3.943 ..09$.0/- .47928 807.73943.431.:90 3974/:.9439423200110.8 $.34907 $./04118-09003 8.08 84.943 .0/:33.!.934.73.3 907309$9.3/84.70.097.80:9.  %4.94341309477084:7.

70349098.382990/ .0/:0/94-097.7":0:3 090/#4:3/ #4-3":0:3 090/.0316:0:0/5.3 38 .3 38349 .-00907 4743807.382990/ $  $97.:90 3974/:.082.098.098.0/:354.40/944/016:0:0/ 5.943 .0/:0/94-097.70349098.9!7479":0:3 .$.08 $...6:0:08 0259 0.7":0:3 43 4743807.40/944/0:39.0/:3!4.

.07.059... .3..$":0:3 5...0/3908.0/:0/0.9209058.09 .:90 3974/:.0/47/07 %08306:0:088.206:0:0389420 789$07..943 ..305.0985.

:90 3974/:.943 .250 : .$":0:3.

8.7. 94:9805.439740/ .943 .4907148 .73 3484..:80/0.:90 3974/:.3900"4$ :789148.0/3908../ ..3349-0 .943147..7.94341089 11479148 /0.070.3900/ 089 11479 :789 09.7.943 438 5.2088.7.0985.3/438 !748 970208250 44.206:0:0 :...3349-0:80/94:.$":0:3!748.

.3900/ "4$47349 ./11070396:0:0 %0.8810/...9!7479":0:3 5.03.8808.098.88.8:...$97.7..

098898.6:0:08.0/:0/35747947/07 190089574796:0:0..09 9408 1349 19080.. 93.5.5.708..8.43/08957479.943 .8.88 ..0/:0/3$47/07 ..5.:90 3974/:.09 9408 09.

$97.250  .943 !747907 .88107   .:90 3974/:.9!7479":0:3 .

.3/438 !748 $9.11.$97.078250944.8808.9!7479":0:3 !748.070../ :95097.

 .6:..7.90841807.90/1742 0.3900/1489.88 ..943 .4907 438 :.20.084.70-:789808.:80.70/0.943814749071483908...:90 3974/:..7.

943 .09.:90 3974/:..0/4305.14 8....4.73088.. -090030.90/9843/0/..920 84.14 .0450/94038:701.7":0:38098:5170.41906:0:08..90/6:0:0 .7":0:3.9.8/0.70807.039-:78914817423907107394907148 .7":0:3 ..0/507 146:0:3 ..3/ 570.

250 .88107 .:90 3974/:.7":0:3.943 $..0/:07 .

7.03908.42509 .0039147.70/110703.20.03-.3//9 .3/438 !748 4:3/0//0.3//9 .148.24:3941-..:90 3974/:.:80/0../..31489...92039942.7":0:3!748.3/..943 .070.8 :789148/43 9.94334907148 .33498:554792.3-089 011479148 438 #06:708507 146:0:08 4.31.7970.

148.3//9 '0782..803/2470 9.7 ":0:394-0:80/9.4..0/430 .90/6:0:0 .34305.90/9843/0/.4.0450/94../0.41906:0:08 ..0/ 92..794.09 24:398290/94.. 920 3 47/07 -:903...70807.7":0:3 .703:2-07411489 .9 .6:0:08807.943 .9433-.090/#4:3/ #4-3":0:3 090/#4:3/ #4-3..7.:90 3974/:.8/0.570/0907230/3:2-07 .

88107  $.090/#4:3/ #4-3 ":0:3.0/:07     .943 .250  .:90 3974/:.

3.3/438 !748 48. .3//9 4:3/0//0.7.8 438 $9074.090/#4:3/ #4-3":0:3 !748.943 ..2 .03.:90 3974/:./00307.289.94/438970.11./.439740/...9432.-0 $:241.80 $03/8.3-0.070.0984149071434789.24:39841-.902.2:2-:789308894/438970.07-:78997.425099.7":0:3 0..3/.

0     %0.32574.898 ..70805.0   #4:3/.039..0894.0.0/##$.9907 ..0/:3 4792 #4:3/.703:2-074174:3/./..8994.7.943 .90/-09079700471..07 3907 807.9884:943147.:90 3974/:.82.04907.0/0.

.8/0./.943 .708.:90 3974/:..7":0:3 090/.0.9090-:7893088 %06:0:08.0450/94.803/0.0841090/#4:3/ #4-3 -:994 023.41 90.0/:0/ 92.09 .80 907706:70/1706:03.39.0/:0/4:9 41 47/0743570. 03.7":0:3.6:0:088..9430 5.090/..

3/ %7. !7479 8832039 7/073.:90 3974/:.3828843 .382 $9.$4790/!74790.943 ..

943 .250  .24890259 $.88107  ":0:08.7":0:3.:90 3974/:.0/:07     84790/4357479 .090/.

4792.33974/:.09 17420.943.090/.90147/0.425038..334305...943 .3//9 .3.7":0:3 !748.4250 #06:7086:0:084790/4392089.0 9907 .439.3/9907.25..:90 3974/:.425:9..07-.25.439744.748889.3/438 !748 97020130. 438 '07.6:0:0 $25092089.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.