ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY

Ms. Alyssa Ashley R. Diego

ANATOMICAL POSITION
‡ The subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at sides with the palms facing forward. The body is upright.

ANATOMICAL PLANES

‡ Midsagittal or Median Plane ± a plane that passes through the midline of the body or organ and divides it into equal right and left sides. .Sagittal Plane ‡ A vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right or left sides.

Sagittal Plane ‡ Parasagittal Plane ± a plane that does not pass through the midline but instead divides the body or an organ into unequal right and left sides. .

Frontal/Coronal Plane ‡ It divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. .

It is also called as horizontal or cross-sectional plane. .Transverse Plane ‡ It divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.

.Oblique Plane ‡ It passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane and either a sagittal or frontal plane.

separate.BODY CAVITIES . and support internal organs .are spaces within the body that help protect.

.Dorsal Body Cavity ‡ It is located near the dorsal (posterior) surface of the body. ‡ Cranial Cavity ± formed by the cranial bones and contains the brain.

Dorsal Body Cavity ‡ Vertebral Cavity ± formed by the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord. .

‡ Thoracic Cavity ± superior portion of the ventral body cavity. .Ventral Body Cavity ‡ It is located on the ventral (anterior) aspect of the body.

c.Pleural Cavity ± each surrounds a lung.Thoracic Cavity a.Pericardial Cavity ± surrounds the heart. .Mediastinum ± central portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs. b.

Ventral Body Cavity ‡ Abdominopelvic Cavity ± inferior portion of the ventral body cavity. Abdominal Cavity ± contains stomach. spleen. gallbladder. small intestine and most of large intestine . liver. a.

Pelvic Cavity ± contains urinary bladder.Abdominopelvic Cavity b. and internal organs of reproduction . portions of the large intestine.

DIRECTIONAL TERMS .

.SUPERIOR ‡(Cephalic or Cranial) ‡Toward the head. ‡Ex. The heart is superior to the liver. or the upper part of a structure.

INFERIOR ‡(Caudal) ‡Away from the head. . The stomach is inferior to the lungs. or the lower part of a structure. ‡Ex.

ANTERIOR ‡(Ventral) ‡Nearer to or at the front of the body. ‡Ex. The sternum (breastbone) is anterior to the heart. .

POSTERIOR ‡(Dorsal) ‡Nearer to or at the back of the body. ‡Ex. . The esophagus is posterior to the trachea (windpipe).

. The ulna is medial to the radius. ‡Ex.MEDIAL ‡Nearer to the midline.

LATERAL ‡Farther from the midline. The lungs are lateral to the heart. . ‡Ex.

. ‡Ex.INTERMEDIATE ‡Between two structures. The transverse colon is intermediate between the ascending and descending colons.

The gallbladder and ascending colon are ipsilateral. .IPSILATERAL ‡On the same side of the body as another structure. ‡Ex.

The ascending and descending colons are contralateral. .CONTRALATERAL ‡On the opposite side of the body from another structure. ‡Ex.

PROXIMAL ‡Nearer to an attachment of a limb or trunk. The humerus is proximal to the radius. ‡Ex. . nearer to the origination of a structure.

farther to the origination of a structure. .DISTAL ‡Farther from the attachment of a limb or trunk. The phalanges are distal to the carpals. ‡Ex.

SUPERFICIAL ‡Toward or on the surface of the body. ‡Ex. . The ribs are superficial to the lungs.

‡Ex.DEEP ‡Away from the surface of the body. The ribs are deep to the skin of the chest and back. .

Module No. 2 THE CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION .

Objective: To discuss the chemical level of structural organization of the human body .

Questions: 1.Nitrogen e.What are the different main chemical elements of the body? a.Oxygen b.Hydrogen d.Carbon c.Calcium .

Trace Elements .Magnesium l.Sulfur i. Sodium j.f. Chlorine k. Phosphorus g. Iron m.Potassium h.

Atom b.Compounds .Ion c.2. Define the following: a.Molecules d.

What is a chemical reaction? Define the different types of chemical reaction 4.3. What is pH and the role of buffer system in homeostasis? .

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