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What is philosophy ?
Philosophy is human beings attempt to think
speculatively, reflectively, and systematically
about the universe and human relationships to
the universe
Complete bodies of thought that represent a
world view
What is theory ?
Set of ideas and beliefs often based on
research findings or generalizations from
practice that guide educational policies or
Differences Between Philosophies
and Theories of Education
Philosophies Theories
General Specific
Wide-ranging, systematic, Focused on education; not
complete, global complete
Components : metaphysic, Components: curriculum,
epistemology, axiology and teaching and learning
Philosophys Relationship to
1. Metaphysics : what is real, what is not real?
Edu : Knowledge of most worth. The
2. Epistemology : Deals with knowledge and
Edu : methods of instruction
3. Axiology : what is moral and right conduct?
what is beautiful and good ? (Aesthetics)
Edu : behaviour, character and civility
4. Logic : how do we reason ?
Edu : inductive and
deductive reasoning
Philosophies of Education
1. Idealism
2. Realism
3. Pragmatism
4. Existentialism
5. Postmodernism
Metaphysics : The mental
and spiritual is ultimately
Universe as an expression
of a highly generalized
Reality can be explained
by :
i. Macrocosm = the
universal mind
ii. Microcosm = a limited
part of the world.
2. Epistemology
Ideas that are latent- already present but not evidence
.. In the mind.
Through introspection, the individual examine their
own mind.
Knowing is the rethinking of latent ideas.
Implication to education : the teachers challenge is to
bring this latent knowledge to consciousness.
Subjects : general disciplines. Philosophy, maths,
history and language.
3. Axiology (values)
Values are unchanging and applicable to all
Philosophy, theology, history, literature, art are
the sources of values.
4. Logic
Logic is based on whole part relationship
Education : teacher should follow a logical
arrangement that emphasizes the principles or
What are the roles of the school?
i. A place to discover the truth.
ii. Intellectual institution
iii. Cultivate students mind
How teaching should be carried out?
Socratic method
Stressed on objects
knowledge and values.
Realism holds:
i. There is a world or
real existence that
human being have not
ii. The human mind can
know about the real
Metaphysic Epistemology
A material world exists that is Knowing is the process that
independent of and external involves sensation and
to the mind of the knower. abstraction.
All object are composed of The senses perceive the
matter objects and record sensory
Human being can know about data.
these objects through their The mind sorts these data.
senses and their reason What is knowledge?
Knowledge concerns the
physical world in which we live
Knowing something is knowing
about the object
Axiology Logic
Certain rules govern Teaching method : use
intellectual behavior. both inductive and
Value based on them deductive reasoning
(laws) are universal and
Rational behavior is
based on reality.
Realist philosophy emphasizes sensory
learning and organizing objects into categories, as these
students are doing in a science class.
Educational implications
Formal education is the study of subjects.
Schools : societies have established schools to
provide students with knowledge about the
objective world.
School should be available to all person and
as a center for academic learning.
Teacher should be a subject matter experts
who combine their discipline expertise with
effective teaching methods
Founder : John Dewey
Use scientific method to
validate ideas empirically.
Childs development as a
learning and experiencing
human organism.
Human being as biological
and sociological
organisms who possess
drives that sustain life and
promote growth.
Learning occurs as the person engage in
problem solving
Use scientific method to solve both personal
and social problem.
Experience : the interaction of the person and
an environment.
Knowing interaction is the process
between the learner and the environment and
it is tentative
Education as an experimental process.
Reality is continually changed or transformed
and therefore a curriculum must also
subjected to change.
Axiology Logic
Not permanent and Inductive method
change Pragmatic school use
scientific method
Teacher : facilitator of
Self determinism
Founder : Jean-Paul
Human being are born
and enter the world
without being
They simply here in the
world that they do not
However, human have
freedom to make
choices and human
freedom are total
Knowledge : the most
important knowledge is
about human condition
and the personal choice
we make.
Goal of education : is to
awaken human
consciousness to the
freedom to choose

Values : freely chosen

by the person
Existentialism and schooling
School is for everybody.
Everyone, teacher and
student must have the
chance to ask questions,
suggest answer and engage
in dialogue.
Teacher should encourage
students to participate in
dialogue about the meaning
of life, love and death.
Subjects : literature, drama,
Instruction is self directed
Founder : Derrida and
Postmodernism and
Rejected idealist and
Subordination and
Originated with Philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and Martin Heidegger (1899-1976)

Metaphysical Focus
Postmodernists dismiss metaphysical School Practices
claims about universal truths.
Postmodernists believe that human Postmodernists work to raise student
beings construct their own consciousness. Postmodernists view
subjective truths. school curriculum as an arena of
conflicting viewpoints. Some
Epistemological Focus viewpoints dominate others.
Postmodernism has implications for Postmodernists believe that
constructivism. Human beings
construct their knowledge from their contributions of underrepresented
experiences interacting with the groups should be included in the
environment. school curriculum.

Axiological Focus Postmodernists do not emphasize the

The values of marginalized groups are use of the scientific method in
emphasized. curriculum. They see the scientific
method as a tool of the elite power to
be used over others.
Theories of education
Critical theory
Social reconstructionism
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