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Khalia G. Booth
EDUC 7201T T6B: Seminar Appl/Thry and
Research II
Fall 2010 and Spring 2011
Professor OConnor-Petruso
May 11, 2011
Table of Contents
Statement of the Problem4
Literature Review Overview5
Statement of the Hypothesis6
Internal and External Validity12
As a student teacher and a citizen of the 21 st Century, I am
witnessing the transformation of literacy as it moves from print to
digital media. I firmly believe that the students of today need to
become acquainted, and taught how to use, manage, and learn
effectively from the technology that will be their future. I think that the
educational theorist that can be applied best to the changing modes of
technology that will be the core of my future career as an educator is
Jerome Bruner with his belief that learning is an active, ever-changing
construct that can be acquired by the environment in which one lives
(Takaya, 2008). If todays students are going to be able to master their
technological future, they must be surrounded by computers, literacy
programs that incorporate e-readers/reading software, and adults who
are willing to integrate the facets of their world within the classroom.
Statement of the Problem
The attainment of literacy is an ongoing issue in American
education. Debates have raged within education circles as to how,
what, and when is the best time, age, and education tool to be used
to help children achieve functional literacy. Its become increasingly
clear that it is not enough to recognize sight words and be able to
read aloud from a written narrative. It is necessary that in order to
be fully literate, readers need to actually understand what it is that
theyre reading.

At P.S. X, several students in Ms. Ys class have difficulty with

reading comprehension, despite various reading strategies
presented within class time to aid their literacy skills. Can the
presence of electronic books with their built-in dictionaries,
accessible highlighting, and re-sizable text assist these students in
their reading comprehension skills?
Literature Review Overview
Technology Pros:
Easy access to yearly student progress for teachers.(Balajthy, 2007)
Adapting the technology to the current teaching practices (i.e.
Readers Workshop model) can help enhance/expand possibilities
for learning. (Handsfield, Dean, & Cielocha, 2009; Hamilton, B.,
2009; Labbo, May 2005; Larson, 2008; Zawilinski, Zucker, &
Invernizzi, 2008)
Infusing multimedia content in daily lessons help make school
material memorable and the concepts clearer to students (Abrami,
Chambers, Cheung, Gifford, Madden, Slavin, & Tucker, 2008)
Technology Cons:
Lack of money/investment for new software/computers, teacher
reluctance/unfamiliarity with current technology (Bell, Judge, &
Puckett, 2006; Lovell & Phillips, Winter 09-10)
Statement of the Hypothesis

Over a period of two-to-three weeks, fifteen fifth grade students

scoring Levels 1 and 2 on their fourth grade English Language Arts
examinations will be presented with the opportunity to read a book
of their choice chosen through a pre-test survey. Separated into
two groups, the students will read the book through an electronic
reader or traditional print media as part of a treatment which will
determine whether print media or an electronic reader will provide
the students with the best chance for improving literacy.

Fifteen fifth grade students were chosen from Ms. Ys class at an urban
public school known as P.S. X, located in Brooklyn, New York. These
students have received Levels 1 and 2 scores on their Fourth Grade English
Language Arts examinations. Fourteen of the students have attained their
eleventh birthday, with one being twelve years of age at the time of the
intervention. Thirteen of the participants are of West Indian background,
one is of Hispanic origin and the fifteenth participant is of Eastern European
descent. Ten of the participants parents are currently employed full time,
while three of the participants parents are working part-time. Two of the
participants parents have been searching for employment. Eight of the
participants parents who are working full-time commuted to Manhattan,
while five of the participants parents worked in Brooklyn.
Methods, Part 2

The intervention used for the participants involved three

separate consent forms: one for Principal Z of P.S. X, one for the
parents of the participants, and the last is for the participants. Two
surveys have been created for the participants along with two
reading comprehension examinations. The two reading
comprehension examinations were brief examinations created from
the EdHelper website (, the first was a short
story that the participants had been reading for class and the second
test was on the treatment book. A web-based electronic reader such
as the Kindle for PC and traditional print books will be used as part of
the treatment for the participants.
Methods, Part 3:
Research Design

Quasi-Experimental Group Design

Present Survey
Pre-Test O
Treatment X1 X2
Post Test O

Participants were randomly grouped into the two treatment

Methods, Part 4:
Procedure: After selecting the participants for the treatment, a
general survey will be presented to the students to gauge their
interest in the treatment and the type of books they would be
interested in reading via Kindle or traditional print media. After the
survey, comes a brief pre-test, which will examine the students
reading comprehension skills.
The survey and the pre-test will determine the book that will be
used for the treatment. They will also help in assessing which
students would benefit from the electronic reader or traditional
print media. The students will be separated into two groups. Both
groups will receive a treatment. Group 1 (X1) will read a book
selected from the survey via the Kindle-for-PC program, while
Group 2 (X2) will read the same book selected from the survey via
traditional print media. After a two-week session of the treatment
for both groups, a post-test will be administered to examine
whether the students level of reading comprehension increased.
A post-test survey will be presented to the students to help the
reflect on their experience and whether the act of reading
increased in favorability to gauge the students receptivity to the
Internal and External Validity
Threats to External Validity
Pre-Test Treatment
Students might have prior knowledge of the reasons why they are
having a treatment due to poor literacy skills, which might produce a
negative reaction to the pre-test.
Treatment Diffusion
As students take the treatment, there may be discussion amongst
the participants about the treatment.
Experimenter Effects
Prior knowledge of the students reading skills might inform the
reading level of the book chosen for the treatment.
Novelty Effect
Students will be exposed to a computer program that can give them
the ability to download a book within a second, thus giving them a
favorability and improved reaction to the presence of new technology.
Data, Page 1:
Have You Ever Used an Electronic Reader?
Student L

Student K

Student J

Student I

Student H

Student G

Student F
Question 10
Student E

Student D

Student C

Student B

Student A

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Student A Student B Student C Student D Student E Student F Student G Student H Student I Student J Student K Student L
Question 10 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 4 1 1 1
Data, Page 2:
What kind of Electronic Reader Do You Own?
Student L 12

Student K 12

Student J 5

Student I 2

Student H 6

Student G 4

Student F 12

Student E 12

Student D 12

Student C 12

Student B 4

Student A 2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Question 11
Data, Page 3:
Comparison of Pre and Post Test Reading Comprehension Scores for
AVG. Pre-Test Score: 65.6 Group 1 (X1)

AVG. Post-Test Score: 73.2 0.924rxy







Student A Student B Student C Student D Student E
Data Correlation
Comparison of Reading Comprehension Scores Pre-Test and Post-Test
for Group 1 (X1)



Post-Test Scores


Linear (Series1)



0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Pre-Test Scores
Data, Page 4:
Pre and Post Test Reading Comprehension Scores for Group 2 (X2)
AVG. Pre-Test Score: 58.8 Series1
AVG. Post-Test
Score: 59.6 Series2


Reading Comprehension






Student A Student B StudentGroup
C 2 Participants Student D Student E
Data Correlation 2
Pre and Post Test Reading Comprehension Scores for Group 2 (X2)

r 70
s 50
S Linear (Series1)
e 20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Post-Test Scores
Bell Curve Data for Pre-Test Reading Scores for
Group 2:
57 60
SD=14.3 65

34 78

15.9 30.2 44.5 58.8 73.1 87.4 101.7

Abrami, P.C., Chambers, B., Cheung, A., Gifford, R., Madden, N.A., Slavin, R.E., and Tucker, B.J. Technology
Infusion in Success for All: Reading Outcomes for First Graders (September 2008) The Elementary School Journal,
Balajthy, E. (November 2007) Technology and Current Reading/Literacy Assessment Strategies The Reading
Teacher, 61(3), pp. 240-247 DOI: 10.1598/RT.61.3.4
Barone, D. and Wright, T. E. (December 2008/January 2009) Literacy Instruction with Digital and Media
Bell, S.M., Judge, S., and Puckett, K. Closing the Digital Divide: Update From the Early Childhood Longitudinal
Study (September/October 2006) The Journal of Educational Research Vol. 100(No. 1) pp. 52-60
Blachowicz, C. L.; Bates, A.; Berne, J., Bridgman, T.; Chaney, J., and Perney, J. (2009) Technology and At-Risk
Young Readers and Their Classrooms Reading Psychology, 30, pgs. 387-411 doi: 10.1080/02702710902733576
Britten, J.S. and Cassady, J.C. The Technology Integration Assessment Instrument: Understanding Planned Use of
Technology by Classroom Teachers (2005) Computers in the Schools Vol. 22, No. 3/4, pp. 49-61 doi:
Burnett, C. Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated
by recent studies (2009) Journal of Research in Reading, Vol. 32, 1, pp 2237 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-
Chera, P.; Littleton, K.; Wood, C. (May 4, 2006) Interactions with Talking Books: phonological awareness affects
boys use of talking books Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 22, pp. 382-390
Hamilton, B. Making the Most of a Teaching Partner (2009) The Reading Teacher, 63(3), pp. 245248
Handsfield, L. J., Dean, T. R., and Cielocha, K. M. Becoming Critical Consumers and Producers of Text: Teaching
Literacy with Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 (September 2009) The Reading Teacher, 63(1), pp. 4050 DOI:10.1598/RT.63.1.4
References, Part 2:
Kervin, L. and Mantei, J. Using computers to support children as authors: An Examination of Three Cases (March
Korat, O. and Shamir, A. (October 25, 2006) Electronic Books versus adult readers: Effects on childrens emergent
literacy as a function of social class Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2007), 23, pp. 248-259 doi:
Labbo, L. From Morning Message to Digital Morning Message: Moving from the tried and true to the new (May
2005) The Reading Teacher Vol. 58, No. 8 DOI: 10.1598/RT.58.8.9
Larson, L.C. Electronic Reading Workshop: Beyond Books with New Literacies and Instructional Technologies
(October 2008) Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52(2), pp.121-131 DOI: 10.1598/JAAL.52.2.3
Lee, Y. and Vail, C.O. Computer-Based Reading Instruction for Young Children with Disabilities (Winter 2005)
Lovell, M. and Phillips, L. Commercial Software Programs Approved for Teaching Reading and Writing in the
Primary Grades: Another Sobering Reality (Winter 09-10) Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(2),
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Oakley, G. and Jay, J. Making Time for Reading: Factors That Influence the Success of Multimedia Reading in the
Home (November 2008) The Reading Teacher, 62(3), pp. 246-255 DOI: 10.1598/RT.62.3.6
Pearman, C.J. Independent Reading of CD-ROM Storybooks: Measuring Comprehension With Oral Retellings (May
2008) The Reading Teacher, 61(8), pp. 594602 DOI:10.1598/RT.61.8.1
Rhodes, J. A. and Milby, T. M. (November 2007) Teacher-Created Electronic Books: Integrating Technology to
Support Readers with Disabilities The Reading Teacher, 61 (3), pp. 255-259 DOI: 10.1598/RT.61.3.6
References, Part 3:
Sternberg, B.J., Kaplan, K. A., and Borck, J.E. Enhancing Adolescent Literacy
Achievement Through Integration of Technology in the Classroom
(July/August/September 2007) Reading Research Quarterly 42/3 pp. 416-420
doi: 10.1598/RRQ.42.3.6
Takaya, Keiichi Jerome Bruners Theory of Education: From Early Bruner to
Later Bruner (2008) Interchange, Vol. 39/1, pp. 119 DOI: 10.1007/s10780-008-
U.S. Department of Education What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
(September 2010) Institute of Education Sciences
Zawilinski, L. HOT Blogging: A Framework for Blogging to Promote Higher
Order Thinking The Reading Teacher, 62(8), pp. 650661
Zucker, T.A. and Invernizzi, M. My eSorts and Digital Extensions of Word Study
(May 2008) The Reading Teacher Vol. 61 (8), pp. 654658
Zucker, T.A., Moody, A.K., McKenna, M.C. (2009) The Effects of Electronic
Books on Pre-Kindergarten-to-Grade 5 Students Literacy and Language
Outcomes: A Research Synthesis J. Educational Computing Research, Vol. 40(1)