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Total Quality Management - TQM
The quality journey continues……..
Author: Dr Rhys Rowland-Jones
Standards in Action
Total Quality Management - TQM
• • • • Introduction to concepts of TQM Standards and TQM TQM Reasons for failure Measurement of Quality
Standards in Action
Greater emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of every member of staff within an organization to influence quality. TQM places the customer at the forefront of quality decision making. All staff are empowered. TQM can be viewed as an extension of the traditional approach to quality. Standards in Action www.bsieducation.TQM Total Quality Management • • • • • TQM is a philosophy which applies equally to all parts of the organization.org/standardsinaction .Total Quality Management .
TQM Total Quality Management Doing things right….FIRST time.Total Quality Management . Standards in Action www. …..bsieducation.org/standardsinaction Internetix (2005) .
bsieducation. Guidelines for quality improvement. BS 7850-2:1994. ISO 9004-4:1993 • Total quality management.TQM British Standards on TQM BS 7850-1:1992 • Total quality management. Guide to management principles.Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction . Standards in Action www.
Standards in Action www.org/standardsinaction .Total Quality Management . Product/Process Excellence – Involves the process for continuous improvement. planning and support.TQM Elements of TQM • • • Leadership – Top management vision. Employee involvement – All employees assume responsibility for the quality of their work.bsieducation.
Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management . • Customer Focus on “Fitness for Use” – Design quality • Specific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace.TQM Elements of TQM • Continuous Improvement – A concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction . – Conformance quality • The degree to which a product meets its design specifications.
adds values to these inputs for customers. • “Any activity that accepts inputs.org/standardsinaction . The customers may be either internal or external to the organization.Total Quality Management .” (ISO 8402).a ‘Process’ • “A set of inter-related resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs.” (BS 7850) Standards in Action www. and produces outputs for these customers.TQM A fundamental concept of TQM from BS 7850 .bsieducation.
TQM "The Simple Process" Controls Inputs Proces s Outputs Resources (Source: BS 7850: 1992.org/standardsinaction .Total Quality Management .bsieducation. “Total Quality Management”) Standards in Action www.
bsieducation.org/standardsinaction .TQM Changing Role of the Process Owner Process 1 Input from supplier As customer Process owner Output As supplier Input As customer Process owner As supplier Output to customer Process 1 (Source: BS 7850: 1992. “Total Quality Management”) Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .
TQM TQM & organizational Cultural Change Traditional Approach Lack of communication Control of staff Inspection & fire fighting Internal focus on rule Stability seeking Adversarial relations Allocating blame Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction TQM Open communications Empowerment Prevention External focus on customer Continuous improvement Co-operative relations Solving problems at their roots .bsieducation.
org/standardsinaction Perceived quality is good Source: Slack et al.Total Quality Management .bsieducation.TQM Perceived quality is governed by the gap between customers’ expectations and their perceptions of the product or service Customers’ expectations for the product or service Customers’ expectations of the product or service Gap Gap Expectations > perceptions Expectations = perceptions Perceived quality is poor Standards in Action www. 2004 Customers’ expectations for the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Expectations < perceptions Customers’ perceptions of the product or service Customers’ perceptions of the product or service .
org/standardsinaction . • Satisfaction = (Perception of Performance) – (Expectation) Standards in Action www. – Functional quality — customer perception of how the good functions or the service is delivered.bsieducation.Total Quality Management . • Expectations and Perceptions – Customers’ prior expectations (generalized and specific service experiences) and their perception of service performance affect their satisfaction with a service.TQM Additional views of Quality in Services • Technical Quality versus Functional Quality – Technical quality — the core element of the good or service.
1985 .Total Quality Management .TQM Previous Experience Word of mouth communications Image of product or service A “Gap” model of Quality Customer’s expectations concerning a product or service Customer’s own specification of quality Gap 1 Customer’s perceptions concerning the product or service Gap 4 The actual product or service Management’s concept of the product or service Gap 2 organization’s specification of quality Gap 3 Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction Source: Parasuraman. Zeithman and Berry.
Total Quality Management . Kaizen: Japanese word for continuous improvement.TQM Continuous Improvement • Philosophy that seeks to make never-ending improvements to the process of converting inputs into outputs.org/standardsinaction .bsieducation. • Standards in Action www.
Standards in Action www. – Obsolete.TQM Implementing TQM • Successful Implementation of TQM – Requires total integration of TQM into day-to-day operations.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction . outdated organizational cultures.Total Quality Management . • Causes of TQM Implementation Failures – Lack of focus on strategic planning and core competencies.
Politics and turf issues.org/standardsinaction .TQM Obstacles to Implementing TQM • • • • • • • • • Lack of a company-wide definition of quality. Lack of real employee empowerment. Drive for short-term financial results. Lack of a customer focus. Lack of a formalized strategic plan for change. Lack of employee trust in senior management.bsieducation. View of the quality program as a quick fix. Poor inter-organizational communication. Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .
Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction . Blind pursuit of TQM programs Programs may not be linked to strategies Quality-related decisions may not be tied to market performance Failure to carefully plan a program Standards in Action www. 3.bsieducation. 4.TQM Some criticisms of TQM 1. 2.
bsieducation.org/standardsinaction .Total Quality Management .TQM PDCA Cycle repeated to create continuous improvement Performance Plan Act Do Check “Continuous” improvement Time Standards in Action www.
bsieducation.TQM Recognizing and rewarding Quality • Promotion of high quality goods and services – Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) (United States) – Deming Prize (Japan) – European Quality Award (European Union) – ISO9000 certification Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .org/standardsinaction .
quality.TQM The integrated framework of the Baldrige Award criteria Source: 2004 Criteria for Performance Excellence.nist.bsieducation.S. Baldrige National Quality Program.org/standardsinaction . U. National Institute of Standards and Technology. MD 20899. (www. Gaithersburg. Dept.gov) Standards in Action www. of Commerce.Total Quality Management .
analysis and improvement Satisfaction Input Key: Value adding activity information flow Product realisation Product Output Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction Source: BS EN ISO 9001:2000 .TQM Continual improvement of the quality management system Continual improvement of the quality management system Customers (and other interested parties) Customers (and other interested parties) Management responsibility Resource management Requirements Measurement.Total Quality Management .
org/standardsinaction .bsieducation.TQM Overview of the EFQM Excellence Model Standards in Action www.Total Quality Management .
Total Quality Management .bsieducation.org/standardsinaction .TQM Quality Award common elements • • • • • All take holistic approach Customers/people Measurable characteristics Visible Basis taken from TQM Standards in Action www.
bsieducation.org/standardsinaction .Total Quality Management .TQM Summary • • • • TQM – a way of working Involves everyone High prominence on ‘customer’ Awards based upon TQM Standards in Action www.