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Chapter-15

Designing Training Program


Meaning of Training Design
Designing training program may be defined as
a process of constituting a calendar for the
successful and objective implementation of
training policies, programs, framing contents,
conducting sessions, choosing techniques and
providing suitable facilities so that selected
participants are benefited and organizational
needs are satisfied.
Importance of Designing a Training
Program
1. Framework for analyzing a training problem
2. Outcome from training problems
3. Presentation of content
4. Define training objectives
5. Helps to identify learning activities
6. Delegation of sequencing activities
7. Solution of performance or compliance
problems
Importance contd..
8. Development of training course
9. Implementation of training course
10.Determination of implementation process
11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the training
program
12. Determination of cost, availability and
appropriateness
13. Determination of materials used in the program
14. Well stated definition of the result
Objectives of Designing a Training Program
1. To fill up the training gap
2. To identify the factors
3. To understand the motivational dynamics of trainees
4. To determine the contents
5. To select qualified trainers
6. To choose the level of participants
7. To determine the duration of session
8. To choose suitable aids
9. To select appropriate methods
Guidelines for Designing a Training
Program
1. Purpose
2. Identification
3. Testing
4. Select methods of training
5. Time
6. Organize session
7. Put it all together
Principles of Designing a Training
Program
1. It should be learner-focused
2. It should be based on identified needs
3. It has measurable objectives
4. It is goal oriented
5. It is time bounded
6. It has taken into identified methods
Models of Designing a Training
Program
1. Analysis
2. Design or Planning
3. Development
4. Implementation or Execution
5. Evaluation or Feedback
Process of Designing a Training
Program
1. Identifying the learning objectives
2. Determining the training content
3. Deciding the methodologies
4. Selecting the learning activities
5. Defining evaluation criteria
6. Specifying follow up activities
Theories of Designing Training Programs

1. Elaboration Theory
2. Gagne-Bring Theory
This theory identifies 9 events of instruction.
These events are as follows:
a. Gaining attention
b. Informing the learner about the
goal/objective
c. Stimulating recall of prior relevant knowledge
Theories of Design Training Programs contd..

d. Present material to be learned


e. Provide guidance for learning
f. Elicit the performance
g. Provide feedback
h. Assess performance
i. Enhancing retention and transfer
Steps of Designing Training Program
Step 1: An assessment of training needs.
Step 2: Defining the training programs learning
objectives.
Step 3: Creation and implementation of a
training program to improve performance.
Problems of Designing a Training
Program
1. Dissemination of information
2. Rigidly followed the program contents
3. Only one trainer responsible for the program
4. Lack of expertise
5. Expertise person invited for short period
6. Lack of self awareness and attitudes
7. Lack of facilities and field visits
8. Specified time period
Suggestions from Government for Effective
Training Program
1. Control Group Conflict
2. Reduce the impact estimates
3. Increase participation of employees
4. Facilitate the supervisors and senior managers advice
5. Suggestion from experts
6. Increase program assignments
7. Based on proper action plans
8. Increase performance of the employees
9. Linked with performance monitoring
10. Training program must not be unsocial
Roles of Manager/HRM Division for
Designing Training Program
1. Previous knowledge, skills and position in the
hierarchy
2. Learning styles
3. Previous experience
4. Business or organizational purpose
5. Trainee characteristics
6. Nature of learning
7. Resources
Roles of Training Organizations for
Designing a Training Program
1. Learning and training management, career
and organizational development functions.
2. Manage the design and delivery of classroom
and technology-based training program.
3. The instructional designer typically serves as
the member of first line management and is
considered a senior professional within the
organization.
Roles of Training Organizations for
Designing a Training Program
4. Developing, designing and implementing
classroom and technology-based training
programs to meet organizational/individual
needs and requirements.
5. Ensuring the proper preparation,
implementation and management of
instructional development projects.
6. Developing budgets and allocating necessary
resources for projects.
Roles of Training Organizations contd.

7. Contributing to the selection, development


and updating of courseware content for web-
based or any other media delivery.
8. Evaluating the effectiveness of audiovisual
materials to ensure objectives are being
accomplished of the organization.
9. Delivers high quality learning opportunities
and development programs to all employees.
Roles of Training Organizations contd

10. Determines the differences between


technical, behavioral, conceptual and skill-
based learning.
11. Clarifies the concepts behind and
applications of whole learning with the
management board.
12. Integrates various models and best practices
associated with adult learning.
Curriculum Development
a. Communication
b. Computer skills
c. Diversity
d. Ethics
e. Human relations
f. Self-defense
Guidelines for Selecting Training
Methods
According to Bass and Vaughan (1966), training
methods should be selected on the basis of
the degree to which they do the following:
1. Allow active participation of the learners
2. Help the learners transfer learning
experiences from training to the job situation
3. Provide the learners with knowledge of
results about their attempts to improve
Guidelines for Selecting Training
Methods
4. Provide some means for the learners to be
reinforced for the appropriate behavior
5. Provide the learners with an opportunity to
practice and to repeat when needed
6. Motivate the learners to improve their own
performance
7. Help learners increase their willingness to
change
Most Commonly Used Methods of Training

1. Instructor presentation
2. Group discussion
3. Demonstration
4. Assigned reading
5. Exercise
6. Case study
7. Role play
8. Field visit and study tour
Who Should Design Your Training Session

1. Experts
2. Future learners
3. Future teachers
Issues to Consider When Designing
Training Programs
1. Audience
2. Mode
3. Length
4. Location
5. Funding source
Instructional Design Framework
Stage 1: Determining instructional goals
a. Intellectual skills
(i) Discrimination (Lowest)
(ii) Concrete concepts
(iii) Defined concepts
(iv) Rules
(v) Higher-order rules and problem solving
(Highest)
Instructional Design Framework contd

b. Cognitive strategies
(i) Rehearsal strategies
(ii) Elaboration strategies
(iii) Organizing strategies
(iv) Comprehension monitoring strategies
(v) Affective strategies
Instructional Design Framework contd.

c. Verbal information (Knowledge)


Verbal information can be presented to students
to be learned in a number of ways:
Learning labels
Learning facts
Learning organized knowledge
Instructional Design Framework contd

d. Attitudes
There are numerous direct and indirect methods
of changing attitudes:
Direct methods
Indirect methods
e. Motor Skills
Instructional Design Framework contd.

Stage 2: The learner


Stage 3: Defining performance objectives
An objective definition should specify the following
conditions of learning:
Situation
Learning capability verb
Object
Action verb
Tools, constraints or special conditions
Instructional Design Framework contd.

Stage 4: Analysis of the learning task


There are 2 major classes of instructional task
analysis:
a. Procedural task analysis
b. Learning task analysis
Stage 5: Designing instructional sequences
Stage 6: The events of instruction
Stage 7: Selecting and using media
Instructional Design Framework contd.

Stage 8: Assessing student performance


Stage 9: Evaluation of the instructional system
Evaluation system can be either
Formative evaluation
Summative evaluation
Principles of Instructional Design
1. List instructional agenda
2. Describe instructional method
3. Instructional rationale
4. Learning outcomes
What Types of Training Exist
1. Training courses and workshop
2. Courses taught by universities and other
organizations
3. Distance learning
4. Internships
5. On-the-job training
6. Orientation sessions
7. Peer-based methods
What Types of Training Exist contd.

8. Self-directed learning
9. Tutorials and
10. Large professional conferences, conventions
and retreats.
What Do You Train People To Do
Some topics for which trainings commonly occur
are:
1. Communication
2. Computer skills
3. Diversity
4. Ethics
5. Human relations
6. Safety
7. Self-defense
Why Should You Design a Training Session

To develop an individualized training that will


best suit your organizations needs.
To pass on the experience and expertise of
members of your organization.
To give staff members or volunteers
experience in training design.
To offer staff and volunteers additional
opportunities for professional growth.
Considerations for Designing a Training Session

1. Learn about the participants


2. Determine the needs of target audience
3. Consider the organizations needs and
resources
4. Develop specific objectives for the training
Specific, Measurable, Attainable
Considerations for Training Session contd .

5. Develop the content of training session


6. Using material already in existence
7. Develop own training material
8. Decide on a format for training
9. Decide about the trainer and topic of training
10. Ask outside people for further development
Considerations for Training Session contd

11. Recruit participants


12. Develop a way to assess training
13. Celebrate your hard work