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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation

The Systems Life Cycle

7.1 Analysis
7.2 Design
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

7.3 Development and Testing


7.4 Implementation
7.5 Documentation
7.6 Evaluation

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle
Systems Analysts will review an existing system which is currently not meeting
expectations. The steps shown below will be followed to develop a new system
which is fit for purpose.
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Analysis: Collecting information about the present system and identifying problems.

Design: Designing a new system to correct the problems identified in the analysis.

Development & Testing: Developing and testing new system.

Implementation: Replacing the old system with the new system.

Documentation: Creating technical and user documentation for new system.

Evaluation: Evaluating whether the new system meets the requirements of the
design requirements.
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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.1 Analysis

Analysis techniques Advantages Disadvantages


Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Observation The use of the current system is The analyst can obtain Some employees may feel
observed to find out how it reliable information about uncomfortable being
the current system. observed
works.
Information will not be Employees may perform
biased as its the analysts differently if they know
point of view. they being observed.

Interview People who use the system are Can ask open ended It can be a time
interviewed to gauge their questions to gauge to consuming process.
more feedback. The interviewee cant
feedback.
Questions can be modified remain anonymous with
during interview. this method.

Questionnaire Questionnaires are distributed Questionnaires can reach Questionnaires may not
to employees/ customers to a larger audience. be completed accurately.
s Questions can be May not be all returned.
find out a range of opinions
answered quickly using Can not expand or clarify
about the current system. tick boxes cheaper answers to questions.
method of analysing.

Collecting Existing documentation for the Analyst's can see how It can be a time consuming
current system is analysed to current the paper system process.
Documents operates. Due to the amount of time
identify what data is inputted
Can obtain information required this is a costly
and outputted. critical to the system. method.

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.1 Analysis

Data which is inputted, Problems with the The requirements of the user
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

processed and outputted into current system are and the potential new system
the system are identified. identified. are identified.

Data may be paper based. What could be What is the new system meant
improved? to do?

New System Requirements Specification


Once the systems analysts have completed the analysis stage of the systems life cycle they
should be fully aware of the limitations of the current system.

The next step will be to design a new system (normally computer based) to resolve the
problems identified by the users and the systems analyst.

The Requirements Specification will be created which will outline the required
improvements and expectations for the new system.

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.2 Design

Based on the information from the analysis stage a new system will be designed. The new
system will hope to resolve the issues identified in the current system.
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Users should be able to interact with a system via a data capture form so is it easier and
quicker to input data.

On-screen forms should:


Appropriate spacing for each field.
Screen filled/not too much white space.
Clearly defined input area for each field.
An easy to read font/font size.
A sensible font colour/background colour.
Drop down lists and tick boxes.
No overlapping of items.
Navigation aids

Tick boxes/radio buttons Drop down lists to Buttons:


to enter choices choose an option Go forward or
backwards
Add, Save and
delete records

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.2 Design

Before a data input form can be created the database has to


Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

be created. The following need to be considered:


Type of data which will captured and inputted.
Different tables which may be required and relationships
which could be established.
Different fields (including Key) which would be required.
Data types that would be required for each field
Text
Integer (numeric)
Double
Boolean (Yes/No)
OLE Object (Image)

Paper Based Forms Must Include:


Clear heading and instructions.
Use of text boxes to collect information such as name,
DOB etc.
Use of tick boxes to make choices easier (Gender).
Clear fonts and text styles.

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.2 Design

Data Validation checks whether the data entered data fulfils


specific criteria to ensure the data is valid.
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Different validation techniques can be used on different


fields depending on the type of data required for each field.

Presence Check To check if the data has been entered (is it present).
Range Check To check the data entered is in the correct range (Year 7 -12).

Length Check To check if item of text is too short or too long (check if full number has been entered).

Type Check To check if the type of data entered is correct (no letters in a numeric field).

Format Check To check if the data has been entered in the correct format (Date DD/MM/YYYY)

Data Verification: Is a Proof Reading: Once data has Double Entry: The same data
method of double checking been entered it will be checked is required to be entered
the data to see if it is to see if it is correct (e.g. check is twice (e.g. type new
correct. name is spelt correctly). password twice).

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.3 Development and Testing

Development
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Create the file structure: Validation Techniques: User Interface:

Field Names Validation rules will ensure The user interface will allow
(To store specific data) the correct data in entered the user to interact with the
Set Specific Data Types into the fields. system and input data.

Each step in the development stage will be checked to ensure there


are no errors in the system.

Validation rules will be checked to see if only the correct values


can be entered into the relevant fields.
User Interface: Check to see if they are user friendly and to see if
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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.3 Development and Testing

Testing Testing take place to ensure all


Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

components of the system are


Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 working correctly before the
system is implemented.
Modify if any Modify if any Modify if any
errors found errors found errors found
Software systems are developed
Testing Testing Testing in Modular form which means
each part of the system is
developed separately by the
programmer.
Modules combined to make Full Program
This allows each module of the
Modify if any errors found
system to be tested separately
Testing
once it has been developed.

If errors are found in the


Modifications which could be made:
modules or full program then
Data/file structures
Validation Rules then modifications will be made
Input methods & output formats to the system.

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.3 Development and Testing

A typical test plan would include: Example: Test


What is being tested Scores
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

The test data that will be used


The expected outcome of the Test. 0 100% (Range)
Below are examples of three different types of test data that could be entered -10% Boundary
into the system. Once the system has been fully tested then live data (actual 0%
data that would be entered) will be entered into the system. Results are
compared to those produced from the current system. 5%

Normal
10% R
20%
Normal data data within a (given) range
30% A
Example 10% - 90%
40% N
Abnormal 50%
Abnormal data data outside the range (limits) 60% G
Example Less than 0% or more than 100% 70%
80%
E
Extreme
Extreme data data on the boundaries of the range or at the limits of 90%
acceptability. 95%
Example 0%-5% or 95-100% 100% Boundary

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.4 Implementation

Advantages Disadvantages
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Direct Changeover The existing system is stopped The whole system would If the new system fails
and replaced by the new system have been fully tested then old system is not
immediately. before it is implemented available to fall back to.
so less chance of errors.
The data that was inputted into There may not be enough
existing system is now inputted Costs are reduced as time to provide training
into the new system. only one system is being to employees.
used. Tasks are not
duplicated.

Parallel Running The existing and new system If the new system does Tasks will be duplicated as
work together for a period of not meet the data is inputted into both
time until the new system fully requirements then old systems.
takes over. system is still available.
This will require more
Data is inputted into both Employees can be employees which will
systems whilst they are running trained gradually how to result in more costs
at the same time. used the new system. (paying salaries) for the
employers.

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.4 Implementation

Advantages Disadvantages
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Phased The new system is gradually You only introduce a Time consuming as every
introduced. When parts of the new part of system if the part of the system which
Implementation new system are working at a current phase is working is implemented needs to
satisfactory level then more correctly. be evaluated.
elements of the system are If a part of the new
phased in. system does not meet A number of training
the requirements then sessions would be
Eventually the old system will be you can always go back required for employees
phased out over a period of to point of system which when each step of the
time. was working. new system is introduced.

Pilot Running The new system is If the new system does It could take a while for
piloted (trialled) in one part not meet the the whole system to be
(department) of an organisation. requirements then only implemented across all
If the pilot is successful then it one department is departments.
will be implemented across all affected.
departments. If the system fails in one
Training can take place department then
Example: If a new system is in one department at a modifications and further
introduced in book store which is time. Then employees training would be
part of a chain. Then eventually if could be used in other required resulting in
the system is successful it will be departments to help delays.
introduced to all of the books with training.
stores in that chain (WHS).

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.5 Documentation

There are two types of documentation that should be produced when creating a new system:
User Documentation
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

Technical Documentation

User Documentation Technical Documentation


The user documentation is intended to The maintainers are usually technical people, who
help the users of the system. need to know exactly how the system works.

User documentation usually includes: Technical documentation usually includes:


List of minimum hardware and Details of the hardware and software required
software required to use the system for the system
How to install the system Details of data structures (data types, field
How to start / stop the system names, etc.)
How to use the features of the system Details of expected inputs
Screenshots showing the system in Details of validation checks
typical use Details of how data is processed
Example inputs and outputs Diagrams showing how data moves through
Explanations of any error the system
messages that might be shown Flowcharts describing how the system works
A troubleshooting guide

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ICT IGCSE Theory Revision Presentation
The Systems Life Cycle

7.6 Evaluation

The final stage of the system life cycle is to evaluate the new system which has been
implemented in full. The purpose of the evaluation is refer back to the requirements
Chapter 7: The Systems Life Cycle

specification to see whether the new system has resolved the issues of the
previous system and met the requirements stated in the design.

1 2 3
Identify any limitations
Compare the solution Evaluate the users
and necessary
with the original task responses to the results
improvements to the
requirements. of testing the system.
system.

After the evaluation is complete if there are any problems or


limitations with the system from a technical or user point of view then
the system analyst will refer back to the design stage of the systems
life cycle.
Based on the feedback necessary adjustments could be made to
improve the overall efficiency and usability of the new system

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