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Process Control

1. Process control and instrumentation, P&ID


2. Plant overview of process control strategy,
instrumentation and alarms systems.
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
The P and I diagram shows the arrangement of the process equipment,
piping, pumps, instruments, valves and other fittings. It should include:

1. All process equipment identified by an equipment number. The


equipment should be drawn roughly in proportion, and the location of
nozzles shown.
2. All pipes, identified by a line number. The pipe size and material of
construction should be shown. The material may be included as part of
the line identification number.
3. All valves, control and block valves, with an identification number. The
type and size should be shown. The type may be shown by the symbol
used for the valve or included in the code used for the valve number.
4. Ancillary fittings that are part of the piping system, such as inline sight-
glasses, strainers and steam traps; with an identification number.
5. Pumps, identified by a suitable code number.
6. All control loops and instruments, with an identification number.
Type of instrument
VALVE SELECTION
The valves used for chemical process plant can be divided into two broad
classes, depending on their primary function:
1. Shut-off valves (block valves), whose purpose is to close off the flow.
2. Control valves, both manual and automatic, used to regulate flow.

The main types of valves used are:


Gate
Plug
Ball
Globe
Diaphragm
Butterfly
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
The following procedure can be used when drawing up preliminary P and I diagrams:
1. Identify and draw in those control loops that are obviously needed for steady plant
operation, such as:
(a) level controls,
(b) flow controls,
(c) pressure controls,
(d) temperature controls.
2. Identify the key process variables that need to be controlled to achieve the
specified product quality. Include control loops using direct measurement of the
controlled variable, where possible; if not practicable, select a suitable dependent
variable.
3. Identify and include those additional control loops required for safe operation, not
already covered in steps 1 and 2.
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
4. Decide and show those auxiliary instruments needed for the monitoring of the
plant operation by the operators; and for trouble-shooting and plant development.
It is well worthwhile including additional connections for instruments which may
be needed for future trouble-shooting and development, even if the instruments
are not installed permanently. This would include: extra thermowells, pressure
tappings, orifice flanges, and extra sample points.
5. Decide on the location of sample points.
6. Decide on the need for recorders and the location of the readout points, local or
control room. This step would be done in conjunction with steps I to 4,
7. Decide on the alarms and interlocks needed; this would be done in conjunction
with step 3
TYPICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Level control
Pressure control
Flow control
Temperature control
Alarms and safety trips, and interlocks
Piping and Instrumental Diagram (P&ID)
Piping and Instrumental diagram (P&ID), or Process control and
instrumentation diagram - Engineering flowsheet or Engineering Line
Diagrams

P&ID provides:
1.Information needed by engineers to begin planning for the
construction of the plant.
2.Every mechanical aspect of the plant except the information given in
Table 1.8.
3.Table 1.9 gives the general conventions used in drawing P&IDs.
4.Each PFD will require many P&IDs to provide the necessary data.
5.A numbered box in the PID identifies utility connections. The number
with within the box identifies the specific utility. The key identifying the
utility connections is shown in the table on the PID.
6.All process information that can be measured in the plant is shown
on the PID by circular flags, including the information to be recorded
and used in process control loops.
Table 1.8 Exclusions from Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

1. Operating conditions T,P


2. Stream flows
3. Equipment locations
4. Pipe routing
a. Pipe lengths
b. Pipe fittings
5. Supports, structures, and foundations
Table 1.9 Conventions in Constructing Piping and Instrumentation
Diagrams
For Equipment - Shown Every Piece Including
Spare units
Parallel units
Summary details of each unit
For Piping - Include All Lines Including Drains, Sample Connections and Specify
Size (use standard sizes)
Schedule (thickness)
Materials of construction
Insulation (thickness and type)
For Instruments - Identify
Indicators
Recorders
Controllers
Show instrument lines
For Utility - Indentify
Entrance utilities
Exit utilities
Exit to waste treatment facilities
Table 1.10 continues
P&ID
Look at V-102 on P&ID

V-102 contains an LE (Level Element)


LE senses liquid level in separator and
adjusts flow rate leaving
LE opens and closes a valve depending on
liquid level
LE and valve represent a feedback control
loop
Equipment symbols
The P&ID is the last stage of the process design and serves as a guide
by those who will be responsible for the final design and construction.
Based on this diagram.

1.Mechanical engineers and civil engineers will design and install pieces
of equipment.
2.Instrumental engineers will specify, install and check control systems.
3.Piping engineers will develop plant layout and elevation drawings.
4.Project engineers will develop plant and construction schedules.

17
Process Integration
Objectives
The concept of pinch technology.
Composite curve
Problem table algorithm
Grand composite curve (utility target)
Heat exchanger network design
Pinch Technology
Pinch Technology refers to a simple methodology
for systematic analysis of chemical processes and
the surrounding system with the help of the first
and second laws of thermodynamics.

The first law provides conservation of energy and hence


enables us to find out inlet and outlet process conditions of a
flow stream.

The second law determines the direction of heat flow, i.e.,


heat energy can only flow in the direction of hot to cold. In a
heat exchanger, neither a hot stream can be cooled below
cold stream temperature nor a cold stream can be heated
more than the supply temperature of hot stream
Process Flowsheet for making Biscuits
container

water

sterilizer

oven packing
Flour+ biscuits
sugar+
flavour

Can we find ways to reduce the energy bills?


Logical step is to..
Promote heat recovery among process streams-
How?
Get the most efficient heat using operations
such as oven- cost-wise?
remain as it is - the unfortunate engineer.
We need a cost effective solution

Promote heat recovery among process streams -


you need a technique

Heat
transferred

SOURCE SINK
The Basics
HOT STREAMS or HEAT SOURCE - streams that need
cooling
Heat
transferred

SOURCE SINK

COLD STREAMS or HEAT SINK - streams that need


heating
What do you need to know about heat
recovery?

T hot in T hot out


Q

T cold out T cold in

1. Energy Balance

2. Design Equation

And above all, the Second Law prevails


What do you need to know about heat
recovery?

T hot in T hot out


Q

T cold out T cold in

1. Energy Balance :

Q = m1Cp1(T hot out - T hot in)


= m2Cp2(T cold out - T cold in)
What do you need to know about heat
recovery?

T hot in T hot out


Q

T cold out T cold in

1. Design Equation

Q = UA DT LMTD
Introducing T-DH plot
T

T h1
T h1 T h2
Q
T c2

T h2
T c2 T c1

T c1

DH
Q
What if the external utility comes in..
T H
T h1
T h2 T h3
T h1 Th3
Q C
T c2

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1

C DH
Q
Remember your goal is to cut down the
energy bills
T H
T h1
T h2 T h3
T h1 Th3
Q C
T c2

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1

C DH
Q

How ?
Of course by more heat recovery
T H
T h1
T h2
T h1 Q C
T h3 Th3

T c2 DTmin

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1 Q

DH
C
Q
Is this possible?
Recall your basic thermodynamics matters

DTmin is the minimum T that should exist in order to allow any heat transfer.
What are the implications?
T H
T h1
T h2
T h1 Q C
T h3 Th3

T c2 DTmin

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1 Q

DH
C
Q
Positive or negative?
What are the implications?
T H
T h1
T h2
T h1 Q C
T h3 Th3

T c2 DTmin

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1 Q

DH
C Q
Positive: Energy consumption reduced
Negative: Area increased
What are the implications?
T H
T h1
T h2
T h1 Q C
T h3 Th3

T c2 DTmin

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1 Q

Area = Q DH
C Q
U DT
What if we want to use more energy?
T H
T h1
T h2
T h1 Q C
T h3 Th3
DTmin
T c2

H T h2
Tc3 T c1 Tc3
T c2
T c1 Q
Area = Q C Q
DH

U DT

Area reduces, but more energy required


What about several hot
and several cold streams?
Flowsheet with 2 hot streams and
2 cold streams
Stream data for flowsheet

Stream Type Supply Target Enthalp Heat


temperatur temperatur y capacity
e e change flowrate
TS (C) TT (C) DH (kW) CP
(kW/C)
Reactor 1 feed Cold 20 180 3200 20
Reactor 1 Hot 250 40 3150 15
product
Reactor 2 feed Cold 140 230 2700 30
Reactor 2 Hot 200 80 3000 25
product
Example 2

The hot streams plotted separately


T (oC)

250

200

25
=1

=
CP

CP
80

40

H (kW)
3150 3000

6150
Example 2: composite cold stream

The cold streams can also be combined to


obtain a composite cold stream
T (oC) T (oC)

230 230

30
30

=
=

CP
180
CP

180

140

0
140

50 3
= 20 +
20
20

=
=

CP

CP
CP

20 20
H (kW) H (kW)
3200 2700 3200 2700

5900 5900
Example 2: Composite curves

Plotting the hot and cold composite


curves together gives the targets for hot
T (oC)
and cold utility
250

200
Pinch

DTmin = 10oC

80

40

H (kW)

QC,min = 1000 Qrecovery = 5150 QH,min = 750


Example 2: Composite curves

Now, increase DTmin to 20C


T (oC)

250

200
Pinch

DTmin = 20oC
80

40

H (kW)

QC,min = 1400 Qrecovery = 4750 QH,min = 1150


The correct setting for DTmin is fixed by economic trade-offs
between utility consumption or cost and heat exchange area

T T

1 2
(DTmin)1 = 10 C
(DTmin)2

H H
Cost

TOTAL
Energy

Capital
DTmin
1 2

Optimum
So far, generating the composite curves is complicated
and tedious

Setting the targets becomes difficult

To overcome this difficulty, let us introduce you


to the Problem Table Algorithm
An example will illustrate the procedure

Stream Type Supply temp. Target temp. Heat load Heat


Ts (oC) TT (oC) DH (kW) capacity
flowrate,
FCp
(kW/oC)
Feed 1 Cold 70 120 50 1

Feed 2 Cold 20 100 160 2

Product Hot 80 40 120 3

Set DT min = 10oC


Consider this shifting rule:

STEP 1:

Cold streams + DT min


2

Hot Streams _ DT min


2

In our example: Cold streams = + 5oC


Hot streams = - 5oC
So in our example:

DT min = 10oC

Stream Type Supply temp. Target temp.


Ts (oC) TT (oC) TS*(oC) TT*(oC)

Feed 1 Cold 70 120 75 125

Feed 2 Cold 20 100 25 105

Product Hot 80 40 75 35

T* - interval temperature (after shifting)


STEP 2: Set up shifted temperature intervals
in descending order

T* interval
temperature FCp (kW/oC)
3 2 1
125oC

105oC

75oC

35oC

25oC
STEP 3: In each shifted temperature interval, calculate
energy balance from:

DHi = (S FCPH S FCPC)i DTi

All hot streams All cold streams

DHi = heat balance for each interval

DTi= temperature difference across interval


Heat balance in each interval

T* interval
temperature FCp (kW/oC) SFCP -
DTinterval H DHinterval Surplus/
3 2 1 (oC)
SFCP C
o
(kW) deficit
125oC (kW/ C)

20 -1 -20 Deficit
105oC
30 -3 -90 Deficit
75oC
40 1 40 Surplus
35oC
10 -2 -20 Deficit
25oC
Surplus = excess heat available in the interval
Deficit = deficit heat in the interval
STEP 4: Cascade any surplus heat from high to low
temperature
T* interval
temperature FCp (kW/oC) HOT UTILITY
3 2 1 0 kW
125oC
-20
105oC 20 kW Deficit (D)
-90
75oC 110 kW Deficit (D)
40
35oC 70 kW Deficit (D)
-20
25oC 90 kW Deficit (D)

COLD UTILITY
..and find the MAXIMUM heat deficit
Use MAXIMUM heat deficit to cascade surplus
heat flows
T* interval
temperature FCp (kW/oC) HOT UTILITY
3 2 1 110 kW
125oC
-20
105oC 90 kW Surplus
-90
75oC 0 kW (PINCH)
40
35oC 40 kW Surplus
-20
25oC 20 kW Surplus
20 kW
T* pinch= 75oC
COLD UTILITY
T hot pinch = 80oC
T cold pinch = 70oC QH min = 110 kW, QC min= 20 kW
Summary for Problem Table Algorithm

STEP 1: Shift DT min


STEP 2: Set up temperature intervals
STEP 3: Calculate interval heat balances
STEP 4: Cascade for surplus heat flows

QHmin, QCmin and pinch location without trial-and-error of


drawing graphs
HEAT INTEGRATION ENERGY TARGETS Utility Targeting

Process normally used multiple level of utilities .

Fuel & Air

HP Steam
STEAM TURBINE
GAS TURBINE W MP Steam
W
LP Steam

Q+W
HEAT PUMP
FURNACE W
PROCESS

Air Preheat
Refrigeration
Fuel W

Q+W
COOLING TOWER
Composite curve method only tells us the amount of utility required to satisfy the process
requirement. But it does not tell us the mix utilities that can be used

180 1600 3000 1000

960 (Hot Utility)


130
120

100

80
Minimum temperature difference = 10 C
60

40
30

120 (Cold Utility)

H
1080 4640 720
And so does the problem table algorithm

960 QH
Stream Population DTint S CpC - S CpH DHint Surplus/Deficit

175 C
175 C

50 -20 -1000 Surplus DH = - 1000


125 C
125 C 1960
20 -24 -480 Surplus DH = - 480
105 C 105 C
2440
30 56 1680 Deficit
DH = 1680
75 C 75 C
20
10 76 760 Deficit
760
65 C
65 C
DH = 760
80
30 -4 -120 Deficit 0
DH = -120
35 C
40 36
35 C

120
120 QC
To enable designer to determine the various utility mix that can be used, Grand Composite
Curve is useful. It is also a plot using T-H diagram.

Consider the again the problem below

Cp Q
180 C 80 C
HOT 1 20 2000

130 C 40 C
HOT 2 40 3600

120 C 30 C 36 3240
COLD 1

100 C 60 C
COLD 2 80 3200

From the problem table algorithm, the heat cascade was derived
0 960 QH

175 C 175 C

DH = - 1000 DH = - 1000
Adjust the
125 C 125 C
1000 heat 1960
cascade
DH = - 480 DH = - 480
105 C 105 C
1480 2440
DH = 1680 DH = 1680
75 C 75 C
-200 760

65 C
DH = 760 Highest ve 65 C
DH = 760
-960 value for heat 0
accumulated
35 C DH = -120 35 C DH = -120
-840 120
120 QC

The adjusted heat cascade is used to develop the Grand Composite Curve
T Grand Composite Curve
960 QH
960
175 C 175 C

DH = - 1000
125 C 125 C
1960
1960
DH = - 480
2440
105 C 105 C
2440
DH = 1680
75 C 75 C 760
760

65 C
DH = 760 65 C
0

35 C DH = -120 35 C

120
120
120 QC H
How do we use them ?

T We dont
Grand Composite Curve
necessarily
960 have to
175 C
supply the
heating
Lowest 1960
utility at this
125 C
temperature Heat Recovery/ temperature
QH = 960
where hot Process to Process 2440
utility could be 105 C Heat Transfer
supplied and
still satisfy the
heating 75 C
requirement 760

65 C

35 C
120
H
With the presence of multiple utilities, the selection for utilities will look more complex.
Furnace Heating
Hot Utility Furnace Heating

HP Steam level No scope for HP

POCKETS OF
HEAT RECOVERY
MP Steam Heating
MP Steam level
PINCH

POCKETS OF
LP Steam level HEAT RECOVERY

Raising Low Grand Composite Curve facilitates


Temp Steam
the selection of the multiple utilities
Cooling Water
Cooling Water level
Cold Utility
DH
But there is a systematic way of approaching the mix utility selection and quantification
T
Hot
HP Utility

MP Targeting are done from the lowest


level utilities and moving up to the
higher one.
LP The rational is to maximise the
cheapest utilities as much as
PINC
possible before moving to the more
H expensive one.
Generate
LP
Targeting are done from the higher
Cooling temperature level utilities and
Water Cold moving down to the lower one.
Refrig. DH The rational is to maximise the
Utility
generation of higher level utilities as
much as possible before moving
down to cooling water and if
necessary, into the refrigeration
cooling.
So, what can we conclude ?

1. Grand Composite curve provides the better insight for deciding multi level
utilities.

2. Satisfying hot utility requirement through steam, flue gas or hot oil
heating have different repercussion on the grand composite curve.
Similarly for cooling requirement where steam raising has different
repercussion on the grand composite curve compares to cooling water.

3. Selection of utility mix has to be made based on cost which is reflective


also on the level.
Heat Exchanger Network Design
Heat exchanger network representation

100oC
Heat exchanger
Heat exchanger in the GRID DIAGRAM
unit in a conventional
form CW 200oC 140oC 100oC
C
200oC 140oC
Q
160oC 80oC

180oC 160oC 80oC


Steam H

The GRID DIAGRAM focuses on the


180oC heat transfer operations
and more importantly.. The diagram allows us to see
the pinch clearly (see later)
Typical Grid Diagram

HOT1 C
cooler

HOT2

COLD1
heater
H COLD2

Heat exchanger

Conventional rules:
hot streams run left to right
cold streams run right to left
hot streams on top, cold streams on bottom
hot utility heater, cold utility cooler
heat exchanger dumbell
Pinch divides the GRID DIAGRAM into 2 parts

120oC
HOT1 C
cooler
120oC
HOT2

100oC
COLD1
heater 100oC
H COLD2
Above Pinch Below
pinch pinch
With GRID DIAGRAM, pinch implications can be
assessed easily

120oC
C

120oC

100oC

100oC
H

No-No

3 Golden rules of pinch are violated


From a complex network
in a given process flowsheet: to a grid representation

1 2 Steam

1
E1 E3 E4
3 Cooling
water
E2 2 C
4
E5
Steam
Cooling E5
H 3
water
E4 E3 E1
4

E2

Pinch specialist talks about GRID DIAGRAM while process engineers


talk about PFD
Are we confusing ourselves?
Now let us focus on the network design

To ensure targets are met, the rules below must be


adhered to:

DT min < for all exchangers, including the utilities

No cross pinch heat transfer for all exchangers

Hot utility must be above the pinch and cold utility


must be below the pinch
An example

FCp
(MW/oC)
300oC 160oC 100oC
0.30 1

200oC 160oC 40oC


0.45 2

140oC
260oC
0.60 3

180oC 140oC 40oC


0.40 4

QH min = 28 MW QC min = 32 MW
STEP 1: Design should start from the pinch

Below Above
pinch pinch

Start at the pinch


Pinch
and move away

DH

Rationale: pinch is the most constraining part in the network


Above pinch, CPH CPC

FCp
(MW/oC)
300oC 160oC 100oC
0.30 1

200oC 160oC 40oC


0.45 2

140oC
260oC
0.60 3

180oC 140oC 40oC


0.40 4
QH min = 28 MW QC min = 32 MW
Below pinch, CPH CPC

FCp
(MW/oC)
300oC 160oC 100oC
0.30 1

200oC 160oC 40oC


0.45 2

140oC
260oC
0.60 3

180oC 140oC 40oC


0.40 4
QH min = 28 MW QC min = 32 MW
Result from STEP 1

FCp
(MW/oC)
300oC 160oC 100oC
0.30 1

200oC 160oC 40oC


0.45 2

140oC
260oC
0.60 3

180oC 140oC 40oC


0.40 4

QH min = 28 MW QC min = 32 MW

Now, what will be their heat loads?


STEP 2: Maximize loads to tick-off streams so that
we keep capital costs down

Heat FCp
Load (MW/oC) 16 MW
(MW)
300oC 160oC 100oC
42 0.30 1
18 MW
18 200oC 160oC 40oC
0.45 2

140oC
72 260oC
0.60 3

180oC 140oC 40oC


16 0.40 4

QH min = 28 MW
STEP 3: Then fill in the rest

Heat FCp
Load (MW/oC)
(MW) 26 MW 16 MW
300oC 160oC 100oC
42 0.30 1
213.3oC 18 MW
18 200oC 160oC 40oC
0.45 2

o 28 MW 140oC
72 0.60 260 C 170oC
3
H
213.3oC
180oC 140oC 40oC
16 0.40 4

QH min = 28 MW

No violation of DT min !
Repeat STEP 2 for below the pinch

Heat
FCp Load
(MW/oC) (MW)
16 MW
300oC 160oC 100oC 18
1 0.30
18 MW 40 MW
200oC 160oC 40oC 0.45 54
2
71.1oC

140oC
260oC
3

180oC 140oC 40oC 0.40 40


4

QC min = 32 MW
Repeat STEP 3 for below the pinch

Heat
FCp Load
(MW/oC) (MW)
16 MW
18 MW
300oC 160oC 100oC 18
1 C 0.30
18 MW 40 MW
200oC 160oC 40oC 0.45 54
2 C
71.1oC

140oC
14 MW
260oC
3

180oC 140oC 40oC 0.40 40


4

QC min = 32 MW
Completed design

26 MW 16 MW 18 MW
300oC 160oC 100oC
1 C
213.3oC 18 MW
200oC 160oC 71.1oC 40oC
2 C

140oC
14 MW
260oC
28 MW
170oC
H 3
213.3oC
180oC 140oC 40oC
4
pinch

As a rule of thumb: Ensure NO violation of DT min !


Summary:

Divide at the pinch so that we have ABOVE and BELOW the pinch
Start at the pinch and move away
Above pinch: CPH CPC, Below pinch: CPH CPC
Use the tick-off heuristic to maximize loads
complete design by fill in the rest
CAB 3024_Sem Jul 07
Note:
You need to trade-off between operating cost and capital cost during the design of
heat exchanger network. Therefore, you are advice to check the literatures for most
cost-effective method of designing heat exchanger network.