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MODULE 2
SCHOOL BASED MANAGEMENT FOR
SCHOOL HEADS

1 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE

Why are we here?

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The DepEd Vision

We dream of Filipinos who ________ love their
country and whose ___________ and _________
enable them to realize their full potential and
___________ meaningfully to __________ the
nation.
As a learner centered public institution, the
Department of Education ___________ improves
itself to better serve its stakeholders.

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ensure sensitive. culture-based. learning and STAKEHOLDERS institution. safe. learner. STUDENTS TEACHERS COMMUNITY and and staff. equitable. Our Mission To protect and promote the right of every Filipino to quality. constantly an enabling and are actively and motivating nurture every supportive engaged and share environment. facilitate other as stewards of the friendly. learners. and complete basic education where: ADMINISTRATOR FAMILY. 4 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . gender. environment for responsibility for effective learning developing life-long to happen. learn in a child.

Our Core Values MAKA-DIYOS MAKATAO MAKAKALIKASAN MAKABANSA MAKAKALIKASA MAKABANSA MAKA-DIYOS N 5 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

SCHOOL HEADS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: MODULE 2 “The Role of the Principal in Improving the School ” Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6 .

(an African proverb) 7 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .It takes a village to educate a child.

MAGIC WORD 8 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 8 .

Determining SBM level of practice and implementation based on the four principles of ACCESs 9 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . To explain the principles of SBM and how it promotes continuous school improvement 2. OBJECTIVES 1. Assessing level of SBM Level of Practice and implementation 3.

What is SBM? Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10 .

School-Based Management (SBM) Decentralization the SBM is the delegation of power from a central authority to regional decentralization of and local authorities decision-making (Merriam-Webster) authority from the central. division. 11 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . district to schools. regional.

12 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 12 . School-Based Management underscores the empowerment of the stakeholders in school communities to enable them to actively participate in the continuous improvement of schools towards the attainment of higher pupil/student learning outcomes.

parents. teachers. School-Based Management SBM emphasizes the individual school (as represented by any combination of principals. and other members of the school community) as the primary unit for improving education and the redistribution of decision-making authority over school operations as the primary means by which this improvement can be stimulated and sustained. students. 13 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 13 .

and school staff work together with the community leaders. and other stakeholders to improve school performance. teachers. local government officials. SBM has the potential to be a low cost way of making public spending on education more efficient by increasing the accountability of the agents involved and by empowering the clients to improve learning outcomes. school head. students. At the school level. 14 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 14 .

SBM Milestones RA 9155 2001 1997 1999 2005 2006 TEEP SEDIP SFI BESRA 15 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 15 .

The Imperatives for the Revision 16 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 16 .

What went well?
 Enabling policies were formulated to support SBM
such as:
• formulation of School Improvement Planning (SIP);
• establishment of School Governing Councils (SGCs); and
• conduct of Assessment of SBM Level of Practice.

 Inclusion of major line item in the department’s
budget to support the installation of SBM at all levels
 Program Support Fund (PSF) at the central, region,
and division; and
 grants at the school level.
Source: Aide Memoire, 8th World Bank Review Mission

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What went wrong?
 Unrealistic targets and inappropriate strategies in the
SIPs of many of the schools visited;

 Too much focus on the SIP templates, which is usually
interpreted as a one-size-fits-all form overlooking the
unique condition of their schools, the pupils/students
they are providing learning environments for, and the
peculiar issues they are confronting;

 There are more schools with School Report Cards (SRCs)
than School Improvement Plans which reflects a
disconnect of these two SBM processes.
Source: Aide Memoire, 8th World Bank Review Mission

18 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 18

What went wrong?
 The SBM Assessment process was reduced to “bean
counting” that over-emphasizes the collection of
prescribed documentation, the compliance to some of
which may not be within the control of the schools and
are not reflective of a functional system of good
practices.

 While DepEd reports that 100% of school heads in
many divisions had been oriented on SBM, their
practical understanding of the concept is not apparent.
Source: Aide Memoire, 8th World Bank Review Mission

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RATIONALE 20 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 20 .

social. and environmental make-up of the contemporary society 21 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 21 . cultural. political. economic. To encompass the diverse realities of learning contexts defined and uniquely occurring within specific geographic.

To enhance commitment of education stakeholders at all levels to their responsibilities and accountabilities in realizing the education outcomes for children 22 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 22 .

To further promote shared governance between the school and community 23 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 23 .

To improve the school system’s capacity to be on track in achieving goals and sustain good performance. 24 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE 24 .

Region. Etc. ALS. Central.The SBM Conceptual Framework Leadership Curriculum and and Governance VMG Learning (K to 12) Functionally Literate Citizen Accountability Resource and Continuous Management Improvement BESRA Thrusts NCBTS. Division 25 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . ECE.

26 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . making them responsive and relevant to the context of diverse environment. guides the education system to achieve its shared VMVG.FOUR PRINCIPLES OF ACCESs Leadership and Governance: A network of leadership and governance . Community-Based Learning: The curriculum and the learning systems anchored on the community and learners’ contexts and aspirations are collaboratively developed and continuously improved.

collaboratively developed by the school community. which monitors performance and acts appropriately on gaps and gains. and responsive accountability system is in place.FOUR PRINCIPLES OF ACCESs Accountability for Performance & Results: A clear. inclusive. and efficiency to support targeted education outcome. effectiveness. judiciously mobilized and managed with transparency. Convergence to Harness Resources for Education: Resources are collectively organized. 27 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . transparent.

professional and administrative support and also oversee that policies are being observed. and DO provide technical. RO. standards are being met and programs are being implemented. 28 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . The Conceptual Framework The CO.

as well as a resistance to change that may injure its systemic integrity and stability. 29 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . • Schools must allow the framework to continuously morph and develop on the basis of its experience to meet the emerging needs of the learning community. The Conceptual Framework • The boundary of the system indicated by a broken line denotes openness to inputs from the external environment.

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a necessity to flesh-out a paradigm that will drive behavior and performance measures • Ultimately. a demand to operationalize and bring to reality the aspirations of RA 9155 31 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . ACCES as Touchstone of Reforms • It started from a need of a harmonizing policy or statement that will guide reform initiatives • Then.

Collaboration Shared Governance Autonomy COMMUNITY-CENTERED Transparency Ownership Shared V / M Accountability S U Central LGUs D E P Regional NGOs M P Division Private A L District Sector N D Y Community Gender and cultural Accessible sensitivity Development appropriate Environmentally Safe CHILD (LEARNER)- CENTERED Learning-oriented and Learner- focused 32 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

and involved with families and communities .and community-centered Child(Learner)-Centered • A concept derived from the framework of rights-based education that is characterized as: “inclusive. 1999). crucial resources for learning.and children" (Shaeffer. Community-Centered • Mandate derived from RA9155. effective with children. EFA National Plan and BESRA • Community as source of strategic thrust. ACCESs is about being child(learner). healthy and protective for all children. curriculum development • Community as “rights-bearer” of rights to education 33 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

project or • Guide to strategic and activity vis-à-vis thrust & day-to-day affairs mandate • Culture among • Guide to examine stakeholders relevance & value of all other policies. Philosophy Approach • Belief and value that the • Method or process of Department espouses service delivery • Concept of an ideal • Measure to examine state consistency of policy. programs. projects 34 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . program.

SBM ACTIVITY (SHARING) 35 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

WALK THROUGH OF THE SBM ASSESSMENT TOOL 36 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

Curriculum and Learning – 7 indicators C. 2012) • Guided by the four principles of ACCESs (A Child-and Community-Centered Education System). The Indicators of SBM practice are contextualized on the ideals of an ACCESs school system. Leadership and Governance – 5 indicators B. Management of Resources – 5 indicators 37 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . REVISED SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT TOOL (November 27.Accountability and Continuous Improvement – 5 indicators D. A.

• After systematic D-O-D (Document Analysis-Observation- Discussion) Check/mark the extent of SBM practice for each indicator listed (numbered) based on the validation team's consensual agreements.Evidence indicates practices and procedure satisfy quality standards 38 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .Evidence indicates developing structures and mechanisms are in place to demonstrate ACCESs 2. • Rating Scale: 0.Evidence indicates planned practices and procedures are fully implemented and aligned to ACCESs 3.No evidence 1.

5-1.Ensuring the production of intended outputs/outcomes and meeting all standards of a system fully integrated in the local community and its self renewing and self sustaining. Description of SBM Level of Practice .4 – Developing 1.Maturing-introducing and sustaining continuous improvement process that integrates wider community participation and significantly improve performance and learning outcomes Level 111. 39 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .developing structures and mechanisms and acceptable level and extent of community participation and impact on the learning outcomes Level II.5-2.Advance.5 -Advanced Level 1.Developing.5-3.4 –Maturing 2.

SBM CHAMPIONS 40 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

insufficient textbooks and IMs. uncooperative parents. SAN MIGUEL CS San Miguel. dilapidated school buildings. crafted various interventions and strategies to address identified problems 41 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . San Miguel CS showed poor pupil performance due to ineffective teaching. and inadequate facilities • Had needs-assessment session in 2002 with the school constituencies prior to the formulation of SIP/AIP. Leyte (Region VIII) • In 2000.

59 (in 2003) to 77. Leyte (Region VIII) • Used SIP/AIP as benchmarks for success. SAN MIGUEL CS San Miguel.63 (in 2005) 42 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . commitment from stakeholders to meet set targets • Improved MPS in NAT from 47.

Kalinga (CAR) • Melting pot of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds and cultural origins: Igorots (dominant). Pangasinenses. and Tagalogs • Has a history of community involvement in education since 1999. Ilocanos. parents participate in school affairs and school beautification 43 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . CALAOACAN ES Rizal.

it was during this meeting that the 5-yr SIP was reviewed. CALAOACAN ES Rizal. and finalized 44 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . had the first documented PTCA meeting. revised. Kalinga (CAR) • Standards deteriorating. achievement scores were below national averages • In 2003.

50 (in 2003) to 74. Kalinga (CAR) • Low scores impelled school and its stakeholders to specify its targets.29 (in 2005) 45 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . and map out strategies such as INSET and parent cooperation to supervise studies at home • Improved MPS in NAT from 46. set indicators. CALAOACAN ES Rizal.

SILINGAN ES RT Lim. absences and tardiness due to house chores. inattentiveness in class due to hunger and malnutrition. and school’s poor overall performance • PTCA and barangay supported the school as evidenced by the institutionalization of school feeding program for all pupils started in 1999 46 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . high dropout rates. Zamboanga Sibugay (Region IX) • In 1999 beset with problems of children’s lack of motivation to study. perceived lack of discipline and laxity of teachers.

55 (in 2005) 47 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . a certain degree of independence in decision making was already being practiced but with the formal implementation of SBM. Zamboanga Sibugay (Region IX) • Prior to SBM. the school and principal enjoyed and optimized greater academic and fiscal leeway while being held responsible for student outcomes and accountable to a wider community • Shift in priority: from the rudimentary sense of meeting the most basic need (food) to moving school goals several notches higher – academic standards • Improved MPS in NAT from 44.93 (in 2003) to 67. SILINGAN ES RT Lim.

46 percent. BINUGAO CENTRAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DepEd Davao City-Region XI • In 2012. Binugao Central Elementary School showed poor performance in the National Achievement Test with an MPS of 60. • In 2013. teachers have poor result in ICT skills based on the NCBTS. • Fiscal Management was not properly implemented due to non issuance of fidelity bond to the SH. • Stakeholders participation in school programs and activities is not evident. 48 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

• Revisited the SIP/AIP with collaboration of the • PTA/SGC/SPG and Teachers. • Organized/Conducted series of trainings/seminars of teachers according to their NCBTS results. • Regular reporting of financial resources to the stakeholders and posting a MOOE Liquidation to the transparency board. 49 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . • Conducted Action Researches by the teachers and SH and utilized results for possible solutions and interventions . • Used SBM Assessment Tool to improve school performance by the PTA. • Organized the PTA and SGC. BINUGAO CENTRAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DepEd Davao City-Region XI Interventions and Strategies Implemented • Implemented the School Reading Program.SGC. SPG and Teachers.

Seminars/Trainings of Teachers 50 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

Revisiting the School SIP/AIP 51 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

Organized/initiated Basic Action Research Training 52 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

Champion in the Division Reading Program Implementation and benchmarked by different schools 53 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

and and resolved these neglected/inadequate school thru SBM facilities • Low achievement rates • Significantly improved (erratic/inconsistent) and MPS and other other performance indicators indicators 54 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . indifferent or cynical communities. • Identified problems absentee pupils. WHAT DO THESE SCHOOLS HAVE IN COMMON • Experienced problems: low teacher morale.

• Increased participation of all local stakeholders in decision- making processes. MORE BENEFITS OF SBM • More input and resources from parents (whether in cash or in kind). leading to a more collegial relationship and increased satisfaction. reduced dropout rates and (eventually) better learning outcomes. • More effective use of resources since those making the decisions for each school are intimately acquainted with its needs. 55 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . • Improved student performance as a result of reduced repetition rates. • A more open and welcoming school environment since the community is involved in its management. • Better quality education as a result of the more efficient and transparent use of resources.

PRACTICAL AVENUES FOR CHANGE 56 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

Improvement with other parts and To think in a way that with the larger system centered will bring about school To always remember improvements the why in everything that we are doing 57 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE . Formulation of an evidence-based SIP Evidence. Innovative based Thinking To be creative in looking To always consider data when making decisions at and addressing and implementing solutions problems in school Systems Thinking To think about how Continuous each part interrelates Learner.

Continuous improvement of existing systems and processes 58 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

Reflection As an SBM Practitioner How can I make a difference to the lives of the • Learners • Teachers • community 59 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .

SALAMAT PO! 60 | School Heads’ Development Program: FOUNDATIONAL COURSE .