Computer Network

Contents 
Meaning

of computer network  Uses and Applications of Networks  Types of Networks on the basis of Transmission Technology  Transmission Topologies  Few definitions and pictures related to networks  Wireless Transmission

Meaning of Computer Networks It refers to a collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology. A computer network is different from internet and www.

Computer network (cont.) 

Internet is a network of networks while web is a distributed system that runs on the top of internet. A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appears to its users as a single coherent system. A layer of software on the top of the operating system called middleware implements this model. 

)  In a distributed system. in computer network this coherence. model and software are absent.  Whereas . this software system built on the top of the network gives a high degree of cohesiveness and transparency to the system.Computer networks (cont.

Uses and Applications of Computer Networks     Business Applications Home Applications Mobile Users Social Issues .

E . collaborative report writing. B2C.  Promotes E.Business Applications of Computer Networks Facilitates resource sharing through a client server model. EEmail. video conferencing.  Serves as a communication medium eg.commerce eg. B2B.

newsgroup. games Electronic commerce B2B. teletelelearning. P2P . C2C. chat rooms. B2C.   Interactive Entertainment Video on demand. eee-  Person to person communication Through e-mail. G2C. video phone.Home Applications of Computer Networks  Access to information For knowledge or for fun Through e-newspapers. e-magazines and e-journals. eUsing internet for telephone calls.

Computer networks and Mobile Users Mobile computers such as notebook computers and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are one of the fastest segments growing in the computer industry. Although there are some wireless computers that are not mobile. . while there are mobile computers that are not wireless.

Computer Networks and Social Issues  The widespread introduction of networking has introduced new social. ethical and political problems. Issues over government versus citizens. Views posted on newsgroups may be deeply offensive to some people or may not be politically correct. . Threat of viruses. Issues over employer versus employee rights. identity thefts. Antisocial or criminal behavior.

Point-to-Point Networks Point-to- .Types of Networks on the basis of Transmission Technology  There are two types of transmission technologies: Broadcast links Point-to-Point Links Point-toBased on these there are two types of networks: 1. Broadcast Networks 2.

If the packet is intended for the receiving machine. Upon receiving a packet.Broadcast Networks  They have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network. a machine checks the address field. it is ignored. An address field within the packet specifies the intended recipient. it processes the packet. Short messages called packets sent by any machine are received by all the other machines. . if it is intended for some other machine.

e. Logical topology refers to the method of transmission of data between them. the layout of wiring. the locations of nodes. Physical topology refers to the physical arrangement of computers in a network. cables. and the interconnections between the nodes and the cabling or wiring system.Network Topology (Physical topologies and Logical Topologies) Network topology refers to the mapping of the nodes of a network and the physical connections between them i. ..

Types of Topologies      Bus or linear topology Ring topology Star topology Tree topology Mesh topology .

. Bus networks are the simplest way to connect multiple clients. Thus systems which use bus network architectures normally have some scheme of collision handling or collision avoidance for communication on the bus. but often have problems when two clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus. called a bus.Bus topology A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line. quite often using Carrier Sense Multiple Access or the presence of a bus master which controls access to the shared bus resource.

) The bus topology makes the addition of new devices straightforward.Bus topology (cont. The term used to describe clients is station or workstation in this type of network. Bus network topology uses a broadcast channel which means that all attached stations can hear every transmission and all stations have equal priority in using the network to transmit data. .

 Cost effective as only a single cable is used.Advantages of bus topology  Easy to implement and extend  Requires less cable length than a star topology  Well suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds (quick setup)  Cheaper than other topologies. .

Disadvantages of Bus topology          Limited cable length and number of stations. Significant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be able to stretch to most distant link). It works best with limited number of nodes. . It is slower than the other topologies. Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic. If there is a problem with the cable. Proper termination is required (loop must be in closed path). If one computer is down then the entire network will go down. Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run. the entire network goes down.

a star network consists of one central switch. which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. . An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echoecho-related problems. to and twofrom the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node. If the central node is passive. delayed by the two-way transmission time (i.Star topology Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In its simplest form. tolerate the reception of an echo of its own transmission. hub or computer.e. the originating node must be able to passive.

unaffected. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral node from all others. nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to. applied to a bus-based network. All peripheral node. sometimes including the originating node.)  The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of the systems to a central node. and receiving from. . only. but the rest of the systems will be unaffected. this central hub busrebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network. the central node only.Star Topology (cont. When node.

however if the central hub has adequate capacity. This isolated nature also prevents any non-centralized failure to affect the network. This topology induces a huge overhead on the central hub. and amounts to disconnecting the device from the hub. This makes the isolation of the individual devices fairly straightforward. non- . then very high network utilization by one device in the network does not affect the other devices in the network. Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to the hub. At most 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any communication between any two devices which are part of this topology.Advantages of Star topology   Better performance: Passing of Data Packet through unnecessary nodes is prevented by this topology.

increasing capacity of the central hub or adding additional devices to the star. This can help analyze all the traffic in the network and determine suspicious behavior. As noted earlier.  Simplicity: The topology is easy to understand. The simple topology obviates the need for complex routing or message passing protocols. establish.Advantages of Star topology (cont. as each link or device can be probed individually. can help scale the network very easily. the isolation and centralization simplifies fault detection. The central nature also allows the inspection traffic through the network. and navigate.) Benefits from centralization: As the central hub is the bottleneck.  .

While the failure of an individual link only results in the isolation of a single node. the failure of the central hub renders the network inoperable. immediately isolating all nodes.Disadvantage of Star Topology The primary disadvantage of a star topology is the high dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub. . The performance and scalability of the network also depend on the capabilities of the hub.

Disadvantage of Star Topology (cont. While in theory traffic between the hub and a node is isolated from other nodes on the network. and performance for the entire network is capped by its throughput. other nodes may see a performance drop if traffic to another node occupies a significant portion of the central node's processing capability or throughput.) Network size is limited by the number of connections that can be made to the hub. . wiring up of the system can be very complex. Furthermore.

FDDI networks overcome this vulnerability by sending data on a clockwise and a counterclockwise ring: in the event of a break data is wrapped back onto the complementary ring before it reaches the end of the cable. A node failure or cable break might isolate every node attached to the ring.  Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes.a ring.5 networks -. forming a circular pathway for signals . ring networks may be disrupted by the failure of a single link. Data travels from node to node. with each node handling every packet. maintaining a path to every node along the resulting "C-Ring".also known as IBM "CToken Ring networks -. 802.avoid the weakness of a ring topology altogether: they actually use a star topology at the physical layer and a Multistation Access Unit to imitate a ring at the datalink layer.  .Ring Topology A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes.

topologies. .Ring Topology (cont)  Many ring networks add a "counter"counterrotating ring" to form redundant topologies. fiber distributed data interface. and Resilient Packet Ring. Ring. Such "dual ring" networks include Spatial Reuse Protocol.

Advantages of Ring topology  Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit  Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load  Can create much larger network using Token Ring  Does not require network server to manage the connectivity between the computers .

adds and changes of devices can affect the network  Network adapter cards are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs  Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load .Disadvantages of Ring topology  One malfunctioning workstation or bad port can create problems for the entire network  Moves.

It allows for continuous connections and reconfiguration around broken or blocked paths by hopping from node to node until the destination is reached. and they generally are not mobile. . Mesh networks differ from other networks in that the component parts can all connect to each other via multiple hops. A mesh network whose nodes are all connected to each other is a fully connected network. voice and instructions between nodes.Mesh topology Mesh networking is a way to route data.

) Mesh networks are self-healing: the network selfcan still operate even when a node breaks down or a connection goes bad. As a result. This concept is applicable to wireless networks. wired networks.Mesh Topology (cont. and software interaction. . a very reliable network is formed.

also with a point-to-point link. the top level central point-to'root' node being the only node that has no other node above it in the hierarchy the hierarchy of the tree is symmetrical. it. each node in the network having a specific fixed number. the second level) with a point-to-point link (i.. the third level) connected to (i. of nodes connected to it at the next lower level in the hierarchy. being referred to as the 'branching factor' of the hierarchical tree. while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i.e. . tree. f.Tree (also known as hierarchical): The type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i. f. point-tobetween each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node. the number.e..

3. 2. since a network with a central 'root' node and only one hierarchical level below it would exhibit the physical topology of a star. f.) The branching factor.Tree Topology    1. is independent of the total number of nodes in the network .) A network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology and with a branching factor of 1 would be classified as a physical linear topology.) A network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology must have at least three levels in the hierarchy of the tree.

the nodes that are at higher levels in the hierarchy will be required to perform more processing operations on behalf of other nodes than the nodes that are lower in the hierarchy.) If the nodes in a network that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology are required to perform any processing upon the data that is transmitted between nodes in the network.) The total number of point-to-point links in a point-tonetwork that is based upon the physical hierarchical topology will be one less than the total number of nodes in the network. 5. .Tree Topology   4.

ClientClient-Server Network .

ClientClient-Server Network .

Peer to Peer Network .

Peer to Peer Network .

Wireless personal area network .

. words. Ethernet. Bluetooth is designed as a wireless version of USB. In other devices.Bluetooth Bluetooth is designed as a Personal Area Network (PAN) solution designed to transmit low volumes of data between very close devices as opposed to Local Area Network (LAN) which carry high volumes of data between potentially widely seperated devices. rather than a wireless version of Ethernet.

Inter network .

Hub .

Router .

Wireless network .

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