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Pregnancy & Terminology

Signs of Pregnancy
Missed menstrual period

Excessive tenderness in her breasts

Fatigue

Change in appetite

Morning Sickness

May have spotting or light, irregular menstrual flow


Am I Pregnant?
Urine Test: This is a quick simple test that test for
the hormone HCG within the females urine. HCG is
released by a women when the egg attaches to the
lining of the Uterus. HCG is only released when a
female is pregnant. (EPT = Early Pregnancy Test)

Blood Test: This test also detects HCG, but you must
go to a doctor and have blood drawn. Most people
get the blood test after they tested positive for the
urine test.
MEDICAL SPECIALIST
OBSTETRICIAN:
DOCTOR WHO
SPECIALIZES IN CARE
OF A PREGNANT
WOMEN AND THE
DEVELOPING FETUS
GYNECOLOGIST:
DOCTOR WHO
SPECIALIZES IN CARE
OF THE FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM
PREGNANCY TERM
Pregnancy is based on 40 weeks of development. 10
months in total.
1st month we DO NOT count due to the fact of not knowing
Broken down into three sections called trimesters
Define Uterus

Is a muscular organ that receives and


supports the fertilized ovum during
pregnancy and contracts during childbirth
to help with delivery.
FERTILIZATION
Where does
What is Fertilization? fertilization occur?
Is joining of an egg cell Fallopian tube
and a sperm cell. The process begins when
an egg is released from
one of the womans
ovaries and enters the
fallopian tube. The egg
remains in the fallopian
tube for 12-24 hrs. in
order for fertilization to
take place.
Define Ovum
Also know as the egg cell
The egg cell; If fertilization occurs the egg
will become an embryo.
Define Zygote:
The cell produced when a sperm fertilizes
an egg; contains genetic material that
forms the baby.
Define Blastocyst:
A thin-walled hollow structure in early
embryonic development that contains a
cluster of cells called the inner cell mass
from which the embryo arises. The outer
layer of cells gives rise to the placenta and
other supporting tissues needed for fetal
development within the uterus while the
inner cell mass cells gives rise to the tissues
of the body.
What is an embryo?
Is a developing baby through the second
month of growth after conception
The rapidly dividing mass of cells inside the
womens uterus.
Fetus
Is a developing baby from the ninth week
after conception until birth.
Its the name given to the embryo from the
third month on.
Think, Pair, Share
Write down what you believe is the purpose of the
placenta

Discuss it with the person sitting to the right of you


Placenta
Supplies fetus with oxygen
Supplies fetus with nutrients
Passes out wastes from the fetus
Umbilical Chord
Define Umbilical What 3 vessels are
Chord? contained in the
chord?
A rope like structure
that connects the
1 Large vein
embryo to the
placenta. 2 arteries
Think, Pair, Share
Write down what you believe is the purpose of the
amniotic sac is.

Discuss it with the person sitting to the in front of you


What is the amniotic sac used
for?
Temperature Control
Protection from shock
Barrier to infection
Think, Pair, Share
Pick up your folder but do not take your notes out yet!!

Discuss with your partner what you believe are some


signs of pregnancy
Two types of insemination
Artificial Insemination:
Procedure when sperm is injected into the
female with a syringe

In-vitro Fertilization:
Procedure that involves removing a living egg
from a female, inseminating the egg with a donor
sperm and returning the fertilized egg back into
the woman
Why is prenatal care important to
the mother and the baby?

If baby doesnt receive proper nutrition it may


cause premature birth.

A female should not drink alcohol when pregnant.


This can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which is
the presence of severe birth defects.

Females should not smoke or inhale smoke. This


can cause smaller babies and unhealthy babies.
Why is diet and exercise
important to the mother and the
baby?
It increases the chances of a healthy baby.

Increases the chances of having a proper birth


weight for the baby.

Keeps the mother healthy during pregnancy. Also


helps the mother lose the weight faster after
pregnancy.

Decrease chances of birth defects


Types of tests to check for
abnormalities of the fetus
Ultrasound:
Test using sound waves to depict an image of the
developing fetus. Usually performed at 10 weeks and on.
Harmony:
Harmony is more accurate than traditional Down
syndrome blood tests and much less likely to give a
false-positive result. That means there will be much less
chance your doctor would recommend follow-up testing,
such as amniocentesis.
Harmony also tests for two other genetic conditions,
trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) and trisomy.
In addition, with Harmony you have the option
to evaluate X and Y sex chromosomes.
Types of tests to check for
abnormalities of the fetus
Amniocentesis test:
Checks for chromosomal abnormalities
Spina bifida, down syndrome, hemophilia, tay-
sachs, sickle cell anemia

Chronic villus sampling test (CVS test):


Done during early pregnancy
A biopsy is taken of the villi in the placenta.
Sickle cell anemia, hemophilia
Think, Pair, Share
After hearing how important it is to be
healthy during pregnancy, please write
down how you believe both male and
female can incorporate a healthy lifestyle.
Ex: I believe they should wake up and go for a
walk or jog each day before work, and then have
a smoothie that is high in fiber.
Stages of pregnancy
First trimester (Months 1-3) (Initial development
and rapid growth):
At the end of the first month, the embryo has a
heartbeat, a two-lobed brain, and a spinal cord.
By the end of the second month, the embryo is
recognizable as a human and is called a fetus.
After two months, the fetus has started to form
arms and legs as well as fingers, ears, and toes.
The fetus can be visibly identifies as a male or
female. By the end of the first trimester, the
heart has four chambers.
Stages of pregnancy
Second trimester (Months 4-6) (Fetus Continues to
form):
By the end of the fourth month, fingernails, toenails,
eyebrows, and eyelashes have developed. Teeth
begin to form, lips appear, and head hair may begin
to grow. Movement of the fetus can be felt by the
mother. The fetus can bend its arms and make a fist.
During the fifth month, the heartbeat can be
detected by a stethoscope.
By the end of the sixth month vernix (keeps body
from dehydrating and skin from getting wrinkled)
appear on baby.
Stages of pregnancy
Third trimester (Months 7-9) (Growth):
By the seventh month lanugo (fine hair grown to
insulate the fetus) appears on the baby.
By the eighth months fetus growth slows down
and moves into a head-down position.
By the ninth month the fetus is full term. Skin is
smooth and waxy looking. The eyes are usually
gray. Languo drops off.
Signs of Labor:
The Show
The mucous plug in the cervix, which acts as a seal
during pregnancy, is passed as a blood stained or
brownish discharge.
Contractions:
Coordinated muscular contractions are generated in
the upper part of the uterus, the fundus. This helps
to gradually open, or dilate, the cervix.
Water breaks:
The amniotic sac (membrane) around the baby
ruptures, or breaks, allowing colorless amniotic fluid
to pass out through the birth canal.
Stages of Labor
Dilation of cervix:
Longest stage of labor.
Cervical opening enlarges eight to ten
centimeters, which is wide enough for the
baby to move through.
Stages of labor
Delivery of the baby:
Begins when cervix is completely dilated.
The baby moves farther down the birth canal,
usually head first. The mother pushes, and the
muscles in the uterus contract to push the baby
out.
Babys head will be visible, which is called
crowning.
Ends with the delivery of the baby.
Stages of labor
Delivery of the Placenta:
Expulsion of the afterbirth, which is the
placenta that is expelled after delivery. If
this does not occur naturally the physician
removes it.
Explain the difference
between:
Signs of Labor
Stages of Labor
Crowning:
The appearance of the babys head during
delivery.
Multiple Births
Identical Twins Fraternal Twins

Are twins that develop from Are twins that develop from
a single ovum fertilized by a two separate ova that are
single sperm that divides fertilized by two different
after fertilization to form sperm.
two zygotes
Have different chromosomes
Have same chromosomes
Can be same sex or opposite
Always will be the same sex sex

They share the same They develop in separate


placenta but have separate amniotic sacs and have
amniotic sacs and umbilical separate umbilical cords and
cords placentas
Types of birth

Natural birth:
Delivery of a baby without using drugs or surgery during birth.

Induced labor:
The stimulation of uterine contractions before they occur
spontaneously.

Breech birth
When baby delivered either foot first or buttocks first.
Types of Birth
Inducing labor:
Medication given or water sac broken by plastic hook
(amnio-hook)
Cesarean Section (C-Section):
A form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made
through a mother's abdomen and uterus to deliver one or
more babies.
Epidural:
A shot administered in the womans lower back to aid in
pain relief.
Types of Birth Continued
Episiotomy:
An incision between the vagina and anus (perineum) help
with crowning of the baby, to prevent muscles from
tearing

Vacuum extraction:
assist mother if she becomes too tired, cup on babys head
with slight suction

Forceps:
guide babys head out of birth canal
Think, Pair, Share

Discuss with the person sitting behind


you.
Which type of birth option do you
believe you would like to have if given
an option.
Do you believe it is important to have
the same opinion as your spouse? Why
LAMAZE
BREATHING
METHODS USED
DURING THE
DELIVERY PROCESS
TO REDIRECT THE
FOCUS FROM THE
PAIN.
Birthing Options
Hospital
Safest and quickest method of delivery to receive immediate
medical treatment

Home Birth
Comfort of delivery at own home, medical assistance is still
needed

Water Birth
Is for women with low risk pregnancies, drug free births
and minimal intervention
Birthing options
Midwife
Are certified house nurses

The birth can take place at multiple different locations


including a hospital, home or center

Birth Center
Birth centers are for women who want a certain comfort
zone and few people around
Birthing Positions:
Occiput Posterior: (Most common) Head down,
chest facing front of the mother.

Occiput Anterior: Head down, babys back facing


front of mother.

Left Occiput Transverse: Head down, babys facing


left hip.

Right Occiput Transverse: Head down, babys


facing right hip.
APGAR SCALE
IS AN ASSESSMENT
TEST ON A SCALE OF 1-
10
PERFORMED BY A
PEDIATRICIAN
7 OR HIGHER
INDICATES BABY IN
GOOD CONDITION
4 TO 6 BABY MAY NEED
ASSISTANCE
UNDER A 4 BABY MAY
NEED LIFE SAVING
TECHNIQUES
Think, Share
Do you believe that a person should have an option if
using different types of insemination in order to get
pregnant? Why
Think, Share
Do you agree with test to check for
abnormalities of the fetus? Why.
Types of disabilities
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS):
Caused by alcohol consumption during
pregnancy. May cause:
Down Syndrome
Low birth weight
Small head
Abnormal facial features
Abnormalities in the heart
Mental retardation
IS ALCOHOL WORTH IT!!
Premature Birth
Is a birth before the 38th week of gestation.
Causes of Premature Birth
Premature birth can be caused by any number of factors
such as high blood pressure or poor nutrition.

Abnormalities of uterus or cervix

Heavy smoking

Drug use

Generally poor health


Miscarriage
A miscarriage is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week
of pregnancy. The medical term for a miscarriage is
spontaneous abortion, but the condition is not an
abortion in the common definition of the term.

50% of pregnancy ends in miscarriage, but usually


before a women misses her menstrual period.

15% of recognized pregnancies end in a miscarriage.


Symptoms of a Miscarriage
Bleeding which progresses from light to heavy

Severe cramps

Abdominal pain

Fever

Weakness

Back pain
What causes a Miscarriage?
Causes are not well known

1st trimester causes are usually due to chromosomal


abnormalities in the baby, but have nothing to do with mother
of father.

Infection, exposure to environmental hazards, hormonal


problems, uterine abnormalities, incompetent cervix,
lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, drugs, Disorder of the
immune system (lupus), Severe kidney disease, Diabetes,
Congenital heart disease, thyroid disease, Certain
medications (Acne drugs Accutane), Severe malnutrition.

Age also: Women in 20s is 12-15% chance: Women at age 40 is


25%.
Stillbirth
Stillbirth is the death of a baby during pregnancy after
20 weeks of gestation but before delivery.

Stillbirth occurs in 1 out of every 200 pregnancies

A doctor will usually have to give a woman medicine to


start labor by giving her a C-section.
Causes of Stillbirth
High Blood pressure

Diabetes

Blood-clotting problem

Infection of mother or fetus

Placental abruption (Tearing away from uterus to soon)

Umbilical cord twisting, which can cut off oxygen to fetus

Fetus may have a birth defect or slowed growth development


Types of disabilities continued
Down Syndrome:
Environment and genetics
Extra 21st chromosome
Cleft lip/palate:
Environment and genetics
Two sides of upper lip do not grow together
properly.
Club foot:
Environment and genetics
One or both feet twisted (present at birth)
Types of disabilities continued
Cystic fibrosis:
Genetics
Thick mucus interferes with breathing, blocks
lungs, and causes coughing.

Diabetes:
Environment and genetics
Extreme thirst and increased appetite.
Caused by obesity and is predicted that every 1
out of 3 children will be born with type two
diabetes
Types of disabilities continued
Hemophilia:
Usually genetic
Blood does not clot properly

Sickle cell Anemia:


Genetics
Red blood cells are sickle-shaped instead of
round-shaped. Severe Anemia
Types of disabilities continued
Spina Bifida:
Caused by environment and genetics
Spinal cord forms outside of spinal column
Problems range from loss of bowel and bladder
control to paralysis and mental retardation

Tay-Sachs:
Genetics
Nervous system disorder
Baby will have poor psychomotor development,
weakness and sluggishness. Eventually blindness,
paralysis, mental retardation and seizures occur.
Death usually takes place by five years of age