Principles of Signalling ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The Time Interval System Fixed Signalling Distant Signals Interlocking Blocks The Track Circuit Multi-Aspect Signals Four-Aspect Signalling A Safe Braking Distance The Overlap 8/22/2010 .

Track Unoccupied Track Occupied 8/22/2010 .

‡ The AWS "ramp" as the inductor is known. is placed about 185 m on the approach side of the signal between the rails. the second an electro-magnet linked to the signal to provide an indication of the aspect.Automatic Warning System(AWS) ‡ An alarm sounds in the driver's cab whenever a train approaches a caution or stop signal. ‡ A form of a track mounted. non-contact inductor. ‡ AWS ramp contains a pair of magnets. the train brakes are applied. 8/22/2010 . ‡ Operation is based on energising and denergising of the electromagnet. the first permanent. If the driver fails to acknowledge the alarm. ‡ Enforcement-A very simple system called trainstop is used. The system is called AWS.

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8/22/2010 . first an arming loop and secondly. a trigger loop. Each pair consists of. regardless of any action (or inaction) by the driver. it will be forced to stop.Train Protection and Warning System (TPWS) ‡ If a train approaches a stop signal showing a danger aspect at too high a speed to enable it to stop at the signal. ‡ Consists of two pairs of electronic loops are placed between the rails.

TPWS Unit 8/22/2010 .

Automatic Train Protection(ATP) ‡ It can be either mechanical or electronic. 8/22/2010 .what speed can it do in this block and what speed must it be doing by the time it enters the next block. electronic track circuitry and generates codes ‡ The code data consists of two parts. ‡ ATP Speed Code includes an antennae on the train. ‡ Electronic ATP involves track to train transmission of signal aspects and (sometimes) their associated speed limits. the authorised speed code for this block and the target speed code for the next block. ‡ ATP Speed Codes-Gives two pieces of information about the state of the line ahead .

8/22/2010 . ‡ Data is passed to an on-board decoding and safety processor.ATP Code Transmission ‡ ATP Signalling codes contained in the track circuits are transmitted to the train. ‡ The permitted speed is checked against the actual speed. ‡ The code generator sends the appropriate codes to the track circuit. ‡ At the trackside. the signal aspects of the sections ahead are monitored and passed to the code generator for each block.

Route Signalling ‡ Junctions-Signals are provided at junctions. The signal has to perform two functions to confirm to the driver that the route is set and the points locked for the indicated route and that the block ahead is clear. 8/22/2010 .

‡ Track locking-the track circuit at the points is also interlocked with the point operation system to prevent any movement taking place while the train is passing through 8/22/2010 .Route Signalling ‡ Route Locking -The section of track between the signal and the points is "route lockedµ. -Once this track circuit is occupied the point control is locked and the points cannot be moved.

now usually a fixed transponder 8/22/2010 .originally a looped cable. ‡ The basic requirement of ATO is to tell the train approaching a station where to stop so that the complete train is in the platform ‡ Use of beacon .Automatic Train Operation(ATO) ‡ It is the non-safety part of train operation related to station stops and starts.

‡ ANY QUESTIONS??? 8/22/2010 .

THANK YOU 8/22/2010 .

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