Liver disease is any condition that causes liver inflammation or tissue damage and affects liver function.

The liver is a vital organ located in the upper right-hand side of the abdomen. It is as Large as a football, weighs 2-3 pounds, and performs numerous functions for the body: € converting nutrients derived from food into essential blood components € storing vitamins and minerals, regulating blood clotting, producing proteins and enzymes

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maintaining hormone balances, and metabolizing and detoxifying substances that would otherwise be harmful to the body. The liver makes factors that help the human immune system fight infection, removes bacteria from the blood, and makes bile, which is essential for digestion.


Type f i er Disease

Descripti n Rapid decrease in li er functi n The b dy pr duces an inappr priate immune response against itself; sometimes develops antibodies against own liver tissue Blood clots impede blood flow from the liver; symptoms such as ascites enlarged liver, jaundice and abdominal pain can develop

Examples f Causes/C nditi ns Drugs, t xins, a ariety f li er diseases PBC (Primary biliary cirrhosis), PSC (Primary sclerosing cholangitis),Autoimmu ne hepatitis Hypercoagulable disorders, liver injury, cancer, parasitic infection

Acute li er failure Aut immuneass ciated

Budd-Chiari syndrome

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Scarring of liver tissue leads to decreased liver function

Can be caused by a variety of conditions but usually a result of chronic hepatitis, alcoholism, or chronic bile duct obstruction Hemochromatosis, Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson's disease Viruses, alcohol abuse, drugs, toxins, autoimmune, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Viral hepatitis, Parasitic infection


Gene mutations can lead to liver damage, disease; relatively rare conditions Acute or chronic liver inflammation



Certain infections can cause various degrees of liver damage, blockage of bile ducts

Liver cancer

A cancer that originates in Increased risk the liver with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is most common primary liver tumor

Obstruction of bile ducts

Complete or partial blockage of bile ducts

Tumors, gallstones, inflammation, trauma

€ congenital

birth defects, or abnormalities of the liver present at birth € metabolic disorders, or defects in basic body processes € viral or bacterial infections € Alcohol or poisoning by toxins € certain medications that are toxic to the liver € nutritional deficiencies € trauma, or injury




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Galactosemia, an inherited disease in which the body cannot tolerate certain sugars in milk. These sugars can build up, causing serious damage to the liver and other organs of the body. Alagille's syndrome, a condition in which the bile ducts narrow and deteriorate, especially during the first year of life. Alpha 1- antitrypsin deficiency, a genetic liver disease in children that can lead to hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver Neonatal hepatitis, which is hepatitis that occurs in a newborn during the first few months of life Tyrosinemia, a disorder that causes serious problems with liver metabolism. Hemorrhagic telangiectasia, a condition in which thin blood vessels allow frequent and easy bleeding of the skin and digestive tract.


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Reye's syndrome, a condition that causes a buildup of fat in the liver. This condition has been linked in some cases to use of aspirin, especially in conjunction with chickenpox, influenza, or other illnesses with fever. Wilson's disease, an inherited condition that causes a buildup of the mineral copper in the liver Thalassemia, a group of hereditary anemias, or low red blood cell counts Biliary atresia, a condition in which the bile ducts extending from the liver to the intestine are too small in diameter or are missing Chronic active hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver that causes severe scarring and interference with liver function Cancer of the liver, which may result from cancer in other parts of the body that have spread to the liver

Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin € darkened urine € Nausea € Loss of appetite € Unusual weight loss or weight gain € Vomiting € iarrhea € Light-colored stools € Abdominal pain in the upper right part of the stomach € Malaise, or a vague feeling of illness € Generalized itching € Varicose veins (enlarged blood vessels) € Fatigue


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Cirrhosis, which is a serious condition that causes tissues and cells in the liver to be replaced by scar tissue. Type I glycogen storage disease, which causes problems in controlling blood sugars when a person fasts Porphyria, a condition that causes a malfunction in how the body uses porphyrins. Porphyrins are important in making hemoglobin in red blood cells, to carry oxygen throughout the body. Hemochromatosis, a condition which causes the body to absorb and store too much iron. The iron buildup causes damage to the liver and other organs. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, a condition that causes the bile ducts of the liver to narrow due to inflammation and scarring

Sarcoidosis, a disease that causes a buildup of lesions within the liver and other organs of the body. € Gallstones, which may block the bile duct. € Hepatitis, an inflammation and infection of the liver caused by any of several viruses. € Cystic disease of the liver, which causes lesions and fluid-filled masses in the liver.

Alcohol-related liver diseases include:
Fatty liver disease, which causes an enlarged liver € Alcoholic hepatitis € Alcoholic cirrhosis

A rare t severe for of t e liver i fection called acute ful inant epatitis causes liver failure. Symptoms of liver failure include:
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An enlar ed and tender liver nlar ed spleen Suscepti ility to leeding Encephalopathy, hich is a disorder that affects how the rain functions hanges in mental status or level of consciousness Ascites, which is an accumulation of fluid inside the abdomen Edema or swelling under the s in Aplastic anemia, a condition in which the bone marrow cannot make blood cells

€ Alcoholism

prolonged use of alcohol can cause a variety of mental and physical conditions. Consumption of alcohol affects the liver and other organs.

Viral Hepatitis Any of the following viruses can affect the liver and cause death: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, Hepatitis E, and Hepatitis X. Among these types A, B and C are the main types of viral hepatitis.




Conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation;

€ Chemoembolization

(injecting cancer-killing drugs into the liver via a catheter) and other interventional cancer treatments; € Bile duct drainage via catheter € Stenting (placement of a tiny mesh-metal tube to support the bile duct or a blood vessel in the liver); € Intravenous blood pressure-lowering medications; and € Liver transplant.

€ motivate

patient to stop drinking alcohol € vaccination for hepatitis € eradication of causative pathogens € cholecystectomy

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