POLLUTION

‡ The change in the environment caused by natural or artificial input of harmful contaminants into the environment and may cause instability, disruption or harmful effects to the ecosystem.

TYPES OF POLLUTION

Air Pollution ‡ Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms. . particulate matter.

Land Pollution ‡ is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. .

Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution.Land Pollution Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes. and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. exploitation of minerals. .

causing diseases in both humans and other species of animals. .Land Pollution ‡ The Industrial Revolution set a series of events into motion which destroyed natural habitats and polluted the environment.

where they become dissolved or suspended in the water or deposited on the bottom. or recycle them. and thus interfering with the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. accumulating to the extent that they overwhelm its capacity to absorb. .Water Pollution ‡ State resulting when substances are released into a body of water. break down.

‡ Noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting. noise pollution contaminants are not physical particles. irritating. or damaging sounds are freely audible. but rather waves that interfere with naturally-occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment. As with other forms of energy pollution (such as heat and light pollution). .

The temperature change be upwards or downwards. .Thermal Pollution ‡ is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence.

Effects of Pollution .

In the process. Pollution is a human contribution to nature. Science has evolved technologies and technologies have helped the human welfare. .Natural ‡ The ultimate cause of pollution is human activity itself. the pollution has been a part of technology and therefore a part of human miseries.

.directly and indirectly ‡ Agriculture for food production and industrial needs ‡ Health care for health of human beings and animals ‡ Transport for mobility of human beings ‡ Dwelling for settlement in city or villages ‡ Energy for various direct human needs and industrial needs.Human activities mainly include: ‡ Industries for various human needs .

N2O5) and by solid particles (ashes) in suspension in great clouds like pumice and basalt. H2S (hydrogen sulfide). NO. SO2 (sulfur dioxide). HF (hydrofluoric acid) and NOx (various nitrogen oxides. mixed with other rocks. . N2O3. NO2.Anthropogenic ‡ Volcanic eruptions and emissions. HCl (hydrochloric acid). or present at very little concentrations. These frequent events can release in the atmosphere very variable amounts of matter. normally absent in the atmosphere. This matter can be formed by gases like CO2.

The acid gases like SO2 and. . always for the presence of H2SO4. days or months. more intense than those caused by human pollution because concentrated on limited areas. SO3 and SO2 can also bubble from the bottom of volcanic lakes. can cause harmful and corrosive acid rains containing H2SO4 (sulfuric acid). depending on their dimensions. reducing solar light.‡ The finest particles can remain suspended in the atmosphere for hours. causing rains saturated of volcanic ash that dirt everything. until making them very acid. SO3 ( produced by SO2 oxidation in the air). above all.

talking of "atmospheric pollution" is surely too reductive. until the fall of the airplane.D. reduce visibility. all airports around a volcano in eruption with abundant ash emission are always closed and airplanes .... but even much more. as occurred in the Roman town of Pompeii.‡ The volcanic ash that deposits on the ground within few hours can cover it for various mm and cm. making difficult breathing and are particularly dangerous for jet airplanes turbines that can be easily clogged. in any case. Just for this reason. ‡ These ashes. buried by 30 m of ashes and lapilli in 79 A. After a catastrophic event like this.

An earthquake. a submarine landslide or the excess of unstable methane can produce sometimes great masses of CH4 from the sea. This pollution is due to leaks of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere from thawed permafrost or from unstable sea-bottoms containing hydrated CH4 (frozen and mixed to the mud and rocks under the sea-bottoms. able sink large ships with their bubbling in the sea or explode airplanes flying at low altitude. .‡ Pollution from geological (not volcanic) origin.

at equal concentration. . CH4 is polluting not only because flammable.This could be the explanation of the mysterious disappearing of airplanes and ships in the famous Bermuda Triangle. but also for being about 20 times more effective as a greenhouse gas than CO2. an area that could be exposed to these phenomena.

until killing all fish. These algae consume all the O2 dissolved in water (eutrophication) with their death and decomposition. lake or swamp undergoes an excessive proliferation of algae. . whose decomposition is even more polluting.‡ Biological pollution This pollution source is possible in water when a closed sea. due to an increase of fertilizing substances carried by rivers or rains.

The more serious of the two are the biological effects. .Effects of Pollution ‡ Pollution produces physical and bi ological effects that vary from mildly irritating to lethal.

but they include eff ects other than actual physical damage. .‡ Physical Effects The physical effects of pollution are those that we can see.

. Oil spilled into the seas coats everything it touches. One obvious physical effect of pollution is the result of oil spills that are caused by ship collisions or other accidents.Oil spills.

smoke. asbestos. Burning oil and coal produce Sulfuroxides. particulates damage and soil materials. lead. which cause steel to erode two to four times faster than normal. . and equipment.sulfur oxide particulates cause corr osion to occur at an even faster rate. When combined with other pollutants (soot.Air pollutants. structures. By themselves. and so on). Air pollutants damage a wide variety of materials.

. Pollution candestroy vegetation that provides food and shelter. It can seriously disrupt the balance of nature. can cause the death of humans. and. in extreme cases. birds. and marine life.‡ Biological Effects The most serious result of pollution is its harmful biological effects on human health and on the foodchain of animals.

Solution for Pollution ‡ Recycle Everyday. as a health precaution from the pollutants in normal everyday drinking water. . littering. or own filters for their tap water. people recycle cans. and what is going to happen when there are no more land fills. and newspapers. glass bottles. Many people buy bottled water. Everyone seems to be concerned with issues such as.

.‡ Car Pooling The solution for problems caused by automobiles can only be taken to the level of removing vehicles off the road that cause excessive pollution.

‡ Enforce existing laws A politician pontificating about a great new anti-pollution law they've sponsored means little if they continue to allow existing laws to go un enforced. .

and riparian buffer zones can help keep polluted runoff from entering streams. Right-sizing applications of fertilizer and using techniques like biodynamic farming. . settling ponds. no-till planting.‡ Encourage smart agricultural practices.

. They also tend to degrade your soil over time. and gardens. While you may find these products helpful. much of their volume is washed by rain or blown by air to nearby streams. ponds. pesticides. landscaping. If you put "normal" fertilizer. and other chemicals on your lawn. and rivers. making your future gardening efforts that much more difficult and reliant on chemicals. you are part of the water pollution problem.‡ Reduce urban/suburban runoff of lawn fertilizers and pesticides.

" It's time to get serious about preserving wetlands. . Both inland and coastal wetlands act to buffer surges in runoff and to filter pollutants from runoff and flows. Yet it has been standard practice in the US (and many other countries) to allow development concerns to almost always trump the value of "nature's services. and reestablish them wherever possible.‡ Prevent further destruction wetlands.

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