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Artificial

Intelligence
Hossaini
Winter 2016
Outline
book : Artificial intelligence a modern Approach
by Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig.
A Practical Guide To Building OWL Ontologies
Using Protg 4 and CO-ODE Tools, Matthew
Horridge.
What is AI
Agents and environments
Problem solving methods
Adversarial Search
Logic
Ontologies and protg
Evaluation
Final Exam: 80 points
Seminar : 20 points

o Neural Networks
o Evolutionary Algorithms
o Fuzzy Logic
o Rough Sets
o Conditional Random Fields
o Support vector machines
o Natural language Processing
o Data mining methods
What is AI
What is AI
This gives us four possible goals to pursue in artificial intelligence:

Systems that think like humans. Systems that think rationally.


Systems that act like humans. Systems that act rationally.
Acting Humanly
the Turing Test
Can machine thinks?
Can machine behave intelligently?
Operational Test for intelligent behavior or The
imitation game
Acting Humanly
the Turing Test
The computer would need to possess the following
capabilities:
natural language processing to enable it to communicate
successfully in English (or some other human language);
knowledge representation to store information provided
before or during the interrogation;
automated reasoning to use the stored information to answer
questions and to draw new conclusions;
machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect
and extrapolate patterns.
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
Determining how humans think.
need to getinsidethe actual workings of
human minds.
There are main ways:
1-through introspection: trying to catch our
own thoughts as they go by
2-through psychological experiments
If the program's input/output and timing behavior
matches human behavior, that is evidence that
some of the program's mechanisms may also be
operating in humans
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
Granny was almost right:
Behavior really is governed by what we know and what we want (together with the
mechanisms for representing and for drawing inferences from these)

What determines our


behavior is not how the world
is, but how we represent it
As Chomsky pointed out in his review of Skinner, we describe
behavior in relation to the objective properties of the world.
Every behavioral regularity (other than physical ones like
falling) is cognitively penetrable
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
Perception
acquiring real-time information about the surrounding
environment.
Language use
making use of information about syntax, semantics and
phonology.
Reasoning
combining different sources of information, deriving new
information, testing consistency of information, etc.
Action
making use of information in action planning and guidance.
Memory
storing and retrieving information
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
Perception
acquiring real-time information about the surrounding
environment.
Language use
making use of information about syntax, semantics and
phonology.
Reasoning
combining different sources of information, deriving new
information, testing consistency of information, etc.
Action
making use of information in action planning and guidance.
Memory
storing and retrieving information
Psychology Cognitive science

Social psychology

Educational psychology
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
Pavlov's Dogs | Simply Psychology
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
The mind-body problem : what is the relationship
between mind and body? Or alternatively: what is
the relationship between mental properties and
physical properties
Duality )Plato( Vs. Monism(Aristotle)
Monism says: union of body and soul by saying
that the soul is the form of the body.
means that a particular person's soul is no more
than his nature as a human being.
Thinking Humanly
Cognitive science
Duality says: true substances are not physical
bodies, which are ephemeral, but the eternal
Forms of which bodies are imperfect copies.
These Forms not only make the world possible,
they also make it intelligible, because they
perform the role of universals, or what Frege
called concepts'
Thinking Rationally
The laws of thought
Aristotle was one of the first to attempt to codify
right thinking.
syllogisms:provided patterns for argument
structures that always gave correct conclusions
given correct premises.
There are two main obstacles to this approach:
take informal knowledge and state it in the formal
terms required by logical notation, particularly
when the knowledge is less than 100% certain.
Second, does being able to solve a problem ``in
principle'' means doing so in practice.
Acting rationally: The
rational agent approach
means acting so as to achieve one's goals, given
one's beliefs.
correct inference is not all of rationality(Laws of
thought), because there are often situations
where there is no provably correct thing to do, yet
something must still be done.
ways of acting rationally that cannot be
reasonably said to involve inference.
For example, pulling one's hand off of a hot stove
is a reflex action that is more successful than a
slower action taken after careful deliberation.