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OSCILLATIONS

Periodic Motion or Oscillation

periodic motion - motion that repeats over and over in

a regular time interval.

restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement

from equilibrium position.

Fx kx

Definition of Terms:

period (T) time for one complete oscillation.

1 1

T f

f T

amplitude (A) maximum displacement from

equilibrium position.

2

2f

T

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

Consider a body of mass m connected to a spring on a

frictionless horizontal track. The body is displaced toward +x

and then released.

at x = + A:

vx =0 and ax = -maximum

Simple Harmonic Motion

vmax

at x = 0: vx = maximum at x = - A:

vx =0 and ax =+maximum

Fx

acceleration ax: ax

m x

a x k

m

UCM and SHM

The Reference Circle:

The figure shows the top view of a horizontal disk of radius A

with a ball attached to its rim at point Q. The disk rotates

with constant angular speed .

A horizontal light beam shines on the rotating disk and casts

a shadow of the ball on the screen. The shadow at point P

oscillates back and forth in SHM.

UCM and Equations of SHM

SHM is the projection of UCM onto a diameter.

displacement x :

x A cos

velocity vx :

v x vQ sin

v x A sin

UCM and Equations of SHM

acceleration ax :

a x aQ cos

2

vQ

ax

A

cos a x 2 x

a x 2 A cos

k 1 k m

x k

2 x f T 2

m m 2 m k

Equations of SHM

displacement x (as a function of time):

makes an angle with the positive x-axis.

The displacement will be

x A cost xmax A

dx

vx v x A sin t

dt

vmax A

Equations of SHM

dv x

ax

dt

a x 2 A cost

a x max 2 A

Phase Angle

Suppose an oscillating body has an initial position xo and

initial velocity vox at time t=0.

vox A sin

xo A cos

vox A sin

tan

xo A cos

vox

tan

1

xo

Amplitude A

2

vox A sin

vox

A sin

xo A cos xo A cos 2

2

vox

x

2

A 2

sin 2

cos 2

o

2

vox

A xo

2

2

Total Mechanical Energy in SHM

Consider a spring-mass system. The total energy of the

oscillating body is

1 2 1 2

E K U cons tan t E mv kx cons tan t

2 2

If the body is at rest, x=A If the body is at x=0,

1 2 1

E kA E mvmax

2

2 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 k

mv kx kA v A x

2 2

2 2 2 m

vmax A

The Simple Pendulum

Consider a pendulum of length L.

If the pendulum is displaced byu an

amount x, the restoring force is

F mg sin

F mg

x mg mg

F mg x k

L L L

k g

m L

1 g L

f T 2

2 L g

Example 1

Answers:

(a) 0.120 m

(b) 1.60 s

(c) 0.625 Hz

Example 2

Answers:

(a) 0.98 m

(b) + /2

(c) x =A cos (t+) = 0.98m cos [(12.2rad/s)t + /2)

Example 3

Example 4

Answers:

(a) 4.06 cm

(b) 1.21 m/s

(c) 29.8 rad/s

Example 5

Answers:

(a) 1.28 s

(b) 3.84 s

Example 6 Problem 17 p.405

An oscillator consists of a block attached to a spring

(k=425 N/m). At some time t, the position (measured

from the systems equilibrium position), velocity, and

acceleration of the block are x=0.100m, v=-13.6 m/s, and

a=-123 m/s2. Calculate the (a) frequency of oscillation,

(b) the mass of the block, and (c) the amplitude of the

motion.

Answers:

(a) 5.58 Hz

(b) 0.346 kg

(c) 0.401 m

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