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3G Optimization &

Trouble-
shooting Process
3GRANOP

June 2005
Pekka Ranta

Company Confidential
1 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
3GRANOP - Agenda
Day 1 Module 1
Pre-Optimization & Optimization process
Understand needed tools & process used in optimization

Day 2 Module 2
Performance monitoring
Failure analysis: call setup, handover and drop

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Objective of Module One

To understand the process and main methods used in 3G Optimization

After the course the participant should be able to

describe the network Optimization process


explain the issues related to Optimization
show skills to identify key failure mechanism
show skills to improve the KPIs

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3G Optimization Process Contents
1. Pre-launch Optimization
Process
Tools
Preparation
Tuning & Verification
Cluster Optimization
2. Continuous Optimization
Example Process
Problem Solving Process
Failure Analysis
Parameter Optimization

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Optimization Process example

Simulation Data Change


Change
DataAnalysis
Data Analysis
/ Analysis implement
implement
Field data
Y end

Target
Target Target
Target
Service
KPI Target
Service Y Pilot coverage
Pilot coverage N
Probability
Probability
Achieved ? /SHO
/SHO area Optimization
Dominant &
achieved?
achieved? ok?
ok?
Overlapping
N Area Optimization

Configuration
Survey

N
FailureAnalysis
Failure Analysis

Dominant
Dominant
Area (VS
Area (VS Capacity
Neighbour/SHO/ISHO capacity)
capacity) Optimization
=ok?
=ok? Y
optimization

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KPI definition

Identify key KPIs to monitor on a daily basis


Identify PIs to monitor in case of problem with a KPIs
Identify & configure tools necessary to perform the tasks above

KPIs are operator specific and a process should be agreed:


Is 2G<->3G available
Which PS & CS CN is in place
What type of WBTS is used (ROC, CEC)
What is the expected quality?
What is the amount of subscriber
What services are activated in the Network?
What is the amount of drive test that the operator wants?

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Achievable Today in Optimized Networks (Aug 04)
Projects reporting
values below these
are performing under
Achievable in golden Minimum project target values par level compared
KPI to peer networks.
clusters (drive testing) (network wide stats)
98.00 Call Setup Success Rate AMR (%) 95.00
96.00 Call Setup Success Rate UDI (%) 95.00
98.00 Call Setup Success Rate PS(%) 96.00
1.50 Call Drop Rate AMR (%) 2.50
3.50 Call Drop Rate UDI (%) 3.00
1.50 Call Drop Rate PS(%) 3.00
N/A RRCSetup Success Rate (%) 96.00
55.00 64K Uplink TP, stationary (kbps) N/A
53.00 64K Uplink TP, during drivetest (kbps) N/A Values are reached
when RRC
57.00 64K Downlink TP, stationary (kbps) N/A pollution is properly
55.00 64K Downlink TP, during drivetest (kbps) N/A addressed if present.
RRC performance
118.00 128K Downlink TP, stationary (kbps) N/A has decreased!
115.00 128K Downlink TP, during drivetest (kbps) N/A
340.00 384K Downlink TP, stationary (kbps) N/A
Depending on GSM 330.00 384K Downlink TP, during drivetest (kbps) N/A
network Quality 250 Roundtrip Delay (ms) N/A
1/20 ISHO AMR 3G->2G (drops/tries) N/A
N/A Cell Availability (%) 99.00

KPIs are based on field and counter measurements in customer


networks
Values will be updated on monthly basis
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Optimized network means

All planned sites are integrated and on air.


The Cluster is planned according to the latest available 3G planning knowledge in
the Telecom Industry.
All sites are final accepted and maintained according to the latest operational
procedures.
All Sites are tuned according to the latest available 3G tuning knowledge in the
Telecom Industry.
The Design of the concerned Core Network and the Backbone does fulfil the
demand of capacity, quality and service portfolio for 2004.
The Cluster does have optimised parameter set for every cell according to the
latest available 3G-Optimization knowledge in the Telecom Industry.
There is no interference from other frequencies or noise sources.
Network dimensioning is carried out to meet the traffic requirements (I.e., no
congestion in the network)

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KPI measurement conditions
Minimum radio conditions for field measurements for all KPIs
Best server CPICH RSCP > -100 dBm
Best server CPICH EcNo > -11 dBm
CPICH EcNo of the 4th strongest cell > 6dB below best server
Radio conditions for static throughput measurements
Guarantee only static throughput close to the BTS
Best server CPICH RSCP > -70 dBm
Best server CPICH EcNo > -8 dBm
CPICH EcNo of the 2nd strongest cell > 6dB below best server (in practice no soft handover)
Radio conditions for mobile throughput measurements
If mobile throughput measurements are required the following applies (to be taken into account
in route planning)
CPICH EcNo of the 4th strongest cell > 6dB below best server

CPICH CPICH
RSCP EcNo
64kbps > -100 dBm > -13 dB
128kbps > -95 dBm > -10 dB
Company Confidential 384kbps > -85 dBm > -7 dB
9 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
WCDMA cell health report

Take Weekly report with daily data for last 14 days


[also available per day with hourly data or 14 days BH data]
Typically includes :
Cell Availability
Registration attempts/success rate
Voice/Video call minutes
NRT throughput
RRC Performance in setup/access/drop
RAB voice setup/access/drop rates
RAB video setup/access/drop rates
RAB NRT setup/access/drop rates
Distribution of failure reasons per service
UL and DL Power statistics

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Configuration survey

Parameter configuration analysis


The existing parameter settings are compared with the planned and Nokia
optimal settings
Network element dimensioning analysis
Dimensioning of the network elements and their
interfaces is verified in light of the estimated traffic

Network element HW/SW analysis


hardware and software is verified to be
operational and on the correct level

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Performance survey
Radio network KPIs analysis
Assessing the radio network performance through KPIs measuring:
Accessibility
Retainability Access transmission network KPIs analysis
Usage
Mobility Assessing the access transmission network
performance through KPIs measuring:
PS Core network KPIs analysis Connectivity
Blocking
Assessing the PS core network
Transmission (overall / HW, e.g. WSP, CoCo,
performance through KPIs
RNC)
measuring:
Registration success rate
Mobility management (e.g.
handovers, attach and detach WBTS/AXC specific counters for problem cells
failures) Network element performance and load
Session management (e.g. context analysis
activation failure) Identifying the possible bottlenecks or under
Throughput / delay performing elements in the RAN.
Traffic and services (e.g. WAP, Assessing the level of usage to find out possible
HTTP, FTP, SMS, MMS) capacity extension needs.

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Air Interface Survey
Neighbor plan verification
Assessing the quality of the intra-frequency neighbor plan by studying the dependencies
between the number of neighbors, SHO overhead, call drop due to HO failure.

Radio interference level evaluation


Assessing the level of interference in the network,
providing a reference value to the quality of the cell
planning and site grid.

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Reporting

A wrap-up workshop where the audit results are communicated:


Performance report Configuration report

Network analysis through the Discrepancies between planned parameter


measured KPIs settings and existing settings in the network

Results of the stationary tests Discrepancies between Nokia recommended


parameter values and existing values in the
Neighbor plan quality report network
Evaluation of noise level in the Hardware and software elements where an
network and its impact on the network increase/update is recommended
quality
Benchmark report
Comparing the network performance with
Nokia global values and industry
standards

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14 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
3G Optimization Process Contents
1. Pre-launch Optimization
Process
Tools
Preparation
Tuning & Verification
Cluster Optimization
2. Continuous Optimization
Example Process
Problem Solving Process
Failure Analysis
Parameter Optimization

Company Confidential
15 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Problem solving
There are still many source of problems in 3G RAN
Software A fault that can be rectified by a correction to the software.
Hardware A fault that can be rectified by a replacement unit.
Configuration A fault that can be corrected by new configuration management.
Parameter A fault that can be reduced or rectified by parameter Optimization
Planning fault A fault that can be reduced or rectified by improvements in the
radio/transmission plan.
Before network launch, most damaging faults are usually related to
configuration/parameter management and network maintenance
After network launch, current problems reside in RAN software instability
(sleeping cells, bugs) and Ue instability (missing features, bugs)
All these faults are made worse by the fact that neither Nokia or Operators have
not enough 3G experience yet to solve the problems quickly
The situation should last with the next releases RAN04, RAN05
-> Therefore a valid problem solving methodology is needed in 3G
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Problem solving methodology

Four main phases:

Drive Testing Network KPI & Counters


1. (provides end user performance) (provides an indication of the overall performance)

PMI Tickets
2. (provides internal clear code)

ICSU Tracing
3. (provides the scenario & reason for the internal clear code)

Key Failure Mechanism


4.

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Drive testing
Serves two purposes: detect/identify performance problems and apply a first
analysis
Drive testing is the preferred method to detect problems in networks with low
traffic as counters are unreliable.
KPIs and counters are the best method in networks with traffic.
Very often it is possible to solve the problems in this initial phase.
As a rule of thumb, all key KPIs (CSSR, CDR, cell availability) should be
above 95% with RAN 1.5.2 ED2. If it is not the case an analysis is needed.

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Network KPI/counter analysis

In case of KPI drop:


compare performance between RNCs: is one RNC worse than others?
compare performance between wbts and cells
Cell overload?
WBTS problem?
IUR boundary problem?
Access transmission issue?
Compare CS and PS values, is it a CN issue?
Based on this first analysis, it is possible to extract other Pis from KPI tools:
RRC and RAB access and active failures
SRNC and Inter-RNC HO
Iub, Iu performance
Investigate if any new UE has been introduced in the network or any (RNC)
software upgrade has been installed.

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19 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Message monitoring
The data to make this possible is via
message monitoring:-

Within the RNC, internal and external


messages can be monitored.
RNC The monitoring is performed on the
ICSU computer units within the RNC.
The data collected from these units can
be extracted, processed and analysed.
The messages captured can be tailored
to the Optimization task in hand, eg
trouble shooting, neighbour
Optimization
Message
Monitoring
Data

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Message monitoring
The data content within message monitoring:
ASN Layer 3
RRC messages between RNC UE, NAS messages between core
network UE.
NBAP
Messages between RNC NodeB.
RANAP
Messages between RNC Core Network. Circuit switched & Packet
switched domain.
Internal messages
Messages between program blocks.

UE NAS Messages (ASN)


Core

RRC Messages (ASN) RNC

SWPRB
Node B
NBAP RANAP
Messages Internal Messages
Messages

SWPRB
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Internal Messages between program blocks
There are many different program block families that can be monitored within
the RNC.
The families commonly monitored for optimisation and trouble shooting are:
RRCPRB RRC program block
HA3PRB Handover control program block

All or a subset of messages within a program block can be monitored:


All messages used for fault finding & trouble shooting
Subset used for general optimisation

The number of program blocks, monitored messages & time determine the
volume of collected data.
The RNC can capture ~ 900 MBytes of trace information at any one time.
This translates to:
Full RRCPRB & HA3PRB required for trouble shooting ~ 6000 calls
Subset (Layer 3 ASN) required for general optimisation ~30000 calls

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Call Procedures (1)
Signalling Radio Bearer Setup:
WBTS RNC
UE AIR Interface IuB Interface

PRACH
(1) RRC: RRC Connection Request User Plane: RACH
BRM

CNBAP
Radio Resource Indication
(2) (3)
(5) CNBAP: Radio Link Setup Request NBA
(6) CNBAP: Radio Link Setup Response (4)

(7) RRC
AAL2SIG
(9) aal2_establish_request (8)
NRM (11)
(10) aal2_establish_confirm
S-CCPCH
(12) RRC: RRC Connection Setup User Plane: FACH

DCH
(13) RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete User Plane: DCH

NBA= NobeB application part, BRM = BTS resource manager


Company Confidential
RRC= Radio Resource Control, NRM = Transmission Resource Control
23 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Call Procedures (2)
AMR Call Setup:

UE WBTS RNC Core

CNBAP

Radio Resource Indication


BRM

DNBAP
(5) nbap_rl_reconf_prepare_s
(2) (3)
NBA (4) (1) RAB assignment request
(6) nbap_rl_reconf_ready_s
(7)
(11) aal2_establish_request
(8) RRC
AAL2SIG (12) aal2_establish_confirm
(9) aal2_establish_request
(17) RAB assignment response
NRM
(10) aal2_establish_confirm (13)

(14) nbap_rl_reconf_commit

(15) Radio Bearer Setup

(16) Radio Bearer Setup Complete

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Call Procedures (3)
Soft Handover:

UE WBTS RNC

Radio Resource Indication

BRM
(1) intra_freq_measurement_report

(5) NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request


(2) (3)
NBA
(6) NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response (4)

(7) RRC

(9) aal2_establish_request (8)


(11)
(10) aal2_establish_confirm NRM

(12) Active_set_update

(13) Active_set_update_complete

Company Confidential
25 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
PMI Overview

PMI tickets are the source data for the Service Level Table.
They provide an indication of end user perception via RRC and RAB
statistics.
They provide RNC clear code data.
They are generated by the RRC program block within ICSU at RRC & RAB set-
up, RAB & RRC closure.
They are accessible currently through ICSU monitoring or online via OMU.
They will be soon available via Traffica.

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26 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
PMI Structure
IMSI
Each ticket contains information
regarding the start & stop WBTS &
count
WCEL identifier.
elem[15] Currently not used
Start_time
Start_bts
hundredths_of_seconds
dw_id1 WBTSID
seconds
dw_id2 WCELLID
minutes
dw_id3
hours
dw_id4
day
Stop_bts
month
dw_id1 WBTSID
year
dw_id2 WCELLID
Stop_time
dw_id3
hundredths_of_seconds
dw_id4 seconds
minutes

Each ticket contains information hours

regarding the start & stop time. day


month
Allowing the calculation of call
year
set-up and call holding time.
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PMI Structure
Cause
Each ticket contains a cause
in_state
element for either RRC or
in_cause
RAB.
upd_process
The cause element informs if
failure_source
the RRC or RAB is successful.
reason
detailed_reason The cause element conveys
the RNC clear code.
out_state Each ticket that contains RAB
out_cause data will include the rab_type, this
allows the differentiation between
upd_process services.
failure_source
reason
detailed_reason

rab_type

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PMI Structure
A successful RRC active phase call:
in_state ST_T_RRC_CONN_ACTIVE_C
in_cause.reason RRC connection establishment cause
in_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
out_state ST_T_RRC_CONN_RELEASE_C,
out_cause.reason == in_cause.reason
out_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
An unsuccessful RRC active phase call:
in_state ST_T_RRC_CONN_ACTIVE_C
in_cause.reason RRC connection establishment cause
in_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
out_state ST_T_RRC_CONN_ACTIVE_C
out_cause.reason error code
out_cause.failure_source FS_T_X_C -> this selects the failure counter

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PMI Structure
A successful RAB set-up:
in_state ST_T_RAB_SETUP_C
in_cause.reason RRC connection establishment cause
in_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
out_state ST_T_RAB_ACTIVE_C
out_cause.reason == in_cause.reason
out_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
rab_type RAB_CLASS_T_rab-type
An unsuccessful RAB set-up & access phase call:
in_state ST_T_RAB_SETUP_C
in_cause.reason RRC connection establishment cause
in_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
out_state ST_T_RAB_SETUP_C, or <-- setup failure
ST_T_RAB_ACCESS_C <-- access failure
out_cause.reason error reason <-- this must be different than
in_cause.reason
out_cause.failure_source FS_T_errorcode_C <-- this selects the failure counter
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rab_type
2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RAB_CLASS_T_rab-type
PMI Structure
A successful RAB active completion:
in_state ST_T_RAB_ACTIVE_C
in_cause.reason RRC connection establishment cause
in_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
out_state ST_T_RAB_RELEASE_C
out_cause.reason == in_cause.reason
out_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
rab_type RAB_CLASS_T_rab-type
An unsuccessful RAB active completion:
in_state ST_T_RAB_ACTIVE_C
in_cause.reason RRC connection establishment cause
in_cause.failure_source FS_T_DEFAULT_C
out_state ST_T_RAB_ACTIVE_C
out_cause.reason error reason
out_cause.failure_source FS_T_errorcode_C -> this selects the counter
rab_type RAB_CLASS_T_rab-type
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PMI ticket analysis

Serves one purposes: refine counter based analysis when a counter/KPI is far
from its normal value without valid reason.
As some information is lost during mapping of PMI tickets into counters,
analysing PMI tickets directly can improve understanding of the problem.
It is also very useful to quantify the recurrence of a failure scenario detected e.g.
through ICSU logs analysis

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PMI tickets info: Call state

hard_ho_c 10
srnc_relocation_c F
drnc_ho_setup_c E In which phase ticket is coming
drnc_conn_active_c D This information is used in counter mapping!!
drnc_conn_setup_c C
soft_release_c B
soft_access_c A
soft_setup_c 9
rab_release_c 8
rab_active_c 7
rab_access_c 6
rab_setup_c 5
rrc_conn_release_c 4
rrc_conn_active_c 3
rrc_conn_access_c 2
rrc_conn_setup_c 1
default_c 0

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PMI tickets info: Failure source

frozen_bts_c E
anchor_rnc_c D Indicates where problem has occurred
rnc_internal_c C If normal end of connection then
handover_control_c B default_c reason is used
admission_control_c A
This information is used in counter
pre_emption_c 9
transmissio_c 8 mapping!!
integrity_check_c 7
ciphering_c 6
iur_c 5
iu_c 4
ms_c 3
radio_interface_c 2
bts_c 1
default_c 0

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PMI tickets info: Failure reason
rl_reconfiguration_fail_c 144
radio_link_failure_c 143
synchronization_failure_c 142
rl_addition_failure_c 141
rl_setup_failure_c 140
no_resp_from_source_rnc_c 13F Each ticket contains two failure reason fields,
no_resp_from_rm2_c 13E which might be used.
no_resp_from_pdcp_c 13D Also normal end of connections are recorded,
no_resp_from_olpc_c 13C then failure cause is action, what was done .
no_resp_from_rnc_rab_c 13B
no_resp_from_rnc_mac_c 13A Failure reason field is not used for
no_resp_from_nrm_c 139 mapping to counters, but just failure source
no_resp_from_brm_c 138 and state information.
no_resp_from_ha3_c 137 This information is just for getting better idea
no_resp_from_rc3_c 136
no_resp_from_iur_c 135 where problem has occurred.
no_resp_from_iuv_c 134
no_resp_from_nbap_d_c 133
no_resp_from_nbap_c_c 132
no_resp_from_rrc_d_c 131
rrc_conn_setup_fail_c 12E
rrc_connection_req_fail_c 12D
no_resp_from_rrc_c_c 12C
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PMI tickets info: Failure reason

RRC Setup Failure cause mapping


FS_T_HANDOVER_CONTROL_C -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_HC
FS_T_ADMISSION_CONTROL_C -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_AC
FS_T_BTS_C -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_BTS
FS_T_TRANSMISSIO_C -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_TRANS
FS_T_FROZEN_BTS_C -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_FROZBS
FS_T_RCMU_OVERLOAD_C -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNTI_ALLO (RN2.0)
Any other FS -> RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC

RRC Access Failure cause mapping


FS_T_RADIO_INTERFACE_C -> RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO
FS_T_MS_C -> RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_MS
FS_T_CELL_RESELECTION_C -> RRC_CONN_ACC_REL_CELL_RESEL
Any other FS -> RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RNC

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PMI tickets info: Failure reason

RAB Setup failure mapping from FS to counter:


FS_T_ADMISSION_CONTROL_C -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_AC
FS_T_BTS_C -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_BTS
FS_T_TRANSMISSIO_C -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_TRANS
FS_T_FROZEN_BTS_C -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_FROZBS
FS_T_UE_CAPABILITY_C -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_UE_CAPA
FS_T_REQ_PARAM_NOT_SUP_C -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_NOT_SUPP_PAR
Any other FS -> RAB_STP_FAIL_xxx_RNC

RAB Access failure mapping from FS to counter:


FS_T_MS_C -> RAB_ACC_FAIL_xxx_MS
FS_T_RADIO_INTERFACE_C -> RAB_ACC_FAIL_xxx_MS
Any other FS -> RAB_ACC_FAIL_xxx_RNC

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PMI tickets info: Failure reason
The mapping from Failure Source to counter in Active Failure tickets. Please
note that it is the same for RRC and RAB:
FS_T_IU_C -> ACT_FAIL_IU
FS_T_RADIO_INTERFACE_C -> ACT_FAIL_RADIO
FS_T_BTS_C -> ACT_FAIL_BTS
FS_T_IUR_C -> ACT_FAIL_IUR
FS_T_CIPHERING_C -> ACT_FAIL_CIPH
FS_T_INTEGRITY_CHECK_C -> ACT_FAIL_I_CHK
FS_T_PRE_EMPTION_C -> ACT_REL_P_EMP
FS_T_RNC_INTERNAL_C -> ACT_FAIL_RNC
In RN1.5.x: FS_T_MS_C -> ACT_FAIL_RADIO
In RN2.x: FS_T_MS_C -> ACT_FAIL_UE
Any other FS -> ACT_FAIL_RNC

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PMI ticket analysis

The proposed tool (there are several) use awk script and Access DB
Ultimately Traffica for RNC should allow monitoring of PMI tickets

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39 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
ICSU Tracing

ICSU logs can be used in two ways:


Specifically, to analyse a failure scenarios (usually in conjunction with drive testing
logging)
Long logs can also be taken throughout a period of time to catch any remaining
problem and verify that counter information matches reality
ICSU logs cover the entire traffic handled by an RNC and can become big very
fast.

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ICSU LOGS

ICSU logs capture internal DMX messages between processes (program blocks)
residing in RNC ICSU units.
All signaling to CN, MS, BTS (NBAP) and RNC is handled by ICSU prg blocks

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ICSU LOGS
For troubleshooting
Only way to capture simultaneously messages of all RNC interfaces
Overcomes e.g. Nethawk limitations due to ciphering on Iub
Allows to some extent to understand the RNC internal workings as messages between process
are also listed

For performance management


Capture signaling towards mobile without drive testing & NEMO
Allows to enhance analysis and make up for missing counters

Limitations
Offline use only
Limitation to maximal log size (depends on max buffer size)
Slow decoding, complex to use
No User data, only signaling
Bearer only, difficult to use to solve IP Services problems

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DMX message monitoring
message length
(header+data, bytes)

receiving unit message number

monitored family
process family senders unit
(RRC)
identifier (ICSU-0)

MONITORING TIME: 2003-04-16 12:13:10.92


SENT BY: 04FD 0077 00
MONITORED MESSAGE: 006C 744F 04FB 0002 00 19 0000 DA9A 0017
01 00 01 00 03 01 01 0F 01 06 3B EB 00 00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 EB 00 00
00 00 00 08 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 02 10 00 00 00 00 18 00 00 00 00 01
01 00 00 00 03 11 00 00 00 00 18 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 80 00 00
00 00 00 01 67 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 08 00 00 00

Data

Company Confidential
43 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
ICSU Parser screen 1
Ue type and model
Currently the best ICSU analysis tool

S-RNTI used to
match Ue traces Start BTS/Cell PMI information

Company Confidential
44 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
ICSU Parser screen 2

Detail call signaling

Company Confidential
45 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
ICSU Parser screen 3

External
signaling in
Explorer

Company Confidential
46 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RNC internal message monitoring

Internal logs can be used in two ways:


Specifically, to analyse a failure scenarios (more useful if in conjunction with drive
testing logging)
Long logs can also be taken throughout a period of time to catch any remaining
problem and verify that counter information matches reality
Internal logs cover the entire traffic handled by an RNC and can become big very
fast.
Internal logs are useful to identify failure scenarios and to match them with PMI
tickets and counters
If UE capabilities (sent by the UE in the RRC Connection Setup Complete) are
available, its possible to have information of the UE having the RRC Connection.
Some example in next two slides
This is the UE capabilities file used in ICSU parser:

Company Confidential
47 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Distribution of UE UE Distribution in RRC Connection
Motorola V980
Nokia 6630
2% 1%1%1%
0%
00%
0%
%
6% Samsung Z105/data card
7%
Sony-Eric Z1010
8% Sony V800
Samsung Z100
Samsung Z107
Motorola Talon
Nokia Mango
11%
NEC VTB/VTE/VTX
63%
?? ??
Nokia 6650
Option Option

The UE info of ICSU parser


could be exported into UE Distribution in RRC Connection
Sony V800
clipboard and later opened with 3%
3% 3% 1%1%0%
00%0%% Samsung Z105/data card
Motorola V980
excel and then make graphical 13% Sony-Eric Z1010

pictures Nokia 6630


Samsung Z107
NEC VTB/VTE/VTX
Samsung Z100
13% Motorola Talon
46% ?? ??
17% Nokia 6650
Nokia Mango
Motorola A830/5

Company Confidential
48 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Establishment Cause distribution
RRC Cause Distribution registration
inter rat cell resel
orig conv call
term conv call
orig inter call
term low priority sign
3%3%1%
1%
0%
0%
0%
5% 3% orig high priority sign

5% 34% interrnc sof handover

6% orig low priority sign


term inter call
detach
orig back call
8%
call reestablishment
term cause unknown
32%
inter rat cell change ord
emergency call
term back call
term high priority sign

RRC Cause Distribution registration


inter rat cell resel
orig back call
orig conv call
interrnc sof handover
3% 2% 1% 1%1%
0%
0%
0%
0% term conv call
7%
term low priority sign
7% 39% orig high priority sign
term back call
orig low priority sign
detach
9% call reestablishment
orig inter call
10% term cause unknown
20% inter rat cell change ord
srnc relocation
term inter call
emergency call
Company Confidential
49 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Key Failure Mechanism

Once the problem has been identified, it is important to categorize the scenario (it
is very often missing).
In case of RAN software bug to serve as an input for product line developers
As a feedback to the Customer and possibly the Ue vendor
As documentation for other projects with aim of sharing through Program pages,
Experience sharing meetings and mailing list.
The failure scenario can be a couple of slides and should mention
How often the scenario happens/what is the impact of the problem
Problem description, e.g. associated signaling
Software levels (Ue, RNC, BTS, Core)
Possible corrective actions (parameters change)
They should always be sent to program management and/or WCDMA mailing list
to avoid that the same analysis is done in different projects.

Company Confidential
50 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Key Failure Mechanism

Following slides will describe some failure issues taken by Network Counters
More information in day 2presentation:
Call phases performance monitoring
Look at key failure scenarios related to call setup, handover and drop

Company Confidential
51 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Tool Summary for ICSU log

A number of tools are being used to process ICSU log files

GAWK Extract indicators from text logs (PMI)


(+ Access Show location of calls (which log) based on RNTI
Database) Environment for development of new ideas (proof of concept)
IDA Decode (hex) message data in logs into human readable format
based on SACK definitions.
Finding location of detailed information from message structure.
Montool Processes logs to provide summary information, call success,
message counts etc. Good for PMI analysis

ICSUParser Extract calls from the mix of messages in ICSU log for analysis.
Summary information. Focus on failed calls.

Company Confidential
52 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
3G Optimization Process Contents
1. Pre-launch Optimization
Process
Tools
Preparation
Tuning & Verification
Cluster Optimization
2. Continuous Optimization
Example Process
Problem Solving Process
Failure Analysis
Parameter Optimization

Company Confidential
53 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Failure Analysis

Failure analysis is based on ICSU logs which could be analysed with


Montool good for PMI ticket analysis
ICSU parser good for signalling flow analysis
SQL Scripts used by Access database
Failure analysis is divided into
RRC Setup Failures
RRC Access Failures
CS RAB Drop
PS RAB Drop
The following slides will give info about possible failure scenarios
Done with Access database

Company Confidential
54 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures
RRC Setup Failure distribution admission_control_c rrc_conn_req_nack_c

rnc_internal_c serv_req_nack_from_olpc_c
1%
1%00%
%
4% 2% rnc_internal_c serv_req_nack_from_rc3_c

10% transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c

rnc_internal_c no_resp_from_olpc_c
46%
11% cell_reselection_c no_error_c

bts_c rl_setup_failure_c

admission_control_c rrc_conn_req_nack_c
12%
bts_c rl_setup_failure_c
13%
bts_c pre_emption_failure_c

RRC Setup Failure distribution transmissio_c pre_emption_failure_c

1%
5% 1% admission_control_c
0% rrc_conn_req_nack_c
9% rnc_internal_c no_resp_from_olpc_c

iu_c no_resp_from_iuv_c

cell_reselection_c no_error_c

20% transmissio_c
serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c

rnc_internal_c
64% invalid_configuration_c
iu_c no_resp_from_iuv_c

Company Confidential
55 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures
transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c
RRC setup Failure distribution default_c
admission_control_c rrc_conn_req_nack_c
2%1%
1%
0%
0%
0%
cell_overload_c
3%
admission_control_c rrc_conn_req_nack_c
9% no_capacity_c Mapping between failure source
transmissio_c pre_emption_failure_c and service level counters
pre_cand_not_found_c
bts_c rl_setup_failure_c
10% normal_event_unspecified_c OUT FAIL SOURCEFailure counter
bts_c rl_setup_failure_c Admission Control AC
not_enough_resources_c transmissio_c TRANS
cell_reselection_c no_error_c rnc_internal_c RNC
cell_reselection_c
Iu_c RNC
admission_control_c rrc_conn_req_nack_c
brm_memor_ful_c bts_c BTS
bts_c pre_emption_failure_c
pre_cand_not_found_c
74%
bts_c rl_setup_failure_c hardware_overload_c

1. Admission Control is the dominant factor in the most loaded networks


(correction in BTS SW)
2. Some failures (linked to sleeping cell) in CD 4.x have been corrected in
CD 5 (olpc, rc3, brm)
3. Failure due to incoming SRNC Relocation (critical because reason is
not identified yet)
4. Failures for lack of capacity in BTS and Iub
Company Confidential
56 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: not enough resources
Lack of BTS capacity

In the site there is only 1 WSP-A (24 CE available for traffic!) .

The cell triggers the


capacity upgrade
process for BTS HW

Company Confidential
57 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: not enough resources
Lack of BTS capacity
RL Addition Fail Rate RL Upgrade Fail Rate

50%

40%

30% No Pool
20% Capacity KPI
10% availablelook
0%
at Iub Table
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
counters
4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0 4 .0
.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

rab_stp_fail_cs_conv_bts rab_stp_fail_cs_voice_ac rrc_conn_stp_fail_bts

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05

05
3.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.

4.
.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0
30

01

02

03

04

05

06

13

14

15

16

17

18

19
Company Confidential
58 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: not enough resources
wrong BTS configuration

COUR_DEF6_R is
short of HW resources

STOP WCELL OUT


ID FAIL SOURCE OUT REASON OUT DETAILED REASON frequency Percentage
43109 bts_c rl_setup_failure_c not_enough_resources_c 421 2.2%
44145 bts_c rl_setup_failure_c not_enough_resources_c 2 0.0%
44213 bts_c rl_setup_failure_c not_enough_resources_c 1 0.0%
64528 bts_c rl_setup_failure_c not_enough_resources_c 1 0.0%
64591 bts_c rl_setup_failure_c not_enough_resources_c 1 0.0%

The BTS answers with Radio Link Setup failures with


cause not enough resources (WSP or WAM)
Checking pool capacity there are ~ 100 CE!!
Meaning that the RL setup failures are not due to lack
of CE
Looking at he COCO.
Company Confidential
59 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: not enough resources
wrong BTS configuration

Company Confidential
60 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: not enough resources
wrong BTS configuration

COCO
corrected

Company Confidential
61 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: not enough resources
wrong BTS configuration

WBTS210 COUR_DEF6_R

500

450

400

350

300 RRC CONN SETUP ATT

RRC CONN SETUP COMP


250

RRC CONN SETUP FAIL DUE TO BTS


200 REASONS

150

100

50
COCO corrected
0
0

0
:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0
0

0
:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0

:0
01

03

05

07

09

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

01

03

05

07

09

11

13
Company Confidential Nb
62 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: hardware overload
wrong BTS configuration

02JBLU
notice also some configuration
mistake in COCO: (egress of
AAL2UP is 2000cps ingress
4235 cps).
One WSP-C in that site
This error can lead to
transmission failures as well AAL2 user plane
is wrongly
configured:
PCR egress <
PCR ingress

Company Confidential
63 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Setup Failures: no response from nbap
sleeping cell
STOP WCELL OUT
ID FAIL SOURCE OUT REASON OUT DETAILED REASON frequency Percentage
1758 bts_c no_resp_from_nbap_c_c timer_expired_c 6918 36.1%
1757 bts_c no_resp_from_nbap_c_c timer_expired_c 3998 20.9%
1756 bts_c no_resp_from_nbap_c_c timer_expired_c 3890 20.3%

WBTS 125 CLICHY_MARTR,


solved after deleting and recreating
COCO

No alarm on the site


The BTS does not answer to the Radio
Link Setup, after timer expires the RRC
Connection is rejected
From Iub counters:
SETUP_FAIL_RL_BTS_NOT_RESP

Company Confidential
64 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Nb Fail BTS reason

65
01
:0

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
02 0:0
:0 0
03 0:0
:0 0
04 0:0
:0 0
05 0:0
:0 0
06 0:0

2005 Nokia
:0 0
07 0:0
:0 0
08 0:0
:0 0
sleeping cell

09 0:0
:0 0

Company Confidential
10 0:0
:0 0
11 0:0
:0 0
12 0:0
:0 0
13 0:0
:0 0
14 0:0
:0 0
15 0:0
:0 0
16 0:0
:0 0
17 0:0
:0 0
18 0:0
:0 0

V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


19 0:0
:0 0
20 0:0
:0 0
21 0:0
:0 0
22 0:0

Time
:0 0
23 0:0
:0 0
00 0:0
:0 0
01 0:0
:0 0
02 0:0
:0 0
03 0:0
:0 0
04 0:0
:0 0
05 0:0
:0 0
06 0:0
:0 0
07 0:0
:0 0
08 0:0
:0 0
09 0:0
:0 0
10 0:0
WBTS125 CLICHY_MARTRE

:0 0
11 0:0
:0 0
12 0:0
COCO re-created

:0 0
13 0:0
:0 0
14 0:0
:0 0
15 0:0
:0 0
0:
00
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%

Stp Success Ratio (%)


RRC Setup Failures: no response from nbap

RRC Stp Succ Ratio


RRC CONN SETUP FAIL DUE TO BTS REASONS
RRC Setup Failures: Learning

If there are failures due to BTS may be due to:

1. Lack of BTS capacity (WSP or ATM): common in spot area

2. Wrong COCO configuration: frequent

3. Sleeping cell (solved by deleting and re-creating the COCO): rare

Company Confidential
66 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Iub at RRC
The resource reservation is performed in such order that all CAC reservations for RNC
internal and external (AAL2 path) resources are done before signaling.
If the CAC actions are successfully completed, the signaling is started and RNC asks BTS
to arrange its resources accordingly.
If the CAC actions fail, the signaling phase is not started at all and the signaling counters
are not aware of the connections rejected due to RNC AAL2 layer CAC.
AAL2 user plane setup over Iub (MOC)
BTS (WAM) RNC
UE AAL2 SIG CAC RRC: connection request
CAC AAL2SIG ATM RM RRC

Transport res. reserv. req.


resource reservation
Possible NACK

ERQ (SUGR) AAL2 connection establishement

resource reservation

Transport resources
are not allocated by
Possible NACK
the CAC
ECF
RRC_STP_FAIL_TRA
AAL2 conn. estab. confirmation
NS
RRC:connection setup

Company Confidential
1 NOKIA
67 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Transmission Failures Example 1
Transmission failures are concentrated in few BTS:
6303 STOP WCELL ID OUT FAIL SOURCE OUT REASON frequency
63033 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 13.15%
6309 63872 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 7.98%
63092 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 6.81%
6390 63901 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 5.87%
63091 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 5.63%
6387 63032 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 4.93%
63031 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 4.23%
63902 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 3.29%
62613 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 2.82%
63093 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 2.58%
63873 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 2.35%
61903 transmissio_c serv_req_nack_from_nrm_c 2.35%

Sites have high percentage of Radio Link Reconfiguration failures due to transmission
(NBAP Counters Report for details)
Solutions:
Expand the Iub capacity
Distribute the traffic of the area by tuning either the dominance or the SHO parameters

Company Confidential
68 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
69
band occupancy in cps

2005 Nokia
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500

0
2005-01-20-08:59:17.54
2005-01-20-08:59:57.36

Company Confidential
2005-01-20-09:14:58.69
2005-01-20-09:29:58.69
2005-01-20-09:44:57.88
2005-01-20-09:59:59.87
2005-01-20-10:14:59.66
2005-01-20-10:29:59.28
2005-01-20-10:44:59.45
2005-01-20-10:59:59.57
2005-01-20-11:14:58.65

V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


2005-01-20-11:30:19.20
2005-01-20-11:45:18.99
2005-01-20-11:59:58.35

time
2005-01-20-12:14:58.03
2005-01-20-12:29:57.98
2005-01-20-12:44:58.37
2005-01-20-12:59:59.21
2005-01-20-13:14:58.83
2005-01-20-13:29:58.40
2005-01-20-13:45:02.91
2005-01-20-14:00:03.42
2005-01-20-14:15:06.39
2005-01-20-14:30:03.00
2005-01-20-14:45:03.06
2005-01-20-15:00:01.59
2005-01-20-15:15:02.09
Band Occupnacy of site 6390

2005-01-20-15:30:02.04
Transmission Failures Example 1

0.00%
Total user plane Iub band available is 4026 cps (1 E1)

20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
120.00%

band occupancy
Average band occupancy in the monitored period is 62.4%
User plane Band occupancy of the site 6390 has been monitored for 5h

NCID_bandwidth_in_use
BAND_OCCUPANCY_RATIO
Transmission Failures Example 1
Reduce the cell load: SHO Radio Link

Reduce the traffic absorbed by the site by tuning CPICH properly after
dominance analysis of the area

RL_SETUP_ATT_FOR_SHO_ON_SRNC
At site level:

RL_SETUP_ATT_FOR_FIRST_RL
Evaluate the percentage of incoming handover
Evaluate SHO Overhead

Incoming handover
Incoming handover from:

RNC-CITTA
CELL_ID
59022

DAY
61671 63901 MILANO1 20050117 3037 1617 34.7%
63901 MILANO1 20050118 2809 1272 31.2%
63343 63901
63901
MILANO1
MILANO1
20050119
20050120
3052
2814
2178
1597
41.6%
36.2%
63901 MILANO1 20050121 4243 1944 31.4%
63611is to use
Alternative 63902 MILANO1 20050117 1685 1960 53.8%
negative ADJSEcNoOffset in 63902 MILANO1 20050118 1597 1801 53.0%
63902 MILANO1 20050119 2196 2284 51.0%
the neighbour 63902 MILANO1 20050120 2105 2428 53.6%
63902 MILANO1 20050121 3635 3175 46.6%
63903 MILANO1 20050117 440 519 54.1%
63903 MILANO1 20050118 301 246 45.0%
RL_SETUP_A TT_FOR_FIR ST_RL 63903 MILANO1 20050119 427 491 53.5%
63903 MILANO1 20050120 332 398 54.5%
RL_SETUP_A TT_FOR_FIR ST_RL 63903 MILANO1 20050121 711 465 39.5%
Company Confidential
RL_SETUP_A TT_FOR_SHO _SRNC
70 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Transmission Failures Example 1
Reduce the cell load: SHO Radio Link

SHO Overhead
In case of high SHO for NRT services,
evaluate the opportunity to differentiate FMCS
RT and NRT for soft/er handover.

TOTAL_NBR_UE

AVG_ASS_NRT
Note that Softer handover does not use

AVG_ASS_RT
RNC-CITTA
additional BTS resources

CELL_ID
RNC_ID
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET

DAY
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET NE-RNC-2 63901 MILANO1 20050117 361915 1.56 1.58
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET NE-RNC-2 63901 MILANO1 20050118 402066 1.43 1.39
SHO _ Overhead 1 NE-RNC-2 63901 MILANO1 20050119 369438 1.59 1.61
ONE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET NE-RNC-2 63901 MILANO1 20050120 404978 1.47 1.64
NE-RNC-2 63901 MILANO1 20050121 443295 1.47 1.75
TWO _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET / 2 NE-RNC-2 63902 MILANO1 20050117 291176 1.88 1.38
THREE _ CELL _ IN _ ACT _ SET / 3 NE-RNC-2 63902 MILANO1 20050118 245023 1.76 1.23
NE-RNC-2 63902 MILANO1 20050119 353342 1.75 1.61
NE-RNC-2 63902 MILANO1 20050120 359985 1.79 1.61
NE-RNC-2 63902 MILANO1 20050121 458563 1.81 1.68
NE-RNC-2 63903 MILANO1 20050117 82233 1.73 1.70
NE-RNC-2 63903 MILANO1 20050118 52680 1.50 2.11
NE-RNC-2 63903 MILANO1 20050119 86529 1.84 1.75
NE-RNC-2 63903 MILANO1 20050120 57292 1.88 1.88
Average Active NE-RNC-2 63903 MILANO1 20050121 78546 1.74 1.93

Set Size (ASS)


Company Confidential
71 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Transmission Failures Example 2
site 03WGNU
WBTS-33226
03WGNU
rec_prep_srnc_ready RL Reconf Fail Trans

6000 50.0%
45.0%
5000
40.0%
35.0% CANC_SRNC_TRAN_STP_F AIL
RL _ Re conf _ Fail _ Trans 100
4000
30.0%
REC_PREP_S RNC_READY

Failure
Ready

3000 25.0%
20.0%
2000
15.0%
10.0%
1000
5.0%
0 0.0%
28.03.05

29.03.05

30.03.05

31.03.05

01.04.05

02.04.05

03.04.05

04.04.05

05.04.05

06.04.05

07.04.05

08.04.05

09.04.05

10.04.05

11.04.05

12.04.05

13.04.05

14.04.05

15.04.05

16.04.05

17.04.05
rab_stp_fail_cs_conv_trans rab_stp_fail_cs_voice_trans rrc_conn_stp_fail_trans

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
31 . 05
01 . 05
03 . 05
04 . 05
05 . 05
06 . 05
07 . 05
08 . 05
09 . 05
10 . 05
11 . 05
12 . 05
13 . 05
14 . 05
15 . 05
16 . 05
17 . 05
18 . 05
19 . 05
05
4.
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
30

Company Confidential
72 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Transmission Failures Example 2
site 02TRXU

The site has 2 WAMs and 1 E1 with no AAL2 multiplexing


rec_prep_srnc_ready RL Reconf Fail Trans

2000 70.0%
1800
60.0%
1600
1400 50.0%

1200 40.0%

Failure
Ready

1000
800 30.0%

600 20.0%
400
10.0%
200
0 0.0%
29.03.05

30.03.05

01.04.05

02.04.05

03.04.05

04.04.05

05.04.05

06.04.05

07.04.05

08.04.05

09.04.05

10.04.05

11.04.05

12.04.05

13.04.05

14.04.05

15.04.05

16.04.05

17.04.05

AAL2 Multiplexing may help since


the total user plan bandwidth is
shared between the two WAMs

Company Confidential
73 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Transmission Failures Example 3

Check RL Reconfiguration Failure due to transmission KPI to understand if the


transmission failures in setup are due to real Iub congestion
Insert trend of the KPI for the two cells in the example below:

canc_srnc_tran_stp_fail

rec_prep_srnc_ready
RL_reconf_fail_trans
10131
3G Network
Time

CANC_SRNC_TRAN_STP_F AIL
RL _ Re conf _ Fail _ Trans 100
REC_PREP_S RNC_READY

28.02.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 6.2% 58 935 Site shows real


01.03.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 20.2% 298 1474
02.03.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 21.0% 422 2014 Iub congestion ALL2 Mux is
03.03.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 28.8% 1115 3870
04.03.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 34.1% 3941 11546 not used2
05.03.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 1.9% 10 531
06.03.05 WCEL-133 DNSDAU1 0.9% 4 446 WAM means
canc_srnc_tran_stp_fail
This site does not 2 VCI for user
rec_prep_srnc_ready
RL_reconf_fail_trans

seem to suffer plan


3G Network
Time

from Iub
10151
congestion!!!
However more
28.02.05 WCEL-153 DNWSEU3 0.0% 0 126
01.03.05 WCEL-153 DNWSEU3 4.2% 14 331 than 10000 rrc
02.03.05
04.03.05
WCEL-153 DNWSEU3
WCEL-153 DNWSEU3
3.7%
0.4%
8
1
215
233 failures due to
Company Confidential
05.03.05
06.03.05
WCEL-153 DNWSEU3
WCEL-153 DNWSEU3
1.5%
4.3%
2
3
131
69
transmission
74 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
75
52)

0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
100.0%
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
100.0%

2005 Nokia
2005-03-04-15:33:12.00 2005-03-04-15:33:13.21

2005-03-04-15:33:30.07 2005-03-04-15:33:31.28

Company Confidential
2005-03-04-15:38:29.91 2005-03-04-15:38:31.16

2005-03-04-15:43:30.75 2005-03-04-15:43:32.00

2005-03-04-15:48:30.48 2005-03-04-15:48:31.78

2005-03-04-15:53:30.41 2005-03-04-15:53:31.70

2005-03-04-15:58:30.18 2005-03-04-15:58:31.69

2005-03-04-16:01:23.58

V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


2005-03-04-16:01:24.83

NCID_bandwidth_in_use
NCID_bandwidth_in_use

2005-03-04-16:06:22.67 2005-03-04-16:06:23.92

2005-03-04-16:11:23.19 2005-03-04-16:11:24.45

2005-03-04-16:16:23.42 2005-03-04-16:16:24.72

2005-03-04-16:21:22.76 2005-03-04-16:21:24.11

2005-03-04-16:26:23.59 2005-03-04-16:26:24.84

2005-03-04-16:31:24.42 2005-03-04-16:31:25.62

2005-03-04-16:36:23.86 2005-03-04-16:36:25.11
BAND_OCCUPANCY_RATIO
BAND_OCCUPANCY_RATIO

2005-03-04-16:41:24.08 2005-03-04-16:41:25.34

2005-03-04-16:46:24.27 2005-03-04-16:46:25.47
Transmission Failures Example 3

2005-03-04-16:51:23.94 2005-03-04-16:51:25.19
0
0

500
500

VCI=52
VCI=45

1000
1500
2000
2500
1000
1500
2000
2500

of Iub

Trans KPI
Reconf. Fail due
to use AAL2 Mux

AAL2 Mux using RL


resourcessuggest
Non optimum sharing

Monitor the benefits of


Band occupancy has been checked on Friday 4th for site 15021 (VCI 45 and VCI
RRC Setup Failure Summary
1. Evaluate RRC Setup Failure at cell level
2. Evaluate the distribution among failure reasons
3. In case the dominant factor is:
RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_RNC at the moment no optimisation action is needed
(typically is a fault or Incoming SRNC Relocation failures)
RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ AC look at UL interference & DL power (-> UL power
spikes & need to upgrade radio capacity
1. Disable UL Admission Control if the number of failures is critical
RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ BTS
1. evaluate NBAP counters (radio link reconf. failure) and KPIs for troubleshooting BTS resource
2. use Pool Capacity KPI in order to evaluate lack of channel elements
3. check BTS configuration in terms of WAM and WSP allocation
4. expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site
5. in case the BTS is not responding delete and re-create the COCO
RRC_CONN_STP_FAIL_ TRANS
1. evaluate the number of reconfiguration failure due to transmission
2. Check COCO configuration
3. Use AAL2 Mux in case of two WAM
4. expand the capacity or decrease the traffic offered to the site
Company Confidential
76 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Failure Analysis

Failure analysis is divided into


RRC Setup Failures
RRC Access Failures
CS RAB Drop
PS RAB Drop

Company Confidential
77 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
PMI TICKETS RRC ACCESS PHASE
SUMMARY
RRC ACCESS
PHASE

L1 Synchronisation

RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH)


X
NBAP: Synchronisation Indication

UE BTS
X RNC

RRC Access Failures for L1 synchronization

RRC Access Failures due to


MS
Cell Reselections (no L1 Synchronisation

error) NBAP: Synchronisation Indication

RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH)

UE BTS
X RNC
Company Confidential
78 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Access Failures
RRC Access Failure distribution
5%

20%

radio_interface_c
synchronization_failure_c default_c

cell_reselection_c no_error_c
cell_reselection_c

ms_c no_resp_from_rrc_d_c
timer_expired_c

75%

RNC1 RRC Acc Failures

22%

radio_interface_c synchronization_failure_c

51% cell_reselection_c no_error_c

ms_c no_resp_from_rrc_d_c

27%

Company Confidential
79 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Access Failures L1 Synch
RNC does not receive NBAP:Synchronization indication from BTS
within internal RNC timer (6s) RRC Connection is released
Node B
UE RNC

RRC: RRC Connection Request (RACH)

NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request

NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response

ALCAP: Establish Request

ALCAP: Establish Confirm

FP: Downlink Sync

FP: Uplink Sync


RRC: RRC Connection Setup (FACH)

L1 Synchronisation

NBAP: Synchronisation Indication


RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH)

Possible scenarios for the cell which is suffering of RRC access failures.
Call setup in bad coverage area
UL coverage << DL coverage
DL coverage << UL coverage

Company Confidential
80 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Access Failures MS
RNC does not receive RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE msg
from UE
within internal RNC timer (6s) RRC Connection is released
(note that NBAP: Synchronization Indication is received from BTS
otherwise RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL__RADIO would be incremented)
Node B
UE RNC

RRC: RRC Connection Request (RACH)

NBAP: Radio Link Setup Request

NBAP: Radio Link Setup Response

ALCAP: Establish Request

ALCAP: Establish Confirm

FP: Downlink Sync

FP: Uplink Sync


RRC: RRC Connection Setup (FACH)

L1 Synchronisation

NBAP: Synchronisation Indication


RRC: RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCH)

In this case we are sure that the DL Synchronisation has


been acquired and the UL as well
This is definitely and UL lack of coverage (or interference)

Company Confidential
81 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Access failures due to MS
improvement from CD 4 to CD 5
DPCCH power control preamble was 7 frames
After the UE has transmitted 7 DPCCH power control preamble frames it must wait a
further 7 frames (defined by IE SRB delay) prior to transmitting anything on SRB 0 to SRB
4
EMP data shifting problem (correction in CD 5.1, PC preamble set to 0) may have big
impact where the number of Sony Ericsson terminals is relevant. The problem can be
noticed from abnormally failure rate with the cause: RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_MS.
7 frame means 70 ms less in RRC setup time
CD 4.0 RRC Connection Setup CD 5.2

Company Confidential
82 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Access Failure distribution per Estab. Cause
Collection is from RNC1 based on two days (17-18 Jan) of ticket collection
Excluding Cell Reselection case
Failures are mainly in:
Inter-RAT cell reselection 44% (where the EcNo should be lower than average)
Registration 29%
Distribution for Establishment Cause intr_rat_cell_re_select_c
Conversational call 17% radio_interface_c
registration_c radio_interface_c

11%1
1% %%11%
0%
0%
%
0%
0%
0% registration_c ms_c
2%
2%
2% intr_rat_cell_re_select_c ms_c
2%
2%
orig_conversational_call_c
3% 36%
radio_interface_c
orig_conversational_call_c ms_c
7%
orig_high_prior_signal_c
radio_interface_c
term_conversational_call_c
8% radio_interface_c
term_conversational_call_c
ms_c
term_low_prior_signal_c ms_c
12%
17% term_low_prior_signal_c
radio_interface_c
orig_low_prior_signal_c
radio_interface_c
Company Confidential orig_high_prior_signal_c ms_c

83 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials orig_interactive_call_c ms_c


Establishment Cause distribution in RNC1
Data from OSS counters in RNC1 on two
days (17-18 Jan):

Inter-RAT cell reselection 32%


Registration 30% 1%
3% 1%0%
0%
0%
0% RRC_CONN_REQ_INT_CELL_
4% RE_SEL
Conversational call 18% 5% RRC_CONN_REQ_FOR_REG

Conclusion is that Access failures are more 6%


32% CONN_REQ_MOC_ESTAB_C
ONV_CALL
frequent during the 2G3G cell CONN_REQ_MTC_ESTAB_C
ONV_CALL
reselection. 7% RRC_CON_REQ_TE_LO_PRI_
SIGN
This might be because area where there is CONN_REQ_MOC_ESTAB_IN
T_CALL
inter-RAT reselection is typical with worst RRC_CON_REQ_OR_LO_PRI
11%
coverage. _SIGN
RRC_CON_REQ_OR_HI_PRI_
This may trigger inter rat cell reselection 30%
SIGN
RRC_CONN_REQ_FOR_DET
parameter optimisation. ACH
CONN_REQ_MTC_ESTAB_IN
T_CALL
CONN_REQ_MOC_ESTAB_B
ACKGR

Company Confidential
84 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
How to do it from counters

Use counters from Service Level Table.


Use counters for RRC Attempt and RRC Failures per Establishment cause.
These failure counters do include setup and access phase
Filter cells where there are no failure in RRC SetupFailure are in the access
phase
Compare failure rate between different establishment cause.
Output are the cells where the inter RAT cell reselection parameters might be
optimised.

INTR_RAT_C ELL_RE_SEL _FAILS


Inter RAT _ failure _ rate
INTR_RAT_C ELL_RE_SEL _ATTS

Company Confidential
85 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Initial EcNo distribution for Inter-RAT
100.00%
Initial EcNo distribution during 90.00%

Inter-RAT cell reselection for some 80.00%

UEs 70.00%
v980 ecno interrat

Distribution for all UEs when Inter- 60.00% 6630 ecno interrat
Z1010 ecno interrat
50.00%
Rat procedure fails during the V800 ecno interrat
40.00% ecno interrat with access fail
Access phase (no RRC Setup 30.00%
Z105/card ecno interrat

Completeno UE distribution) 20.00%

Measurements of UMTS cells 10.00%

when in idle mode can be an .00%


-18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3
issue for the UEs Default Default
Oggetto Nome parametro Short Name Range
User location must be taken into GPRS threshold to
NOKIA VF-IT

BTS search WCDMA RAN QSRP 0..15 15 7


account cells
GPRS fdd cell reselect (-28dB +28dB;N)
BTS GFDD N N
offset Step: 4dB
GPRS minimum fdd
BTS GFDM (-20;-13) Step: 1dB -20 -14
GSM Cell parameter threshold
Threshold to search
BTS QSRI 0..15 15 7
for interworking with WCDMA RAN cells
(-28dB +28dB;N)
BTS Fdd cell reselect offset FDD N N
UMTS BTS Minimum fdd threshold FDM
Step: 4dB
(-20;-13) Step: 1dB -20 -14
Company Confidential
86 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Shynchronisation failures vs Estab. Causes

The biggest number of failure are during the Inter-RAT cell reselection

Synch Acc failures vs Estab. Cause RRC Cause Distribution registration


inter rat cell resel
interrnc sof handover
1% intr_rat_cell_re_select_c orig conv call
2%
registration_c term conv call
orig_conversational_call_c term low priority sign
1%1%
10
%
0%
0%
0%
%0%
term_conversational_call_c 4% 3%2% orig low priority sign
6% orig back call
term_low_prior_signal_c
6% 45% orig high priority sign
orig_background_call_c
49% orig inter call
orig_low_prior_signal_c term inter call
45% orig_high_prior_signal_c term back call

detach_c detach

orig_interactive_call_c 30% call reestablishment


inter rat cell change ord
emergency call
term cause unknown
srnc relocation

Company Confidential
87 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Synchronisation Failure : 10185
Failure cause
Establishement cause
142= Synch fail
000B= inter-rat cell res

Stop WCELL
Start WBTS

Stop WBTS
Start Wcell

EcNo
RNTI

SCR

IMSI
est.

rel.
89732 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12 272017210009674
90572 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -13.5 272017210009674
90759 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -14 272017210009674
91361 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12.5 272017210009674
91528 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -14 272017210009674
91690 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -13 272017210009674
91819 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -13 272017210009674
92256 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -13.5 272017210009674
92426 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -13 272017210009674
92590 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -11.5 272017210009674
93077 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -13 272017210009674
93312 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -10 N/A
93568 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12.5 272017210009674
94068 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12 272017210009674
94412 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12 272017210009674
94923 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12 272017210009674
95247 13040 10185 13040 10185 0 000B 142 -12 272017210009674

Example from RNC logs: all the failures are due to


the same user (UE is Z1010)
2G-3G ping pong is causing high number of
Company Confidential failures
88 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Synchronisation Failure : 10185

Improvement after changing the Qrxlevmin from 105 dBm to 115 dBm
This new value avoids ping pong in reselection from 2G to 3G and it decreases
the number of failures during the procedure.

RRC_Est_FR_Radio rrc_conn_acc_fail_radio

35% 1600
30%
25% 1200
20%
800
15%
10% 400
5%
0% 0
2005.03.07

2005.03.08

2005.03.09

2005.03.10

2005.03.11
Company Confidential
89 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Impact of CPICHToRefRABOffset
Example of DL DPCH Power during RRC access in bad coverage and good
coverage
Initial EcNo= -17 dB Initial EcNo= -9 dB

Initial DL DPCH Power

35.0

CPICHToRefRABOffset 30.0
tuning as a function of dBm
CPICHRabOffset= 2
Qqualmin or Qrxlevmin 25.0
CPICHRabOffset=0

20.0

R 1
Ptx Ptx, CPICH Ptx_total
15.0

W c

-8

-6

-4

-2
4

0

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1
Initial EcNo dBm
Company Confidential
90 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
RRC Access Failure Summary

1. Evaluate RRC Access Failure at cell level


2. Evaluate the distribution among failure reasons
3. In case the dominant factor is:

RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_RADIO it should be detected through drive test if UL or


DL coverage:
UL Coveragetune CPICH and cell dominance (if UL interference is not the cause)
DL Coverage:
If UE does not receive the RRC Setup messagetune SCCPCH Power
If UE does not synchronised in DL reduce N312 from 4 to 1 (tuning depends on UE
model) or tune CPICHToRefRABOffset vs Qqualmin (or Qrxlevmin)

RRC_CONN_ACC_FAIL_ MSUL Coverage << DL Coverage tune CPICH and cell


dominance in order to balance UL and DL (if UL interference is not the cause)

Company Confidential
91 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Failure Analysis

Failure analysis is divided into


RRC Setup Failures
RRC Access Failures
CS RAB Drop
PS RAB Drop

Company Confidential
92 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
CS RAB drop cause distribution
radio_interface_c radio_link_failure_c
RAB Voice drop distribution
radio_interface_c no_resp_from_rlc_c
2%2%1%
0%
0%
0%
8% ms_c physical_ch_reconf_fail_c

ms_c radio_conn_lost_c

transmissio_c transport_res_rel_nrm_c
13%
rnc_internal_c iuv_iu_rel_req_sent_c

ms_c cell_update_occured_c
54%
iur_c iur_connection_lost_c

rnc_internal_c no_resp_from_rlc_c

20% bts_c rl_reconfiguration_fail_c

transmissio_c transport_res_rel_nrm_c

RAB CS Drop distribution


3%1%
1%
3% radio_interface_c
3%
no_resp_from_rlc_c
radio_interface_c
radio_link_failure_c
34%
ms_c radio_conn_lost_c

22%
transmissio_c
transport_res_rel_nrm_c
ms_c cell_update_occured_c

ms_c physical_ch_reconf_fail_c

admission_control_c
cell_op_block_c
transmissio_c
transport_res_rel_nrm_c
Company Confidential 33%

93 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


CS RAB drop cause distribution

Top 4 failure causes


Radio Link Failure (UL and DL coverage) UL Lost Active KPI
No response from rlc (mainly DL Coverage) Unsuc ASU KPI
Physical Channel Recnf Fail (delay in ISHO) RRC Drop ISHO RT KPI
Radio Connection Lost (failure during the Physical Channel Reconf
procedure) Phy Ch Reconf SR KPI

All this cause are mapped in the RADIO failure counters

OUT FAIL SOURCEFailure counter


radio_interface_c RADIO
Mapping between failure source
ms_c RADIO
and service level counters transmissio_c RNC
rnc_internal_c RNC
iur_c IUR
bts_c BTS
Iu_c IU
Company Confidential
94 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Example of Active Radio Link Failure
During the In-sync state, the BTS L1 monitors
the synchronization status of each radio
frame:
1. If N_OUTSYNC_IND (def. 20) consecutive
Out-of-sync indications are received, L1
starts the timer T_RLFAILURE (def.
2seconds); the timer is stopped and reset if
N_INSYNC_IND (def. 4) consecutive In-sync
indications are received.
If the timer T_RLFAILURE expires, the radio
link is moved to an Out-of-sync state: when
a radio link has been moved to the Out-of-
sync state, L1 informs BTS L3 about the
synchronization failure and the BTS L3 sends
the NBAP:RADIO LINK FAILURE message to
the RNC.
If Radio Link failure has been sent at
10:41:41,75 means that the Out-of-sync state
started 2 seconds earlier and no ASU
received yet

Company Confidential
95 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Example of Active Radio Link Failure

BTS RNC

Radio Link Failure


Radio Link Failure No L1 sync re-establishment
Periodic message T_arlf= 5 s Radio Link Deletion after
Radio Link Failure
T_L1_Sync_ReEstab_Wait = 6s
Radio Link Deletion
from 1st Radio Link Failure

Company Confidential
96 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
Missing ADJS

Voice call initial EcNo is 6.5


dB, no measurement reports
(no mobility or missing ADJS)
DL DPCH Power increases to
the maximum 31 dBm
(CpichToRefRabOffset = 2 dB)

Company Confidential
97 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
Missing ADJS

DL DPCH Power is increased up to the


maximum
DL synchronisation is lost first
Possible scenario is missing ADJS

ISHO due to DL Power (not enable)


may have saved the call

2 cases recorded with RNC log are


similar, both with the same terminal
model (V800) but different IMSI

Company Confidential
98 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
Missing ADJG

ASS = 2
1f SC 114 EcNo = -15
dB
1f SC 212 EcNo = -14 -107 dBm
dB -107 dBm
-108 dBm
-110 dBm
-104 dBm

-105 dBm

-103 dBm

-108 dBm

-108 dBm

No suitable cell founds


CM stops
Company Confidential
99 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
Missing ADJG
No suitable cell founds
CM stops

CM starts again for EcNo

DL quality gets worst


SC 212 EcNo = -19 dB
SC 114 EcNo = -18 dB
DL Synch is lost first

ADJG
optimisation
Company Confidential
100 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
UL Interference

RAB setup

6b

RL failure; cause: synch failure

Company Confidential
101 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
UL Interference
PRXTOT_DENOM_3_4 (seconds/hour)

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
10:00

13:00

16:00

19:00

22:00

10:00

13:00

17:00

20:00

23:00

11:00

14:00

17:00

20:00

23:00

12:00

15:00

18:00

21:00

12:00

15:00

18:00

21:00
0:00

3:00

6:00

1:00

4:00

7:00

2:00

5:00

8:00

3:00

6:00

9:00

0:00

3:00

6:00

9:00
The UL inteference is L_RT+L_NRT (%) in overload conditions
concentrated during 9
daytime. 8
7
6
5
The load (RT and 4
NRT) reported in 3
2
overload time doesnt 1
justify the overload 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
conditions. seconds in UL overload
Company Confidential
102 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
How to detect bad cell from counters

KPI for detecting Radio Link Deletion rate due to active L1


shynchronisation failure using Iub counter Table
Use the row counter or the following KPI to detect cells with high
synchronisation failure.
Compare the cell level KPI with the RNC level KPI
NUMBER OF RADIO LINK
DELETION FOR ACTIVE
DEL _ SHO _ SRNC _ ACT _ RL _ SYN _ FAIL
UL _ LOST _ ACT SYN FAILURE
RL _ BRANCH _ ADD _ SUCC _ SHO _ SRNC
RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ FIRST _ RL NUMBER OF ACTIVE RADIO
LINKS IN THE IUB
RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ SHO _ RL

Anyway, a DL radio link failure


results in an UL synchronization
loss since the Ue stops
transmitting.

Company Confidential
103 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
How to detect bad cell from counters

The cells affected by RAB voice drops are identified by the Service Level
counter RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOICE_RADIO.

The following NBAP KPI characterizes the cells affected by active radio link
synchronization failures:
DEL _ SHO _ SRNC _ ACT _ RL _ SYN _ FAIL
UL _ LOST _ ACT
RL _ BRANCH _ ADD _ SUCC _ SHO _ SRNC
Anyway, a DL radio link failure
results in an UL synchronization RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ FIRST _ RL
loss since the Ue stops RL _ SETUP _ SUCC _ FOR _ SHO _ RL
transmitting.
RL_SETUP_ATT_FOR_SHO_ON_SRNC

RL_BRANCH_ADD_SUCC_SHO_SRNC

DEL_SHO_SRNC_ACT_RL_SYN_FAIL
RL_SETUP_ATT_FOR_FIRST_RL

RNC1

UL_LOST_ACTIVE
average:

RNC-CITTA
UL_LOST_ACTIVE

RNC_ID
10%
RNC-CITTA

DAY
CELL_ID
RNC_ID

NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050117 10.0%


DAY

NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050118 10.3%


NE-RNC-2 62272 MILANO1 20050117 770 401 206 295 21.4%
NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050119 10.1%
NE-RNC-2 62272 MILANO1 20050118 606 363 241 267 22.1%
NE-RNC-2 62272 MILANO1 20050119 669 493 161 308 23.3%
NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050120 9.8%
NE-RNC-2 62272 MILANO1 20050120 777 460 166 357 25.4%
Company Confidential
NE-RNC-2 62272 MILANO1 20050121 1215 672 265 464 21.6%
104 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
No response from RLC (017F)
AS= 1 SC 1a SC 317 EcNo = -7.5
146 dB
SC 146 EcNo = -6.5 dB

Addition of SC 317

Periodical 1a for SC 317

RL release after 6s
timer expiration

Company Confidential
105 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
NO RESPONSE FROM RLC

There are 2 identified causes for this failure:


1. RF conditions:
Poor link quality leading to message loss
Fast-changing conditions (cell to be added to active set becomes interferer very quickly
and UE does not receive subsequent active set update (ASU))
2. Scrambling code/neighbour planning problems
UE measures a different cell to that defined in the RNC as the neighbour: timing
measurements are therefore incorrect and Iub timing adjustments can cause temporary
loss of existing links. This occurs in the measurement report/ASU procedure and the call
will often be released with RRC Connection release msg approx 6s (internal timer) after the
RNC sends the ASU.

Company Confidential
106 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
NO RESPONSE FROM RLC Fast-Changing RF
Active Set EcNo

Measurement reports
are sent too late downlink Monitored
EcNo
Set

is already bad (as indicated by


high pilot BER/DL BLER) so UE does
not receive the ASU sent by UE Measurement
the RNC reports

Possible solution by
speeding up SHO process Pilot BER
-FMCS parameters or offsets
in ADJS

This approach may be most useful in


e.g. motorway/railway environments

Company Confidential
107 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
No response from RLC
Example during ISHO

-77 dBm

-96 dBm
-87 dBm
-108 dBm
RxLev of
ARFCN 66 10 Measurement
is Reports (9 are
decreasing
rapidly empty)
BSIC verification
fails

UE is Z1010 CM is stopped

Company Confidential
108 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
No response from RLC
Example during ISHO

CM is stopped

Measurement Control is not


acknowledged by the UE at RLC
levelafter 6 s timer expires and Iu is
released

Company Confidential
109 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
NO RESPONSE FROM RLC SCR. CODE PLANNING

scrambling
code 20 shall
be changed or
5902 shall be
tilted down
(BOTH)

MI6274-3 HAS 6190-1 AS ADJS WITH SCRAMBLING 20 BUT 5902-3 IS ALSO POINTING TO THE SAME
DIRECTION (THERES ONLY THE PARK IN THE MIDDLE: OPEN AREA) THERE WILL BE MOST LIKELY
SITUATIONS WHERE UE HAVING A DCH ON 6274-3 MEASURES SCRAMBLING 20 COMING FROM 5902-3, BUT
RNC OF COURSE SET UP THE RADIO LINK ON THE 6190-1 (ADJS) WITH THE TIMING INFO COMPLETELY
Company
WRONG. Confidential
THE ACTIVE SET UPDATE PROCEDURE WILL TOTALLY FAIL IN THAT CASE.
110 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
NO RESPONSE FROM RLC
How to detect bad cell from counters

How to detect the problem from counters ?


A good indicator to find out the problem is the following (RT):

UNSUCCESSFUL _ ACTIVE _ SET _ UPDATE


UNSUC _ ASU
SUCCESSFUL _ ACTIVE _ SET _ UPDATE
UNSUCCESSFUL _ ACTIVE _ SET _ UPDATE

Incremented in every cell within the Active Set (at the moment of sending
ACTIVE SET UPDATE msg) by Serving RNC when the Active Set has
changed i.e. when the RNC receives the ACTIVE SET UPDATE COMPLETE
message (Success) or ACTIVE SET UPDATE FAILURE (Unsucc) or does not
receive anything within an internal timer (Unsucc)

Company Confidential
111 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconfiguration Fail

Physical Channel Reconf fail vs Establishment Cause


Mapping to counter RRC/RAB_ACT_FAIL_RADIO

Looking at some logs the failure is due to difficult BSIC verification during ISHO
procedure and since the failure happens after the Handover from UTRAN
commands all relative ISHO counters are incremented
In the same area there are some Handover from UTRAN failure messages sent
back from the UE with the cause physical channel failure this means that UE
had some problems to establish connection with the GSM cell (aggressive GSM
frequency reuse)
Optimisation of ADJG in the area and if possible 2G frequency plan

Company Confidential
112 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconf fail Ex1

ISHO Handover failure


Mapped to
CON_DROP_ISHO....
Counters
Filter cell with HIGH:
RAB_ACT_FAIL_CS_VOI
CE_RADIO 1 BSIC verification
Sum of
Many BSIC are reported both
CON_DROP_ISHO.... verified and not verified

1 BSIC verified
6s timer expires

Company Confidential
113 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconf Fail-BSIC Verification fails
1e SC 188 EcNo = -9 dB
ISHO Triggered by
DL Power

1a SC 500 EcNo = -15 dB


SC 188 EcNo = -13 dB
-77 dBm

-79 dBm

-81 dBm

BSIC Confidential
Company Verification starts
114 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconf Fail-BSIC Verification fails

BSIC Verification starts

No BSIC Verification
DL interference
increasespollution

-69 dBm

DL Quality is too bad the UE


is not able do deocde the
Handover
Company Command
Confidential
115 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconf Fail-Relocation fails
First CM measurements are ok
but the Relocation fails

EcNo is ok
RSCP = -108
dBm

Company Confidential
116 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconf Fail-Relocation fails

-98dBm

Company Confidential
117 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Physical Channel Reconf Fail
How to detect bad cell from counters
RNC When the source RCC Connection drops during the ISHO,
RRC: Measurement report
one of the following counter is triggered:
(3,4,5)
CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_UL_DCH_Q_RT
RRC: Measurement Control CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_EU_TX_PWR_RT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_DL_DPCH_PWR_RT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_RSCP_RT
RRC: Measurement report CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_ECNO_RT
RRC: Measurement report

RRC: Measurement report

Handover Command

CN CON_DRPS_IS_HHO _ xxx _ RT
RRC _ Drop _ ISHO Allcauses

IU Release Request IS _ HHO _ ATT _ xxx _ NRT


Allcauses

For RT the timer is 6 seconds:

Company Confidential
118 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Connection Lost CS
ISHO due to UL Power is too late

ISHO triggered for


UL interference
UE Tx Pwr = 20 dBm
event 6a
UL interference leads to 6s timer expires and RNC sends
lost of UL Iu Release Request
synchronisation and the
RNC does not received
the Phy. Channel Rec.
Complete

Increase GsmUUTxPwrThrAMR (= 5dB)


to give more time to perform ISHO

Company Confidential
119 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Connection Lost
Rapid field drop

ISHO for DL Power is


triggered

DL Power increases
very quicklyno
time to complete the
procedure

Company Confidential
120 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Connection Lost
Rapid field drop

DL DPCH Power ISHO for DL Power


is triggered (29
dBm)

Increasing the
CPICHToReafRA
BOffset from -2dB
to 0 dB, keeping
the same
absolute value for
DL Power
Company Confidential Threshold (5dB)
121 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Connection Lost
How to detect bad cell from counters

The RAB voice failure due to radio_connection_lost-timer_expired are related to


physical channel reconfiguration complete not received at compressed mode
start.

The cells affected by physical channel reconfiguration failure can be identified


through the RRC counters PHY_CH_RECONF, PHY_CH_RECONF_COMP.

PhyChan _ Re conf _ Succ _ Rate 100 *


PHY_CH_REC ONF_COMP
%
PHY_CH_REC ONF

PHY_CH_RECONF_SUCCESS_RATE
PHY_CH_RECONF_COMP
PHY_CH_RECONF_COMP

PHY_CH_RECONF
PHY_CH_RECONF

In average

RNC-CITTA
RNC_ID 98.5% at

DAY
WCEL_ID

RNC level.
period

NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050117 9677 9538 98.6%


NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050118 10083 9941 98.6%
%

NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050119 11048 10885 98.5%


62951 17-21/01/05 258 230 89.1% NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050120 10521 10365 98.5%
Company Confidential NE-RNC-2 MILANO1 20050121 11661 11460 98.3%

122 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


Failure Analysis

Failure analysis is divided into


RRC Setup Failures
RRC Access Failures
CS RAB Drop
PS RAB Drop

Company Confidential
123 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
PS RAB drop cause distribution
PS drop cause distribution ms_c radio_conn_lost_c

3% 1% radio_interface_c radio_link_failure_c
3% 1%
5% ms_c no_resp_from_iuv_c

34% radio_interface_c no_resp_from_rlc_c


7%
ms_c timer_expired_c

rnc_internal_c serv_req_nack_from_rrc_c_c
11%
iu_c radio_link_failure_c

ms_c radio_conn_lost_c

iu_c iuv_iu_rel_comm_received_c
14%
17% transmissio_c transport_res_rel_nrm_c

Company Confidential
124 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
PS RAB drop cause distribution

Top 4 failure cause are common


Radio Connection Lost (failure during the RAB Reconf procedure) RAB
Reconf SR KPI
Radio Link Failure (UL and DL coverage) UL Lost Active KPI
No response from rlc (mainly DL Coverage) Unsuc ASU KPI for NRT
Iu Radio Link Failure (delay in ISHO) RRC Drop ISHO NRT KPI

All this cause are mapped in the RADIO failure counters

OUT FAIL SOURCEFailure counter


Mapping between failure source radio_interface_c RADIO
and service level counters ms_c RADIO
transmissio_c RNC
rnc_internal_c RNC
iur_c IUR
bts_c BTS
Iu_c IU
Company Confidential
125 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Connection Lost
How to detect bad cell from counters

RAB Reconfiguration Success Rate KPI is ~2% lower than at RNC level
CELL RNC

RB_RECONF_SUCCESS_RATE
level level

RB_RECONF_SUCCESS_RATE

RB_RECONF_COMPLETE
RB_RECONF_COMPLETE
RB_RECONF_ COMPLETE
%

RB_RECONF
100 *

RB_RECONF

RNC-CITTA
RB_RECONF

DAY
CELL

DAY
MILANO1 20050117 128890 127617 99.0%
62542 20050117 284 283 99.6%
62542 20050118 1619 1570 97.0% MILANO1 20050118 138597 137227 99.0%
62542 20050119 2169 2102 96.9% MILANO1 20050119 142997 141604 99.0%
62542 20050120 1857 1787 96.2% MILANO1 20050120 136753 135481 99.1%
62542 20050121 1168 1132 96.9% MILANO1 20050121 118625 117340 98.9%

AVG_PRX_TOTAL

The cell has other kind of radio failures -80

-85

Drop voice is 3% -90

dB
-95 AVG_PRX_PWR
STOP WCELL ID OUT FAIL SOURCE OUT REASON Percentage -100
62542 radio_interface_c radio_link_failure_c 2.5% -105
62542 ms_c radio_conn_lost_c 1.2% -110
0.1%
2005011700
2005011707
2005011715
2005011722
2005011805
2005011812
2005011820
2005011903
2005011910
2005011917
2005012001
2005012008
2005012015
2005012022
2005012105
2005012112
2005012119
62542 radio_interface_c no_resp_from_rlc_c

Company Confidential
126 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Connection Lost
ActivationTimeOffset parameter

ActivationTimeOffset
Old value = 300 ms
New value = 600 ms
Benefits:
high impact CCSR for PS (RAB Reconfiguration procedure)
impact on CSSR for CS (RAB Establishement procedure)
low impact on CCSR for CS (Physical Channel Reconfiguration procedure)
STRAU
phy_ch_reconf rb_reconf rb_setup

101.0%

100.0%
Success Rate

99.0%

98.0%

97.0%

96.0%

95.0%
28.03.05
29.03.05
30.03.05
01.04.05
02.04.05
03.04.05
04.04.05
05.04.05
06.04.05
07.04.05
08.04.05
09.04.05
10.04.05
11.04.05
12.04.05
13.04.05
14.04.05
15.04.05
16.04.05
17.04.05
Company Confidential
127 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
128
Drop

0.0%
1.0%
2.0%
3.0%
4.0%
5.0%
6.0%
7.0%
8.0%
9.0%
10.0%

2005 Nokia
23.02.05
24.02.05

Company Confidential
25.02.05
26.02.05
02.03.05
03.03.05
04.03.05
05.03.05
09.03.05
10.03.05

V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


11.03.05
12.03.05
16.03.05
17.03.05
ActivationTimeOffset parameter

18.03.05
Radio Connection Lost

19.03.05
23.03.05
24.03.05
25.03.05
26.03.05
30.03.05
31.03.05
01.04.05
02.04.05
06.04.05
07.04.05
08.04.05
09.04.05
13.04.05
14.04.05
15.04.05
16.04.05
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000

ACC COMP
PS Drop
TOT ATT

PS drop 2
Radio Link Failure from RNC
AS=3
PS call 128 kbps on
going SC 46 EcNo= -6 dB (Id 40611)
SC 236 EcNo= -11.5 dB
After inter-rnc radio
SC 392 EcNo= -12 dB
link deletion UL
synchronisation is Remove SC
236
lost

Remove SC
392 inter-rnc
392

236

46

Company Confidential
129 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure from UE

Looking at UE log
DL quality is good EcNo = -4
dB
RL deletion and after that ...
....UE Tx Power starts to
increase up to the maximum
value!
No UL quality deterioration
report has been sent
UL SIR target seems to be
corrected both in Source
and Target RNC
Probable UL power spikes
problem
Check PrxTotal 11 Feb at
10:41
Company Confidential
130 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
IFHO vs ISHO
IFHO Triggered for
IFHO-ISHO fail
RSCP = -105 dBm
IFHO starts first
(priority)
6b

No IF cells are reported during


InterFreqMaxMeasPeriod =6 (3s)
Suggested value is >8 to give
more time to measure the ADJI
ISHO Triggered for RSCP = -105 dBm
ISHO
6b reported as well UE Tx Pwr= 21 dBm
starts

Company Confidential
131 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Radio Link Failure
IFHO vs ISHO ISHO Triggered for
RSCP = -105 dBm

Bad quality in
GSM cell or the
cell is not found
due to the
ISHO Triggering for RSCP = - delay for IFHO
105 dBm is still valid meas.
This cell is microcell
covering the indoor
It should serve indoor
user with good pathloss
Check the level of
coverage inside and
Delay in the ISHO causes lost outside the building
of synchronisation
6b sent 11s before

Company Confidential
132 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Iu Radio Link Failure
DL Power
PS RAB 64K
RSCP

CM for low
RSCP starts

After the second


MR the Handover
starts
Company Confidential
133 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Iu Radio Link Failure
DL Power
After the second
MR the Handover
starts

The UE does ot receive


the CCO, it keeps
sending measurement
reports
DL Power is close to
the maximum
Interaction with DyLo
does not allow to
decrease the
threshold

15s timer expires

Company Confidential
134 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Iu Radio Link Failure
Mapping with ISHO counters: RRC Drop during ISHO NRT
When the source RCC Connection drops during the ISHO,
RNC one of the following counter is triggered:
RRC: Measurement report
(3,4,5) CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_UL_DCH_Q_NRT
CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_EU_TX_PWR_NRT
RRC: Measurement Control CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_DL_DPCH_PWR_NRT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_RSCP_NRT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_ECNO_NRT
RRC: Measurement report

RRC: Measurement report

RRC: Measurement report

For NRT:
Cell Change Order (PS)
RRC-TmrlRCC = T309+ InterRATCellReselTmrOffset
expires
where: CN CON_DRPS_IS_HHO _ xxx _ NRT
IU Release Request ISHO _ Drop _ NRT Allcauses

IS _ HHO _ ATT _ xxx _ NRT


Allcauses

T309 parameter = 5 s (SIB1)+


Internal parameter 10s
Company Confidential
135 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
New PowerPoint Template

After CCO:
1. Location Area
Update
2. Read SIB13
3. Routing Area
Update

Company Confidential
136 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
Required DL DPCH Power

Different UE models require quite different DL Transmission Power on the


dedicated channel.
Use more cell resource (Power is shared between all RRC Connections)
DL coverage may become the limit
ISHO due to DL Power is the dominant cause
Bit rate downgrade due to Dynamic Link Optimisation

Company Confidential
137 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
DL DPCH Power in CD5.2 and ED1

CD 5.2 introduce improvement in terms of required DL Power (SRB BLER Target


from 0.1% to 1% less DL Power)
ED1 introduce improvements in terms of DL Power because the reported DL
power is the average in the measurement period (RLMeasurementperiod =
500ms1000ms??)
In case the failures are present even in CD 5.2 :
Suggestion is to increase CPICHToRAbRefoffset in order to increase the maximum
DL Power
This may lead to DL Admission Control blocking, in this case add WPA

Company Confidential
138 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
DL Coverage: DL DPCH Power Tuning

Parameters to change in order to increase DL coverage on dedicated channel


Together with the DL admission decision equation the maximum allowed DL
transmission power per connection limits the coverage (and capacity) of certain
user (using certain service)
The maximum DL transmission power per connection is determined by the
parameter CPICHToRefRABOffsetC pichToRe fRabOffset and the formula below
The formula for the maximum link power
is
defined so that the CPICH coverage and
PtxPrimaryCPICH
Ptx,CPICH the
service coverage are comparable but DL
RI max Ptx,CPICH service coverage does depend on UE
Ptx,max power control so it needs to be tuned
ref RI ref C pichtorefRabOffset based on UE behaviour
CPICH coverage
=
Service Coverage
Company Confidential
139 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
DL DPCH Power Tuning

The method is applicable if:


The cell is limited by DL dedicated channel coverage
In case the network has no capacity issue (Total BS DL Power is enough): this can be checked
monitoring PtxTotal counters and distribution in classes.
Its possible to tune CPICHToRefRABOffset specifically for low bit rate services and limit
the DL Power for high bit rate services by using PtxDPCHmax
Example of effect of changing CPICHToRefRABOffset

Max BS Power 46 R Ptx Max dBm


PtxDPCHmax -3 12.2 1.64 32.15
PtxDPCHmin -28 64 3.33 35.23
PCrangeDL 15 128 6.28 37.98 Increased by the
CPICHRABOFFSET 2 384 18.08 42.57 CPICHToRefRABOffs
et difference
R Ptx Max dBm
Max BS Power 46
12.2 2.60 34.15
PtxDPCHmax -3
64 5.28 37.23 Limited by
PtxDPCHmin -28 PtxDPCHmax
128 9.96 39.98
PCrangeDL 15
384 19.95 43.00
CPICHRABOFFSET 0

Company Confidential
140 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
UE vs ISHO

Considering only the top used UEs


RRC Cause distribution excluding Registration and Inter-RAT
Comparing with UE distribution with successful ISHO
Motorola V980 triggers more frequent the ISHO (mainly due to DPCH DL Power)

UE distribution excluding Reg. And Inter-RAT UE distribution with successful ISHO


1% 4%
1% 4% 2%1%
0%
5%
15% 3%
V980 V980
6630 6630
9%
z1010 z1010
v800 v800
7% 51%
z105/data z105/data
z107 z107

9% Talon Talon
z100 z100
76%
12%

Company Confidential
141 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
DL Power in stationary Case

Two voice calls on the same cell, same duration, same initial EcNo and without
any SHOstationary calls
Call done with Motorola UE does trigger ISHO due to DL Power
Call done with Sony UE has a quite stable DL power
MOTOROL SONY
35
A 35

33 33

31 31

29 29
Ptx_RL1
Ptx_RL1
Ptx_RL2
27 Ptx_RL2 27
Ptx_RL3
Ptx_RL3
Ptx_RL4
Ptx_RL4
25 RRC_conn_setup
25 RRC_conn_setup
RAB_setup_complete
RAB_setup_complete
RAB_reconfiguration
RAB_reconfiguration 23
23 ASU
ASU
Meas_Rep
Meas_Rep
21
21

19
19

17
17

15
15
9:51:24.480

9:51:33.120

9:51:41.760

9:51:50.400

9:51:59.040

9:52:07.680

9:52:16.320

9:52:24.960

9:52:33.600

9:52:42.240
9:50:49.920

9:50:58.560

9:51:07.200

9:51:15.840

9:51:24.480

9:51:33.120

9:51:41.760

9:51:50.400

9:51:59.040

9:52:07.680

9:52:16.320

Company Confidential
142 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials
3G Optimization Process Contents
1. Pre-launch Optimization
Process
Tools
Preparation
Tuning & Verification
Pre-Optimization
2. Continuous Optimization
Example Process
Problem Solving Process
Failure Analysis
Parameter Optimization

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Parameter Optimization

Different parameter sets should be tested to improve the performance and


throughput in the network
The sets could be related to parameters having impact on
1. Cell reselection
2. RRC connection establishment
3. RAB establishment
4. Call setup time
5. Soft Handover
6. Throughput
7. Inter-System HO

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Parameter Optimization
Different Conditions should be measured if possible
Slow moving conditions (walking speed)
Average speed conditions (<50km/h)
Fast speed conditions (~100km/h)
High speed trains if exist (~200km/h)
Inter RNC and Intra RNC cases where applicable
Test Procedure and tools should be specified carefully for every case
Separate parameter testing guide will give more info about general parameter testing
including
List of parameters
List of different values for parameters
Test tools & measurement procedure
Example results
In next slides there is one example of the parameter tests related to cell reselection, SHO
and Dynamic Link Optimization

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Cell Reselection

Poor cell reselection can lead to poor call setup time or call setup failure,
Main Parameters related to cell reselection success are
Cell reselection triggering time (Treselection)
Cell reselection hysteresis 2 (Qhyst2)
S intrasearch (Sintrasearch)
Minimum required quality level in the cell (QqualMin)
Minimum required RX level in the cell (QrxlevMin)
Other parameters which will speed up the setup process (RRC success rate)
PRACHRequiredReceivedCI
ActivationTimeOffset
CPICHtoRefRABOffset

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Cell Reselection
Poor cell reselection can lead to poor call setup time distribution (due to UE
need to send several RRC Connection Requests

Corrected Reselection: performance


Poor Cell Reselection: performance
Call Setup Delay CDF
Call Setup Delay (PDF & CDF)
100
90 PDF 100.0%
80 CDF 80.0%
70
60
60.0%
50 40.0%
40
30
20.0%
20 0.0%

3.5s - 3.7s

3.7s - 3.9s

3.9s - 4.1s

4.5s-4.7s
4.1s-4.3s

4.3s-4.5s

4.7s-4.9s

4.9s-5.1s

5.1s-5.3s

5.3s-5.5s
<3.5s

>5.5s
10
0
0 0 to 3000 3000 to 5000 5000 to 8000 8000 to 10000 > 10000
Setup Time [ms]

Setup Time (seconds)

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RRC Success Rate
Two values for PRACHRequiredReceivedCI tested (drive testing)
-20dB
-25dB
UL interference conditions are at the same level
(reported in SIB 7 for both cases) PRACH req. C/I = -25 PRACH req. C/I = -20
120.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100% 80.0%
99% 60.0%
98% 40.0%
97% 20.0%
96.2%
96%
0.0%

<3.5s

>5.5s
4.1s-4.3s

4.3s-4.5s

4.5s-4.7s

4.7s-4.9s

4.9s-5.1s

5.1s-5.3s

5.3s-5.5s
3.5s - 3.7s

3.7s - 3.9s

3.9s - 4.1s
95%
94%
-25dB -20dB
Call Setup Success Rate
Call Setup Delay (seconds) RRC Conn. Req. to Alerting

Clear improvement in call setup delay for 20dB


case. ~65% of the established calls are through
Clear improvement number of sent preambles with only 3.5 3.7s delay and the >5.5s delay
tail disappears (in this case).
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SHO Optimization
Soft Handover Parameters
Main Parameters to be optimised are
Addition window
Drop window
Replacement window
Cell Individual Offset
Conditions
Slow moving conditions (walking speed)
Average speed conditions (<50km/h)
Parameters Value
Fast speed conditions (~100km/h) Addition Window (dB) 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5
High speed trains if exist (~200km/h) Addition Time (ms) 60, 80, 100, 120, 160
Drop Window (dB) 2, 3, 4, 5
Inter RNC and Intra RNC cases Drop Time (ms) 120, 240, 320, 640, 1280
Example of parameter sets to be tested Replacement Window (dB) 2
Replace Time (ms) 100
Maximum Active Set Size 3
CPICH Ec/No filter Coefficient 3
Active Set Weighting Coefficient 0

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SHO Optimization

Parameters Value
Addition Window (dB) 2.5
Addition Time (ms) 100
Drop Window (dB) 4
Drop Time (ms) 640
Replacement Window (dB) 2
Replace Time (ms) 100
Maximum Act ive Set Size 3
CPICH Ec/No f ilter Coeff icient 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Active Set Weighting Coef ficient 0

3 (600ms), default
By comparing the
results of different 0 (200ms) By comparing the results of
4 (800ms)
parameter sets, the 2 (400ms) different parameter sets,
5 (1100ms)
3 (600ms), default the default value 3 should
6 (1600ms) default value 3 should be the optimal one---
be the optimal one--- highest SHO gain, good KPIs
highest SHO gain, and proper SHO overhead.
good KPIs and proper
SHO overhead.

ad (%) Number of dropped calls Average active set size Average time between UE Power (dBm)
UE Power (dBm) (RT) AS updates (s)

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SHO Optimization

Addition window/Drop Window

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SHO Optimization
There are some cases that drops happened because of SHO timing was
delayed(Actually it is difficult to judge as there are many cases that drops happened
with no respond of Measurement Report regardless of the level). It is possible that
such case happens at some places like shadow of building, tunnel, and gate way of
elevated road where dominant can be changed suddenly.
When UE sends Report, it does not have enough level to receive
ActiveSet Update Msg. Therefore, there are possibilities that call
drop happened because of H/O failure.

It can be avoided by setting earlier timing (timing for sending out


Measurement report )of H/O between targeted cells.
Use FMC parameter Use ADJSEcNooffset

Impact all of FMC Impact only between 2


targeted areas targeted cells
or the above case, it is desirable to change the timing by applying ADJSEc/Nooffse
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Dynamic Link Optimization

With DyLo parameters it is possible serve all users in the cell, both RT and NRT
users by downgrading the NRT bitrates in the case the total DL power is
reaching the maximum values
Target is to maximise bits/s in given Service Bitrate (=efficiency)
This would be possible by comparing results like
CPICH Ec/No vs Ratio of each RAB(Bit Rate)
CPICH RSCP vs Ratio of each RAB(Bit Rate)
PtxDCH vs CPICH RSCP (for each BitRate)
128kbps
PtxDCH vs CPICH Ec/No (for each BitRate)
384kbps
Main parameters to optimize UE
Planned maximum downlink transmission power of a radio link (PtxDLabsMax)
Initial and Minimum Allowed Bit RateDL (MinAllowedBitRateDL)
Maximum downlink bit rate for PS domain NRT data (MaxBitRateDLPSNRT)
BTS

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Ec/No and RSCP Correlation with Throughput
384000 0

-2
334000

-4 Huge changes
284000
-6 in EcNo levels
234000
-8 due to not
High correlation 184000 -10
DL Throughput
CPICH Ec/No stable inter.
with Ec/No and 134000
-12
situation
throughput. In 84000
-14

-16
cell border, 34000
-18
Ec/No goes -16000 2 -20
worse and 4
5. 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 3.6 2.5 0.1 0.1 9.8 9.3
:0 :1 :2 :3 :4 :5 :0 :1 :2 :3 :4 :5 :0 :1 :2 :3 :4 :5 :0 :1 :2 :3 :4 :5 :0 :0 :1
:41 4 :41 4 :41 4 :41 4 :41 4 :41 4 :42 4 :42 4 :42 4 :42 4 :42 4 :42 4 :43 4 :43 4 :43 4 :43 4 :43 4 :43 4 :44 4 :44 4 :44 4 :44 4 :44 4 :44 4 :45 4 :45 4 :45
With RSCP higher
than 100dBm ->
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
throughput gets 384000 -50

lower throughput still


334000
-60
good
284000
-70

234000
-80
DL Throughput
184000
CPICH RSCP
-90
134000
Use RSCP as
84000
-100
Main
34000
-110 trigger for ISHO
-16000 -120
14 1 :1 .2
14 1 : .2
14 1 :3 .2
14 1 : .2
14 1 : .2
14 2 :0 .2
14 2 : .2
14 2 :2 .2
14 2 : .2
14 2 : .2
14 2 :5 .2
14 3 : .2
14 3 :1 .2
14 3 : .2
14 3 : .2
14 3 :4 .2
14 3 : .2
14 4 :0 .2
14 4 : .2
14 4 :2 .2
14 4 : .2
14 4 : .6
14 4 :5 .5
14 5 : .1
14 5 :0 .1
5: 8
.3
:4 9.
:4 0 5
:4 5
:4 2 5
:4 5
:4 4 5
:4 5 5
:4 5
:4 1 5
:4 5
:4 3 5
:4 4 5
:4 5
:4 0 5
:4 5
:4 2 6
:4 3 6
:4 6
:4 5 6
:4 6
:4 1 6
:4 6
:4 3 3
:4 4 2
:4 0
:4 0 0

19
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:4
14

154 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials


Dynamic Link Optimization

Default Set1 Set2


PtxDLabsMax 43 43 38 or 36
InitialAndMinimumAllowedBitrateDL 384kbps 64kbps 64kbps
MaxBitRateDLPSNRT 384kbps 384kbps 384kbps
*Supreme,Optima38dBm
Metro36dBm

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Dynamic Link Optimization

UpgradeDowngrade times Times on different bearers spreading factors


Default Set1 Set2
Default
sf8 36:45.873 24:27.095 16:37.340
=>sf8 =>sf16 =>sf32 =>FACH =>Idle
sf16 00:00.000 12:30.764 24:27.813
sf8 129
sf32 02:07.373 08:43.990 08:46.952
sf16
sf32 3 FACH 14:37.097 09:26.672 10:19.881
FACH 122 5 5 Idle 00:37.344 00:21.919 00:10.115

Set1
=>sf8 =>sf16 =>sf32 =>FACH =>Idle
sf8 8 59
sf16 4 36
sf32 68 34 11
FACH 1 101 3

Set2
=>sf8 =>sf16 =>sf32 =>FACH =>Idle
sf8 17 46
sf16 1 51
sf32 67 39 11
FACH 6 98 3
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RB_Status RB_Status

157
Sf8

Idle0
100
200
300
400

sf32
sf16

FACH
Sf8

Idle0
100
200
300
400

sf32
sf16
16:41:39:209

FACH
16:41:44:245 16:41:39:209
16:41:49:252 16:41:44:736
16:41:56:252 16:41:49:754
16:42:02:351 16:41:57:764
16:42:11:234 16:42:05:265

2005 Nokia
16:42:19:786 16:42:14:159
16:42:21:789 16:42:21:229
16:42:28:799 16:42:25:084
16:42:35:809 16:42:33:295

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16:42:43:821 16:42:40:816
16:42:51:702 16:42:50:761
16:42:54:256 16:42:53:485
16:42:59:204 16:42:58:402
16:43:07:875 16:43:07:605
16:43:16:387 16:43:16:879
16:43:21:895 16:43:22:396
16:43:27:894 16:43:28:805
16:43:32:901 16:43:34:344

Time

Time
16:43:37:549 16:43:39:451

V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd
16:43:43:416 16:43:45:459
16:43:48:454 16:43:49:866
16:43:51:289 16:43:53:491

/ Initials
16:43:54:502 16:43:54:864
16:43:56:325 16:43:59:009
16:44:00:220 16:44:05:037
CPICH RSCP and RB Status (Set2)

CPICH Ec/No and RB Status (Set2)


16:44:06:039 16:44:13:620
16:44:15:594 16:44:19:109
RSCP

16:44:19:619 16:44:23:935

Ec/No
StatusID

16:44:23:935 16:44:25:667

StatusID
16:44:25:637 16:44:28:191
16:44:28:111 16:44:34:199
16:44:32:206 16:44:41:209
16:44:39:717 16:44:44:274
16:44:44:114
-90
-80
-70
-60

-9
-4
-130
-120
-110
-100

-24
-19
-14
Dynamic Link Optimization

0.00%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
120.00%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%

> -4

> -4
0.00%

100.00%

384
-4 to -6

-4 to -6
51.03%
38.30%
10.67%

-7-8
-6 to -8

-6 to -8
40.72%
47.55%
11.73%

-8 to -10

-8 to -10
30.34%
56.40%
13.26%

128
Ec/No [dB]
-10 to -12

-10 to -12
17.03%
57.16%
25.81%

Ec/No [dB]
RB Status Statistics(vs EcNo)

RB Status Statistics(vs EcNo)


-12 to -14

-12 to -14
11.54%
56.09%
32.37%

-14-15
RB Status for each Ec/No
-14 to -16

-14 to -16
11.32%
37.74%
50.94%

64
5.21%

-16 to -18
-16 to -18
18.75%
76.04%

< -18
< -18
6.98%
4.65%
88.37%

sf8
sf8

sf32
sf16
sf16
sf32
Bitrate Upgrade Possibilities in Nokia RAN

With Max_Bit_Rate/Ini-Min_Bit_Rate = 384k/64k setting.

SF32(64
k)
SF8(384
k)
SF16(128
k)
SF8(384
k)
Need big Traffic Volume
but cannot shift directly to
SF8
CELL- SF32(64 SF8(384
FACH k) k)
SF32(64 SF8(384 SF16(128
k) k) k)
SF32(64 SF8(384
Call can go back to SF8 when k) k)
- Downgrade to SF32 takes place due to DyLO
-Inactive timer expires and moves to Cell-FACH

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Annex 1: ICSU Parser exercise

Taking the following log

analyze the failure labeled as Configuration unsupported

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