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 Dry body with scales

 Toes with claws

 Well-developed lungs with alveoli
ALVEOLI- Small sacs that are created by the
folding of the lungs (more oxygen)

 Ectothermic (cold-blooded) They cannot heat their own body by using their metabolism. like the sun. . and regulate their temperature through behaviors such as basking or seeking shade.  They obtain heat from outside sources. Their body temperature is roughly the same as the ambient temperature.

 Three-chambered heart (2 atria and 1 ventricle) .

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poor swimmers that have been known to drown in deep water. . -contains tortoises. These include: 1. TORTOISES -terrestrial turtles. o Class Testudines (CHELONIA). terrapins and turtles Several common names are used to describe the various groups of turtles.

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2.semi-aquatic turtles. . TERRAPINS . equally at home in the water or on land.

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. They are totally adapted to aquatic life. "Turtle" is becoming widely accepted as referring to any member of the order. leaving the water only to lay eggs."true" turtles are marine animals whose limbs are flippers. TURTLES .3.

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TORTOISES & TERRAPINS .DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TURTLES.

Parts of T E U the .

The shell is entirely internal. the ventral shell is referred to as the PLASTRON. . The shell is a modification of the animal's ribcage and vertebral column. The dorsal shell is called the CARAPACE. Members of the order are best known for the hard shell. part of the turtle's skeleton.

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 Two layers thick: • outer layer of thin plates.  Composed of hard.like fingernails) • an inner layer of bone. . scutes (composed of keratin .  Most turtles have a shell composed of about 50 bones. bone plates covered by scutes. Serves as protection for the turtles.

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Plastron .

the underside of the turtle's shell 3. The term scales refers to the scales on the turtle's limbs and head. not shields or scales.1. BRIDGE.The "plates" of the carapace are called scutes. CARAPACE. PLASTRON. .the upperside of the turtle's shell 2.place where plastron and carapace meet 4. SCUTES.

C A R A PA C E L AY O U T The general layout of scutes of the carapace is quite the same with most chelonians. but the name costal actually refers to the underlying bones) o 11 or 12 pairs of marginal scutes and 1 pair of supracaudal scutes. with the exception of sea turtles and softshells. o The supracaudal scutes may be fused to 1 scute in some tortoise (Testudinidae) species. . THE LAYOUT INCLUDES: o 1 cervical scute (sometimes referred to as nuchal. which are the posterior most scutes on the marginal rim. but nuchal actually refers to the underlying bones) o 5 veterbral scutes o 4 pairs of pleural scutes (sometimes called costal scute.

placed in pairs o 1 pair of gular scutes o 1 pair of humeral scutes o 1 pair of pectoral scutes o 1 pair of abdominal scutes.P L A S T R A L L AY O U T The plastral layout varies more when compared to the carapace. . o 1 pair of femoral scutes o 1 pair of anal scutes. Most Hidden-necked (Cryptodira) turtles have: o 12 scutes on the plastron.

TURTLE IDENTIFICATION DEPENDS ON: Configuration of the head and the shell Arrangement of the plastral and carapacial shields Color pattern of the head and legs .

. shown at right. but they keep the characteristic red patch on the side of the head for which it is named. The green shell of the young. becomes a uniform brown to black as the animal matures.Red-eared pond sliders Chrysemys scripta  are quite common in Oklahoma.

has a large head with a sharp. The alligator snapper. Chelydra serpentina Alligator Snapping Turtle. hooked beak. The ridges on the carapace of the alligator snapper are much more pronounced than those on the common snapper. The common snapper. Common Snapping Turtle. has a small head with low ridges on the carapace and reaches a maximum weight of around 35 pounds. Macroclemys temmincki  are found in Oklahoma. .

the common snapping turtle is on the left and the alligator snapping turtle is on the right. The record for a female alligator snapper is 67 pounds. . while the male record is 252 pounds. Male snapping turtles are much larger than the females. above and below. The common snapper is most often a scavenger in shallow waters.  In both pictures. The alligator snapper is a carnivore prefering deep water.

remaining in an area throughout its life . The plastron is hinged so that a box turtle can draw its head and front legs into the shell and close into a tight "box" when disturbed. it is primarily a land animal.  inhabits the open woods and grasslands of Oklahoma. Terrapene carolina.Eastern Box Turtle. While this "tortoise" will get into the water to cool itself on very hot days. Box turtles are territorial.

If you don't. they will travel only about 100 yards each day. When box turtles are looking for a territory. be sure to note the direction it is moving and put it across the road in that direction. never retracing their steps. . they always move in one direction. the turtle will just crawl back onto the road. If you ever stop to "rescue" a box turtle from the road. Even when moving. The ones that you see crossing roads are most often young and have not established a territory yet.

O R D E 270 species R T E 12 or 13 S T families U D I N Side-necked Hidden- E turtles necked turtles S .