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# Trusses and Machines

ENGR 221
February 26, 2003

Lecture Goals

• 7-2 Plane Trusses
• 7-3 Space Trusses
• 7-4 Frames and Machines

Example Problem
The axis of the three-hinged arc ABC is a parabola with
vertex B. Knowing that P = 20 kN and Q =0 determine a) the
reactions at C, b) the components of the force exerted at on
segment AB.

Example Problem What is a hinge? At a hinge the moment is zero and can translate the forces across the point. .

Example Problem Draw the free-body diagram of the arch. F x  0  RAx  RCx F y  0  RAy  RCy  20 kN  RAy  RCy  20 kN M A  0  RCy 10 m   20 kN  3 m   RCy  6 kN  RAy  14 kN .

F x  0  RAx  RCx M B  0   RAy  5 m   20 kN  2 m   RAx  2. Example Problem Draw the free-body diagram of the arch at B.5 m   14 kN  5 m   20 kN  2 m   RAx  12 kN  RCx  12 kN .5 m  RAx  2.

then the non-collinear member is a zero-force member provided no external force or support reaction is applied to the joint. The collinear members carry equal loads. When three members form a truss joint for which two of the members are collinear and the third is forms an angle with the first two. . Zero – Force members When only two members form a non-collinear truss joint and no external load or support reaction is applied to the joint then the members must be zero-force members.

Zero – Force members Is there a zero force member in the truss? .

Zero – Force members Is there a zero force member in the truss? .

. The 750 N force is parallel to the z-axis. Example Problem The awning structure EGAD! is supported by ball and socket joints at A 3-D Trusses! and C and by a short link at B. Determine the support reactions and the force in each member of the space truss.

3-D Trusses The difference between 2-D and 3-D is that there are three more equations we will be concerned with and will require a bit more bookkeeping. Instead of just F x 0 Fy 0 M z 0 use the 6 sets of equations F x 0 F y 0 F z 0 M x 0 M y 0 M z 0 .

Simple Truss A truss is analysis by using m=3*j-6. . j represents the number of joints and 6 represents the external support reactions. where m is number of members.

Simple Truss If m< 3j-6. . it is neither sufficient nor necessary to ensure that a non-simple plane truss is rigid and solvable. If m= 3j-6. then the truss has more unknowns than know equations and is an indeterminate structure. then the truss is unstable and will collapse under load. ensures that a simple space truss is rigid and solvable. If m> 3j-6.

Determine the support reactions and the force in each member of the space truss. . Example Problem The awning structure is supported by ball and socket joints at A and C and by a short link at B. The 750 N force is parallel to the z-axis.

Example Problem Draw the free body diagram F  0  R A  RC  RB j  750 N k F  0  R x Ax  RCx F  0  R y Ay  RCy  RB  RAy  RCy  RB F z  0  RAz  RCz  750 N  RAz  RCz  750 N .

0 m 4.0 m 5.0 m 0 0 750 N   3750 N-m  i   3000 N-m  j  0k rAB   4.0 m  RB i  0 j   4.0 m  j   4. Equilibrium Problem – Example Take the moment about A.0 m  k i j k rAB  RB  4.0 m 0  RB 0   4.0 m  i   0.0 m 0.0 m  k i j k rAW1  W1  4.0 m  i   5.0 m 0.0 m  j   0.0 m  RB k . M A  0  rAW  W1  rAB  RB  rAC  RC rAW1   4.

0 m  i   0. Equilibrium Problem – Example Take the moment about A. M A  0  rAW  W1  rAB  RB  rAC  RC rAC   8.0 m 0.0 m  k i j k rAC  RC  8.0 m  j   0.0 m 0.0 m RCx RCy RCz  0i   8 m  RCz j   8 m  RCy k .

0 m  RCy  0  RCy  468. Equilibrium Problem – Example Using the summations of moments about A and look at the components.5 N j component 3000 N-m   8.0 m  RCz  0  RCz  375 N k component  4.0 m  RB  8.75 N .0 m  RB  0  RB  937. i component 3750 N-m   4.

. RAx and RCx could not be computed. The results are j component RAy  468.75 N k component RAz  375 N Unfortunately. Equilibrium Problem – Example Using the summations of forces about A and look at the components.

0 k .403 m   6.7809 j  0.657 m 2 2 2  4 m   0m   4m  AB   i    j  k  5.0 j  0.403 m   0. Equilibrium Problem – Example Using the method of joints look at joint A rAB   4 m  i   0 m  j   4 m  k rAB   4 m    0 m    4 m   5.7071 i  0.657 m   5.403 m 2 2 2  4 m   5m   0m  AD   i    j  k  6.657 m   5.7071 k rAD   4 m  i   5 m  j   0 m  k rAD   4 m    5 m    0 m   6.6247 i  0.403 m   6.657 m   0.

7809 T y AD  TAD  600. Equilibrium Problem – Example Using the method of joints look at joint A F  0  R  T   T  A AB AB AD AD  F  0  R  0. .33 N  RAx  750 N So the bars are in compression multiply by the unit vector to get the final set of forces.6247 T x Ax AB AD  F  0  468.7071 TAB  TAB  530.7071 T  0.3 N F z  0  375 N  0.75 N  0.

7809 T y CD  TCD  600.33 N  RCx  750 N So the bars are in compression multiply by the unit vector to get the final set of forces.6247 T x Cx CB CD  F  0  468.7071 T  0. F  0  R  T   T  C CB CB CD AD  F  0  R  0.75 N  0. .7071 TCB  TCB  530. Equilibrium Problem – Example Using the method of joints look at joint C and the values will be same due to symmetry.3 N F z  0  375 N  0.

Equilibrium Problem – Example Using the method of joints look at joint D rDB   0 m  i   5 m  j   4 m  k rDB   0 m    5 m    4 m   6.0 i  0.6247 TDB  TDB  1200.6247 k Look at the y component of joint D F z  0  750 N  0.7809 j  0.403 m 2 2 2  0m   5 m   4m  DB   i    j  k  6.403 m   0.403 m   6.403 m   6.6 N .

Determine the support reactions and the force in each member of the space truss.Class Problem The space truss is supported by ball and socket joints at D and by a short link at A and C. 3-D Trusses . .

Frames are constructed and supported so as to prevent any motion. . Frames -Definition Frames are structures that always contain at least one member acted on by forces at three or more points. Frame like structures that are not fully constrained are called machines or mechanisms.

Frames In order to determine the internal forces holding the various parts of a frame together we must dismember the frame and draw a free-body diagram for each of the component parts. .

Frames – Example For the marine crane. determine (a) the force in link CD (b) the force in brace AC and ( c) the force exerted at on boom AB . which is used in offshore drilling operations.

9 kN . Frames – Example Draw the free-body diagram F x  0  RAx W RAx  0 N D RAyRAx  y F  0  D  RAy  90 x10 3 kg  9.81 m/s 2   D  RAy  882900 N or 882.

Frames – Example Take the moment about A M W 0 A D RAyRAx   D 15 m   882.9 kN  38 m  D  2236.68 kN  R Ay  3119.58 kN .

9 kN  38 m  TCD  2236.68 kN  T  . Frames – Example Cut along CD TCD M A 0  TCD 15 m   882.68 kN  TCD  2236.

Frames – FAC Example FAB   Look at joint A  18 m    tan  1   50.41 o  35 m  .19 o  15 m   58 m    tan 1    55.

7 kN  FAC  1838.8867 FAB  sin 129.6 kN  FAB  2073.81o  AB   F sin 55.41o  FAC  0.7 kN  C   FAC  1838.41o   3119.7 kN  FAB  2073.7 kN  C  .41o   3119. Frames – FAC FAB Example Look at joint A  x F  0  FAC cos 129.81o   FAB sin  55.8867 FAB  y F  0  FAC sin 129.6 kN   0.81o  AB   F cos 55.

7-66. 7-68 . 7-60. Homework (Due 3/5/03) Problems: 7-58.