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MEDAN ELEKTROMAGNETIK

EL1208

Mudeng, Vicky Vendy Hengki, S.T., M.Sc.

Minggu 2

Circular Cylindrical
Coordinates • The circular cylindrical
coordinate system is the three-
dimensional version of the
polar coordinates of analytic
geometry.

• Circular cylinder (ρ = constant),
a plane (φ = constant), and
another plane (z = constant).

• Others cylindrical coordinates:
elliptic cylindrical coordinates,
hyperbolic cylindrical
coordinates, parabolic
cylindrical coordinates, and
26/10/2017
others
Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 2

Circular Cylindrical
Coordinates

• The three unit vectors of the circular cylindrical
coordinate system.
26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 3

Circular Cylindrical Coordinates • The surfaces have areas of ρ dρ dφ. and ρ dφ dz • The volume becomes ρ dρ dφ dz • The differential volume unit in the circular cylindrical coordinate system. and dz are all elements of length 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 4 . dρ. dρ dz. ρdφ.

z. 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 5 . z and the cylindrical coordinate variables ρ. φ. y. Circular Cylindrical Coordinates • The relationship between the rectangular variables x.

Circular Cylindrical Coordinates • Vektor pada bidang rectangular • Vektor pada bidang koordinat cylindrical 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 6 .

Circular Cylindrical Coordinates Dot products of unit vectors in cylindrical and rectangular coordinate systems 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 7 .

ubah vektor B ke cylindrical coordinates. • Komponen cylindrical coordinates : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 8 .Example 4 • Diberikan Vektor B = yax − xay + zaz .

φ. Rubahlah C(ρ = 4.2 .6 . 6) . G = (2x+y)ax −(y- 4x)ay pada titik Q(ρ. y = 2. 3.Exercise 4 1.4.−8. z = -3) ke cylindrical coordinates. z = −1) 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 9 . z = 2) ke koordinat rectangular. z) 5. Rubahlah ke koordinat rectangular : H = 20aρ − 10aφ + 3az pada P(x = 5. Berapakah jarak dari C ke D 4. 2. y = 2. Rubahlah ke cylindrical coordinates : F = 10ax −8ay+6az pada titik P(10. Ubahlah D (x= -3. φ = −115◦.

The Spherical Coordinate System 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 10 .

The Spherical Coordinate System • Transformasi dari Spherical Coordinate ke koordinat Rectangular • Transformasi dari koordinat Rectangular ke Spherical Coordinate 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 11 .

The Spherical Coordinate System • Sehingga didapatkan : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 12 .

Example 5 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 13 .

Chapter 2 : Coulomb’s Law and Electric Field Intensity • Outline : – Coulomb’s Law – Electric Field Intensity – Field Arising From a Continous Volume Charge Distribution – Field of a Line Charge – Field of a Sheet of Charge – Streamlines and Sketches of Field 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 14 .

Coulomb’s law • Q is measured in coulombs (C) R is in meters (m). 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 15 . and the force should be newtons (N).

the vector force F2 on Q2 is in the same direction as the vector R12 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 16 .Coulomb’s law • If Q1 and Q2 have like signs.

5) dalam ruang hampa. 3) dan muatan Q2 = −10^−4 C memiliki posisi N(2. Berapa gaya yang diterima oleh Q2 yang disebabkan oleh Q1 ? • Bagaimana dengan gaya yang diterima oleh Q1 yang disebabkan oleh Q2 ? 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 17 . 2.Example 1 • Q1 = 3 × 10−4 C memiliki posisi M(1. 0.

Solution Example 1 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 18 .

Solution Example 1 • Gaya yang diterima oleh Q1 yang disebabkan oleh Q2 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 19 .

4.854 x (10^-12) F/m? 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 20 .Exercise 1 Q1 = -20 μC memiliki posisi A(-6. 7) dan muatan Q2 = 50 μ C memiliki posisi B(5. Berapa gaya yang diterima oleh QB yang disebabkan oleh QA jika ε0= 8. 8. -2) dalam ruang bebas. RBA c. a. Berapa gaya yang diterima oleh QA yang disebabkan oleh QB jika ε0= (10^-9)/36π F/m? d. RAB b.

Electric Field Intensity • Coulomb’s Law : • Electric Field Intensity : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 21 .

Electric Field Intensity • Bentuk umum : • The electric field of a single point charge : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 22 .

Electric Field Intensity • At the center of a spherical coordinate system: The unit vector aR then becomes the radial unit vector ar . and R is r . 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 23 .

Electric Field Intensity 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 24 .

Electric Field Intensity • The vector addition of the total electric field intensity at P due to Q1 and Q2 is made possible by the linearity of Coulomb’s law. 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 25 .

Electric Field Intensity • If we add more charges at other positions. the field due to n point charges is : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 26 .

1) yang disebabkan oleh 4 muatan identik 3 nC pada titik P1 (1.1.0).-1.1. P3(-1.1.-1.0) dan P2(1.0).0). P2(-1. 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 27 .Example 2 • Tentukan intensitas medan E pada titik P (1.

Solution Example 2 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 28 .

Solution Example 2 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 29 .

• Just as we describe water as having a density of 1 g/cm3 (gram per cubic centimeter) even though it consists of atomic. we see that we can replace this distribution of very small particles with a smooth continuous distribution described by a volume charge density.and molecular-sized particles.Field Arising From a Continous Volume Charge Distribution • If we now visualize a region of space filled with a tremendous number of charges separated by minute distances. 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 30 .

• The small amount of charge ∆Q in a small volume ∆ν is : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 31 .Field Arising From a Continous Volume Charge Distribution • We denote volume charge density by ρν. having the units of coulombs per cubic meter (C/m3).

Field Arising From a Continous Volume Charge Distribution • The total charge within some finite volume is obtained by integrating throughout that volume : • Note : Bentuk umum integral yang digunakan dalam perhitungan Q merupakan integral rangkap 3 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 32 .

26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 33 .Example 3 • Perhatikan gambar disamping. Hitung muatan total dan intensitas medan yang dihasilkan.

Solution Example 3 • Besar kerapatan muatan • Volume pada koordinat silinder • Integralkan terhadap φ 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 34 .

Solution Example 3 • Integralkan terhadap z dan ρ 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 35 .

Solution Example 3 • Perhitungan E(r) : 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 36 .

1 v  3 3 3 x y z (b) 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 0. 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.1 ≤|x|. 0 ≤ φ ≤ π. |z| ≤ 0.2 .1.  v   2 z 2 sin 0.Exercise 2 Calculate the total charge within each of the indicated volumes: (a) 0.6 (c) universe: e 2 r v  2 r 26/10/2017 Power System Simulation Laboratory B-103 37 . |y|.