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You are on page 1of 34

**Waves (Optional Unit)
**

A PowerPoint Presentation by

Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics

Southern Polytechnic State University

© 2007

**Objectives: After completing this
**

module, you should be able to:

• Explain and discuss with appropriate diagrams

the general properties of all electromagnetic

waves.

• Discuss and apply the mathematical relationship

between the electric E and magnetic B

components of an EM wave.

**• Define and apply the concepts of energy density,
**

intensity, and pressure due to EM waves.

Much

This module

of this material

is OPTIONAL:

is NOTcheck

in Tippens

with instructor.

Textbook

Maxwell’s Theory

Electromagnetic theory developed by James

Maxwell (1831 – 1879) is based on four concepts:

**1. Electric fields E begin on positive charges and
**

end on negative charges and Coulomb’s law

can be used to find the field E and the force

on a given charge.

q

E

4 0 r 2

+ q1 q2 - F qE

Maxwell’s Theory (Cont. but rather consist of entirely closed loops. F B A sin q B qv sin . Magnetic field lines F do not begin or end.) 2.

Faraday’s Law: A change in flux DF can occur by a change in area or DF by a change in the B-field: E = -N Dt DF = B DA DF = A DB . Maxwell’s Theory (Cont. A changing magnetic field DB induces an emf and therefore an electric field E (Faraday’s Law).) 3.

Moving charges (or an electric current) induce a magnetic field B. Solenoid Current I B l I B induces x B B field x x x R 0 NI x B x Inductance L Lenz’s law . Maxwell’s Theory (Cont.) 4.

.Production of an Electric Wave Consider two metal rods connected to an ac source with sinusoidal current and voltage. Arrows show field vectors (E) - + + E Wave - Vertical transverse sinusoidal E-waves.

An Alternating Magnetic Field The ac sinusoidal current also generates a magnetic wave alternating in and out of paper. Inward B Outward B - + I I r X • In Out r r X • B B + - .

Wave - + Horizontal transverse sinusoidal B-waves.A Magnetic Wave Generation The generation of a magnetic wave due to an oscillating ac current. . + Arrows show magnetic field vectors (B) - I r B B .

An Electromagnetic Wave An electromagnetic wave consists of combination of a transverse electric field and a transverse magnetic field perpendicular to each other. + Arrows show field vectors - EM wave propagation in space .

Transmitting and Receiving An ac current generates an EM wave which then generates an ac signal at receiving antenna. .

A B-field Moves Past a Charge Relativity tells us that there is no preferred frame of reference. Consider that a magnetic field B moves at the speed of light c past a stationary charge q: c Stationary Charge q experiences a N magnetic force F positive charge q B F qcB or F cB q S c But electric field E = F/q: E Substitution shows: E cB c B .

a length of wire l = ct passes point A c ++++++ q q Charge density: Wire moves at ct velocity c past E A In time t: q = ct Thus. A E r In time t. An E-field Moves Past a Point A length of wire l moves at velocity c past point A: A current I is simulated. the current I is: Simulated current I: q ct I c I c t t .

) A A B-field is created by the E r simulated current: I c c 0 I 0 c ++++++ B 2 r 2 r E Recall from Gauss’ law: Eliminating from these two equations gives: E 2 0 r B 0 0cE . Moving E-field (Cont.

The Speed of an EM Wave For EM waves.00 x 108 m/s . we have seen: A E E r c B 0 0cE c B ++++++ Substituting E = cB into latter equation gives: E B 0 0c(cB) EM-waves travel at the 1 speed of light. which is: c 0 0 c = 3.

• The ratio of the E-field to the B-field is constant and equal to the velocity c. Important Properties for All Electromagnetic Waves • EM waves are transverse waves. Both E and B are perpendicular to wave velocity c. .

Energy Density for an E-field Energy density u is the energy per unit volume (J/m3) carried by an EM wave. Consider u for the electric field E of a capacitor as given below: Energy density u U U A d u for an E-field: Vol. Ad 0 A Recall C and V Ed : d Energy U 1 AdE density u: 2 u 2 0 1 2 1 0 A U 2 CV 2 ( Ed ) 2 uAd 1 2 0 E 2 Ad d .

U LI . Energy Density for a B-field Earlier we defined the energy density u for a B-field using the example of a solenoid of inductance L: 0 N 2 A l L . V A 1 2 2 A 0 NI NI B R B 0 U 0 N I 2 2 2 Energy density B u for B-field: u A 2 2 20 .

Energy Density for EM Wave The energy of an EM wave is shared equally by the electric and magnetic fields. so that the total energy density of the wave is given by: 2 B Total energy density: u 0 E 1 2 2 20 Or. since energy is B2 u 0E2 shared equally: 0 .

An average value of the energy density can be found from the root-mean-square values of the fields: Em Bm Erms and Brms 2 2 The average energy density uavg is therefore: uavg 0 E 1 2 2 m or uavg 0 E2 rms . Average Energy Density The E and B-fields fluctuate between their maximum values Em and Bm.

What is the root-mean-square value of the B-field? Em 1010 V/m Bm 3. . Brms 2.47 x 10 -9 m3 density is twice this value.85 x 10 1 2 2 m 1 2 -12 Nm2 C2 )(1010 V/m) J Note that the total energy uavg 4.37 T Brms .Example 1: The maximum amplitude of an E-field from sunlight is 1010 V/m.414 Earth What is the average energy density of the wave? uavg 0 E (8.37 T EM c 8 3 x 10 m/s wave Bm 3.38 T 2 1.

EM wave moves distance ct P I through area A as shown below: A Area A Total energy = density x volume Total energy = u(ctA) ct P Total E uctA I uc A A Time Area tA And Since Total intensity: P I uc u = oE2 I c 0 E 2 m A . Wave Intensity I The intensity of an EM wave is defined as the power per unit area (W/m2).

we can also express I in terms of B: c 2c c c IT B 2 B2 I avg B 2 2 Brms 0 0 20 0 m rms m . Calculating Intensity of Wave In calculating intensity. you must distinguish between average P values and total values: I A IT c 0 Em2 2c 0 Erms 2 Area A I avg 12 c 0 Em2 I avg 12 c 0 Em2 c 0 Erms 2 Since E = cB.

0180 V/m.85 x 10 1 2 8 -12 Nm2 C2 )(0. but the intensity decreases with the square of distance. The power of the source remains constant. What is the average intensity at that point? The average intensity is: I avg c 0 E 1 2 2 m I avg (3 x 10 m/s)(8.018 V/m) 2 I avg 4.Example 2: A signal received from a radio station has Em = 0. .30 x 10-7 W/m2 Note that intensity is power per unit area.

Wave Intensity and Distance The intensity I at a distance r from an isotropic source: P P I A 4 r 2 The average power of the A source can be found from the intensity at a distance r : For power falling on For isotropic conditions: surface of area A: P AI avg (4 r ) I avg 2 P = Iavg A .

30 x 10-7 W/m2 was observed at a point.000 m)2(4. Example 3: In Example 2. If the location is 90 km (r = 90. what is the average power emitted by the source? P I avg 2.30 x 10-7 W/m2) P = 4(90. .8 kW of transmitter: This assumes isotropic propagation. which is not likely.30 x 10-7 W/m2) Average power P = 43.39 x 10 -5 W/m 2 90 km 4 r 2 P = (4r2)(4. an average intensity of 4.000 m) from the isotropic radio source.

The above relation gives the pressure for a completely absorbing surface. . Radiation Force Recall that Power = F v Pressure Area P Fc F I A I or A A A c The pressure is due to the transfer of momentum. Radiation Pressure EM-waves not only carry energy. but also carry momentum and exert pressure when absorbed or reflected from objects.

so that the radiation pressures are as follows: Absorbed wave: Reflected wave: Radiation Force Radiation Force Pressure Area Pressure Area A A F I F 2I A c A c . Radiation Pressure (Cont.) The change in momentum for a fully reflected wave is twice that for an absorbed wave.

Example 4: The average intensity of direct sunlight is around 1400 W/m2. What is the average force on a fully absorbing surface of area 2.00 m2? Absorbed wave: For absorbing F I Radiation Force surface: A c Pressure Area IA A F c 2 2 (1400 W/m )(2.33 x 10-6 N 3 x 108 m/s .00 m ) F F = 9.

Radiometer . The Radiometer A radiometer is a device which demonstrates the existence of radiation pressure: One side of the panels is black (totally absorbing) and the other white (totally reflecting). The panels spin under light due to the pressure differences.

Summary EM waves are transverse waves. Electromagnetic waves carry both energy and momentum and can exert pressure on surfaces. The ratio of the E-field to the B-field is constant and equal to the velocity c. . Both E and B are perpendicular to wave velocity c.

00 x 108 m/s 2 B Total Energy Density: u 0 E 1 2 2 20 Em Bm Erms and Brms 2 2 . which is: E c 1 c B 0 0 c = 3. Summary (Cont.) EM-waves travel at the speed of light.

Summary (Cont.) The average energy density: uavg 0 E 1 2 2 m or uavg 0 E 2 rms I avg c 0 E c 0 E 1 2 2 m 2 rms Intensity and Totally Totally Distance Absorbing Reflecting F I F 2I P I P A 4 r 2 A c A c .

CONCLUSION: Chapter 32C Electromagnetic Waves .

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