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TeachingListening

Teaching Listening&&
Speaking
Speaking

Latricia Trites, Ph.D.
Latricia Trites, Ph.D.
edt by;
edt by;
Abd. Bashir Hassan
Abd. Bashir Hassan

KeyQuestions Key Questionsabout aboutListening Listening Whatare • • What arelisteners listenersdoing doingwhen whentheytheylisten? listen? Whatfactors • • What factorsaffect affectgood goodlistening? listening? Whatare • • What arecharacteristics characteristicsofof“real “reallife” life”listening? listening? Whatare • • What arethethemany manythings thingslisteners listenerslisten listenfor? for? • • WhatWhatarearesome someprinciples principlesforfordesigning designinglistening listening techniques? techniques? Howcan • • How canlistening listeningtechniques techniquesbe beinteractive? interactive? • • WhatWhatarearesome somecommon commontechniques techniquesfor forteaching teaching listening? listening? .

• •Stress.rhythm.Whatmakes What makeslistening listeningdifficult? difficult? Clustering • •Clustering Redundancy • •Redundancy Reducedforms • •Reduced forms Performancevariables • •Performance variables Colloquiallanguage • •Colloquial language Rateofofdelivery • •Rate delivery Stress. rhythm.and andintonation intonation Interaction • •Interaction .

respond.debate) debate) . respond. Whatkinds What kindsofoflistening listeningskills skillsare are taught? taught? Reactive(listen • • Reactive (listenandandrepeat) repeat) Intensive(listen • • Intensive (listenon onaafocused focusedsound) sound) Responsive(listen • • Responsive (listenand andrespond respond––briefly) briefly) Selective(listen • • Selective (listenforforparticular particularitems itemsininaalonger longer passage) passage) Extensive(listen • • Extensive (listenfor forinteractive/responsive interactive/responsive purposes) purposes) Interactive(listen • • Interactive (listentotodiscuss. discuss.

Principlesfor Principles forteaching teachinglistening listening Integratelistening • •Integrate listeninginto intothe thecourse course Appealtotostudents’ • •Appeal students’personal personalgoals goals Useauthentic • •Use authenticlanguage languageandandcontexts contexts Considerhow • •Consider howstudents studentswill willrespond respond Teachlistening • •Teach listeningstrategies strategies Includeboth • •Include bothbottom-up bottom-upAND ANDtop-down top-down listening listening .

Common listening strategies • Looking for key words • Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning • Predicting a speaker’s purpose by the context • Activating background knowledge • Guessing at meanings • Seeking clarification • Listening for the gist • Developing test-taking strategies for listening .

Current issues in teaching oral skills • Conversational discourse • Teaching pronunciation • Accuracy and fluency • Affective factors • Interaction effect • Questions about intelligibility • Questions about what is “correct” speech .

rhythm. Whatmakes What makesspeaking speakingdifficult? difficult? Thesame The samethings thingsthat thatmake makelistening listeningdifficult: difficult: Clustering • • Clustering Redundancy • • Redundancy Reducedforms • • Reduced forms Performancevariables • • Performance variables Colloquiallanguage • • Colloquial language Rateofofdelivery • • Rate delivery Stress.and andintonation intonation Interaction • • Interaction .rhythm. • • Stress.

Types of classroom performance • Imitative (this should be limited) – repetition drill • Intensive – practice a grammatical/phonological feature • Responsive – to respond to a question • Transactional (dialogue) – to convey information • Interpersonal (dialogue) – to interact socially • Extensive – monologue (intermediate/advanced) .

BUT…. .Do drills have a place? • Yes.

Guidelines for Drills Guidelines for Drills Keepthem • •Keep themshort short Keepthem • •Keep themsimple simple Keepthem • •Keep themsnappy snappy Ensurethat • •Ensure thatstudents studentsknowknowWHYWHYthey theyare are doingthe doing thedrill drill Limitthe • •Limit thedrill drilltotophonological/grammatical phonological/grammatical points points Ensurethat • •Ensure thatthey theylead leadtotoaacommunicative communicative goal goal DON’TOVERUSE • •DON’T OVERUSETHEM THEM .

Principlesfor Principles forTeaching TeachingSpeaking Speaking Focuson • • Focus onfluency fluencyand andaccuracy accuracy(depending (dependingon on objective) objective) Useintrinsically • • Use intrinsicallymotivating motivatingtechniques techniques Useauthentic • • Use authenticlanguage languageininmeaningful meaningfulcontexts contexts Provideappropriate • • Provide appropriatefeedback feedbackand andcorrection correction Optimizethe • • Optimize thenatural naturallink linkbetween betweenlistening listeningand and speaking (and other speaking (and other skills)skills) Givestudents • • Give studentsthe theopportunity opportunitytotoinitiate initiateoral oral communication. strategies. . communication. Developspeaking • • Develop speakingstrategies.

-Interviews Interviews • Guessinggames • Guessing games .-Simulations Simulations .-Jigsaw Jigsawtasks tasks Rankingexercises • •Ranking exercises. Sample activities for teaching Sample activities for teaching conversation conversation Seehandouts • •See handouts .-Discussions Discussions Valuesclarification • •Values clarification.-Problem-solving Problem-solving activities activities Roleplays • •Role plays .

2008.p. Brown.p. .2008. particular sound. Nativespeakers • •Native speakersrely relymore moreononstress stressandand intonationthan intonation thanaccurate accuratearticulation articulationofofaa particularsound.“sounds “soundsare are lesscrucial less crucialfor forunderstanding understandingthan thanthethe waythey way theyare areorganized” organized”(as (ascited citedinin Brown. Shouldwe Should weteach teachpronunciation? pronunciation? AccordingtotoWong • •According Wong(1987). (1987). 339).339).

Factorsthat Factors thataffect affectpronunciation pronunciation Nativelanguage • •Native language • Age • Age Exposure • •Exposure Innatephonetic • •Innate phoneticability ability Identityand • •Identity andlanguage languageego ego Motivation/concernfor • •Motivation/concern forgood good pronunciation pronunciation .

Whenand When andhow howshould shouldI Icorrect correct errors? errors? Globaland • •Global andlocal localerrors errors Performanceslip • •Performance slipororcompetence competenceerror error .

(uh-huh. right.hm) hm) Gettingsomeone’s • • Getting someone’sattention attention Usingparaphrases • • Using paraphrasesfor forstructures structuresone onecan’t can’t produce produce Appealingfor • • Appealing forassistance assistancefrom fromthe theinterlocutor interlocutor Usingformulaic • • Using formulaicexpressions expressions Usingmime • • Using mimeand andnonverbal nonverbalexpressions expressions . Commonspeaking Common speakingstrategies strategies Askingfor • • Asking forclarification clarification(what?) (what?) Askingsomeone • • Asking someonetotorepeat repeatsomething something Usingfillers • • Using fillers Usingconversation • • Using conversationmaintenance maintenancecues cues(uh-huh. right.okay. yeah.yeah. okay.

Plains. . WhitePlains.A.).D. NY:Pearson NY: PearsonEducation. • •Richard-Amato. White Plains.D. Richard-Amato. • •Brown.NY: NY:Pearson Pearson Education.White ed.H. References References Brown.(2007). Education. P.).A.(2003). H. (2003). rd language pedagogy (3 ed). (2007).Making Makingitit happen:From happen: Frominteractive interactivetotoparticipatory participatory language teaching theory and practice language teaching theory and practice (3 (3 rd rd ed. Education.P. White Plains.Teaching Teachingby by principles:An principles: Aninteractive interactiveapproach approachtoto language pedagogy (3 rd ed).