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Chapter 6: Torsion

shahruln@uthm.edu.my

Chapter Learning Outcome

1. Defined the relationship between stress and strain

2. Understand torsion theory and their applications

3. Analysed and calculate torsion in solid and hollow

circular bar

4. Analysed and calculate the torsion with end-

restraints

5. Analysed and calculate the torsion with combined

bar

Shahrul Niza Mokhatar (shahrul@uthm.edu.my

Introduction

Torsion commonly found in mechanical engineering.

application, for example machinery structures that has twisting member.

In civil engineering applications;

distributes load to main channel will produce torsion due to wind load

beam as point load and moment that are that acting on advert

moment at connection distributed to the beam planks.

part of the beams. as torsion

Torsion theory

When a bar or shaft of circular section is twisted by moment, its called

pure tension & the deformed element are in a state of pure shear.

Few assumptions are taken into Using Right Hand Law, torsion vector

account in torsion analysis, can be determined

The longitudinal axis of the shaft Planar cross-sectional parallel with

remains straight. member axis will remains planar after

The shaft does not increase or subjected to torsion.

decrease in length. Shear strain, is changing linearly

Radial lines remain straight and radial along the bar.

as the cross section rotates.

Cross sections rotate about the axis of

the member.

Shear stress due to torsion

Shear stress in circular section, (tau). From Hookes Law,

: Shear stress in the shaft if

max=maximum shear stress occurs at the

= TR outer surface @ tegasan ricih. (N/m2)

J J : Polar moment of inertia of the cross

sectional area @ moment sifat tekun kutub

(m4)

T : Applied torque acting at the cross

section (Nm)

R : Radius of the shaft (m)

Angles of twist

Twisting angle is angle (in radian) produced when a bar is

subjected to torsion.

= angle of twist (radians)

T = applied torque

= TL L = length of member

JG G = shear modulus of material/ modulus of rigidity@modulus ketegaran

(N/m2)

J = polar moment of inertia

Power transmission

Circular bars or shafts are commonly used for transmission of

power.

Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time. The work

transmitted by a rotating shaft equals to the torque applied times

the angle of rotation. Work = Torque x Angular Displacement

Power = d/dt (Work)

simply becomes: is the angular velocity of the shaft (rad/s) = 2 f

f : frequency (Hz @ hertz) (1 Hz = 1 cycle/s)

P=T T : Applied torque acting at the cross section (Nm)

P : Power (W)(1W = 1 Nm/s)

Use consistent units for P, T, and . Power is commonly specified in

horsepower, HP. Angular velocity is usually given in revolutions per

minute or RPM. It should then be converted to rad/sec. To do this

multiply the value in RPM by 2 and divide by 60.

Example 1

Example 2

Determine the maximum torque of a hollow circular shaft with inside diameter

of 60mm and an outside diameter of 100mm without exceeding the maximum

shearing stress of 70MPa.

Solution;

Given;

di = 60mm, do = 100mm, max = 70MPa

Tmax r

J

32

(100 4 60 4 ) 8.55 x106 mm 4 max

J

max J

Tmax

r

(70 x10 6 )(8.55 x10 6 )

11.97kNm

0.05

Remember: max=maximum shear stress occurs at the outer surface/radius.

Quiz

A hollow steel shaft has an outside diameter of 150mm and an

inside diameter 100mm. The shaft is subjected to a torque of

35kNm. The modulus of rigidity for the steel is 80GPa.

Determine;

a) the shearing stress at the outside surface of the shaft.

b) the shearing stress at the inside surface of the shaft.

c) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length.

Quiz: Solution

Solution;

J (150 4 100 4 ) 39.89 x10 6 mm 4

32

the shearing stress at the outside surface the magnitude of the angle of

of the shaft. twist in a 2.5m length.

Tr

out

J TL

35 x10 3 (0.075) JG

65.81MPa

39.89 x10 6

the shearing stress at the inside surface of 35x103 (2.5)

0.027rad

the shaft 80 x109 (39.89 x106 )

Tr

in

J

35 x103 (0.05)

43.9 MPa

39.89 x10 6

Composite Bars

Combined bar consists of two or more materials to form a structure. An example

is shown in Figure. Superposition principle is used to solve this problem.

(a) Imposed external torsion is equal to total torsion formed in the bar, i.e.,

(b) Twisting angle first material is equal to twisting angle of second material at connection

part, i.e.,

Group Exercise

The composite bars with the different material is subjected to the torque is

shown in figure. Determine the maximum shear stress and the position.

Determine the angle of twist at C.

Solution

d 4 (1002 )

J AB 9.82 x106 mm4

32 32

d 4 (50 2 )

J BC 0.62 x106 mm 4

32 32

Maximum shear stress; Angle of twist at the

end of C;

TAB rAB 6 x106 (50) TL TL TL

AB 30.55N / mm2

J AB 9.82 x10 6 JG JG AB JG BC

BC 6

161.3N / mm2 0.0158rad

J BC 0.62 x10 9.82 x106 (3x104 ) 0.62 x106 (8 x104 )

the bar of BC.

Torsion of non-cylindrical member

Generally, we deal with axisymmetric bodies and the shear

strain is linear through the entire body. However, non-circular

cross-sections are not axisymmetric causing complex

behaviors, which may cause bulging or warping when the

shaft is twisted.

Empirical formulas for various shapes

Example 3

The aluminum shaft shown in figure has a cross sectional area

in the shape of an equilateral triangle. Determine the largest

torque, T that can be applied to the end of the shaft if the

allowable shear stress, allow is = 56MPa and the angle of twist

at its end is restricted to allow = 0.02 rad. Given Gal = 26GPa.

Example 3: Solution

Thin-walled Having Closed Cross

Sections

Thin walled of noncircular shape are often used to construct

lightweight frameworks which is used in aircraft.

Due the applied torque, T, shear stress is developed on the front

face of the element. Shear flow in a solid body is the gradient of a

shear stress through the body. Shear flow is the product of the

tubes thickness and the average shear stress. This value is constant

at all points along the tubes cross section. As a result, the largest

average shear stress on the cross section occurs where the tubes

thickness is small.

q avg t

Thin-walled Having Closed Cross

Sections

In non-circular thin walled shafts for closed segments. We assume that the

stress is uniformly distributed across the thickness and that we can assume an

average shear stress. The average shear stress in the body is;

T

ave dF

ds

2tAm

ave

where, t h

ave - average shear stress

t - the thickness of the shaft at the point of interest ave

Am - mean area enclosed within the boundary of the T

centerline of the

shaft thickness.

T - the applied torque

Thin-walled Having Closed Cross

Sections

h( ave t ds )

T

ave t h ds ave

2tAm

2 ave t d Am

2 ave t Am

Since, q avg t we can determine the shear flow throughout the cross section

using the equation;

T

q

2 Am

Angle of twist,

This angle can be determined by using the energy method. The

angle given in radians, can be expressed as;

TL ds

2

4 Am G t

boundary of the tubes cross sectional area.

where,

L - length of the section

G - modulus of rigidity of the section/shear modulus

Example 4

A square aluminum tube has the dimensions as shown in figure.

a) determine the average shear stress in the tube at point A if it is

subjected to a torque of 85Nm.

b) compute the angle of twist due to this loading. Given Gal = 26GPa.

Example 4: Solution

a) The area, Am; Am (50)(50) 2500mm 2

50mm

50mm

T 85 x103

avg 1.7 N / mm 2

2tAm 2(10)( 2500)

Since t is a constant because of the square tube, the average shear stress

is the same at all points on the cross section.

Example 4: Solution

b) Angle of twist;

TL ds

4 Am G t

2

4 10mm

4( 2500) 2 ( 26 x103 )

3.92 x10 3 rad

Here, the integral represents the length around the centerline boundary of

the tube.

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