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# BFC 20903 (Mechanics of Materials)

Chapter 6: Torsion

## Shahrul Niza Mokhatar

shahruln@uthm.edu.my
Chapter Learning Outcome
1. Defined the relationship between stress and strain
2. Understand torsion theory and their applications
3. Analysed and calculate torsion in solid and hollow
circular bar
4. Analysed and calculate the torsion with end-
restraints
5. Analysed and calculate the torsion with combined
bar

## BFC 20903 (Mechanics of Materials)

Shahrul Niza Mokhatar (shahrul@uthm.edu.my
Introduction
Torsion commonly found in mechanical engineering.
application, for example machinery structures that has twisting member.
In civil engineering applications;

## secondary beam will water retaining in a advert post will experience

distributes load to main channel will produce torsion due to wind load
beam as point load and moment that are that acting on advert
moment at connection distributed to the beam planks.
part of the beams. as torsion
Torsion theory
When a bar or shaft of circular section is twisted by moment, its called
pure tension & the deformed element are in a state of pure shear.

Few assumptions are taken into Using Right Hand Law, torsion vector
account in torsion analysis, can be determined
The longitudinal axis of the shaft Planar cross-sectional parallel with
remains straight. member axis will remains planar after
The shaft does not increase or subjected to torsion.
decrease in length. Shear strain, is changing linearly
Radial lines remain straight and radial along the bar.
as the cross section rotates.
Cross sections rotate about the axis of
the member.
Shear stress due to torsion
Shear stress in circular section, (tau). From Hookes Law,
: Shear stress in the shaft if
max=maximum shear stress occurs at the
= TR outer surface @ tegasan ricih. (N/m2)
J J : Polar moment of inertia of the cross
sectional area @ moment sifat tekun kutub
(m4)
T : Applied torque acting at the cross
section (Nm)
R : Radius of the shaft (m)
Angles of twist
Twisting angle is angle (in radian) produced when a bar is
subjected to torsion.

= angle of twist (radians)
T = applied torque
= TL L = length of member
JG G = shear modulus of material/ modulus of rigidity@modulus ketegaran
(N/m2)
J = polar moment of inertia
Power transmission
Circular bars or shafts are commonly used for transmission of
power.
Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time. The work
transmitted by a rotating shaft equals to the torque applied times
the angle of rotation. Work = Torque x Angular Displacement
Power = d/dt (Work)

## If torque is not a function of time, then the equation for power

simply becomes: is the angular velocity of the shaft (rad/s) = 2 f
f : frequency (Hz @ hertz) (1 Hz = 1 cycle/s)
P=T T : Applied torque acting at the cross section (Nm)
P : Power (W)(1W = 1 Nm/s)
Use consistent units for P, T, and . Power is commonly specified in
horsepower, HP. Angular velocity is usually given in revolutions per
minute or RPM. It should then be converted to rad/sec. To do this
multiply the value in RPM by 2 and divide by 60.
Example 1
Example 2
Determine the maximum torque of a hollow circular shaft with inside diameter
of 60mm and an outside diameter of 100mm without exceeding the maximum
shearing stress of 70MPa.

Solution;
Given;
di = 60mm, do = 100mm, max = 70MPa

Tmax r
J
32
(100 4 60 4 ) 8.55 x106 mm 4 max
J
max J
Tmax
r
(70 x10 6 )(8.55 x10 6 )
11.97kNm
0.05
Remember: max=maximum shear stress occurs at the outer surface/radius.
Quiz
A hollow steel shaft has an outside diameter of 150mm and an
inside diameter 100mm. The shaft is subjected to a torque of
35kNm. The modulus of rigidity for the steel is 80GPa.
Determine;
a) the shearing stress at the outside surface of the shaft.
b) the shearing stress at the inside surface of the shaft.
c) the magnitude of the angle of twist in a 2.5m length.
Quiz: Solution
Solution;

J (150 4 100 4 ) 39.89 x10 6 mm 4
32

the shearing stress at the outside surface the magnitude of the angle of
of the shaft. twist in a 2.5m length.
Tr
out
J TL

35 x10 3 (0.075) JG
65.81MPa
39.89 x10 6
the shearing stress at the inside surface of 35x103 (2.5)
0.027rad
the shaft 80 x109 (39.89 x106 )
Tr
in
J
35 x103 (0.05)
43.9 MPa
39.89 x10 6
Composite Bars
Combined bar consists of two or more materials to form a structure. An example
is shown in Figure. Superposition principle is used to solve this problem.

## The concept to solve combined bar are:

(a) Imposed external torsion is equal to total torsion formed in the bar, i.e.,

(b) Twisting angle first material is equal to twisting angle of second material at connection
part, i.e.,

## (c) Total twisting angle can be calculated from formula,

Group Exercise
The composite bars with the different material is subjected to the torque is
shown in figure. Determine the maximum shear stress and the position.
Determine the angle of twist at C.

Solution
d 4 (1002 )
J AB 9.82 x106 mm4
32 32

d 4 (50 2 )
J BC 0.62 x106 mm 4
32 32
Maximum shear stress; Angle of twist at the
end of C;
TAB rAB 6 x106 (50) TL TL TL
AB 30.55N / mm2
J AB 9.82 x10 6 JG JG AB JG BC

## TBC rBC 4 x106 (25) (6 x106 )( 2000) ( 4 x106 )( 300)

BC 6
161.3N / mm2 0.0158rad
J BC 0.62 x10 9.82 x106 (3x104 ) 0.62 x106 (8 x104 )

## The maximum shear stress occurs in

the bar of BC.
Torsion of non-cylindrical member
Generally, we deal with axisymmetric bodies and the shear
strain is linear through the entire body. However, non-circular
cross-sections are not axisymmetric causing complex
behaviors, which may cause bulging or warping when the
shaft is twisted.

## Condition of bulging of non-circular shaft

Empirical formulas for various shapes
Example 3
The aluminum shaft shown in figure has a cross sectional area
in the shape of an equilateral triangle. Determine the largest
torque, T that can be applied to the end of the shaft if the
allowable shear stress, allow is = 56MPa and the angle of twist
at its end is restricted to allow = 0.02 rad. Given Gal = 26GPa.
Example 3: Solution
Thin-walled Having Closed Cross
Sections
Thin walled of noncircular shape are often used to construct
lightweight frameworks which is used in aircraft.
Due the applied torque, T, shear stress is developed on the front
face of the element. Shear flow in a solid body is the gradient of a
shear stress through the body. Shear flow is the product of the
tubes thickness and the average shear stress. This value is constant
at all points along the tubes cross section. As a result, the largest
average shear stress on the cross section occurs where the tubes
thickness is small.
q avg t
Thin-walled Having Closed Cross
Sections
In non-circular thin walled shafts for closed segments. We assume that the
stress is uniformly distributed across the thickness and that we can assume an
average shear stress. The average shear stress in the body is;

T
ave dF
ds
2tAm
ave

where, t h
ave - average shear stress
t - the thickness of the shaft at the point of interest ave
Am - mean area enclosed within the boundary of the T
centerline of the
shaft thickness.
T - the applied torque
Thin-walled Having Closed Cross
Sections
h( ave t ds )
T
ave t h ds ave
2tAm
2 ave t d Am
2 ave t Am

Since, q avg t we can determine the shear flow throughout the cross section
using the equation;
T
q
2 Am
Angle of twist,
This angle can be determined by using the energy method. The
angle given in radians, can be expressed as;
TL ds
2
4 Am G t

## Here the integration must be performed around the entire

boundary of the tubes cross sectional area.
where,

## t - thickness of the interior segment

L - length of the section
G - modulus of rigidity of the section/shear modulus
Example 4
A square aluminum tube has the dimensions as shown in figure.
a) determine the average shear stress in the tube at point A if it is
subjected to a torque of 85Nm.
b) compute the angle of twist due to this loading. Given Gal = 26GPa.
Example 4: Solution
a) The area, Am; Am (50)(50) 2500mm 2

50mm

## The shaded area = Am

50mm

T 85 x103
avg 1.7 N / mm 2
2tAm 2(10)( 2500)

Since t is a constant because of the square tube, the average shear stress
is the same at all points on the cross section.
Example 4: Solution
b) Angle of twist;
TL ds
4 Am G t
2

## (85 x103 )(1500) 50mm

4 10mm
4( 2500) 2 ( 26 x103 )

## 1.962 x10 4 ( 20)

3.92 x10 3 rad

Here, the integral represents the length around the centerline boundary of
the tube.
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