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EVAPORATION

EVAPORATION

A heat transfer device that is normally used to


liquefy vapor is
A. evaporator
B. condenser
C. reboiler
D. none of these
B
EVAPORATION

When the pressure of the evaporator chamber is


decreased, the boiling point of the solution inside
the chamber will
A. increase
B. decrease
C. remain the same
D. none of these
B
EVAPORATION

The concentration of glycerine from a water


solution by the application of heat is
A. distillation
B. evaporation
C. crystallization
D. reverse osmosis
B
EVAPORATION

Which of the two evaporator flow configurations


need fluid motive devices to transfer solution from
one effect to the other effect.
A. feed forward
B. backward flow
B
EVAPORATION

For the same duty and heat transfer area, the feed
forward flow evaporator is _____ compared to the
backward flow evaporator in terms of heat transfer.
A. more efficient
B. less efficient
C. just the same
D. none of these
B
EVAPORATION

If vapors are withdrawn from a given effect of


multiple-effect evaporator and used outside the
evaporator system in place of the steam, the steam
saving is number of withdrawal effect times amount
of vapor withdrawal divided by the total number of
effects. If one pound of vapor withdrawn from the
third effect of a four-effect evaporator, how much
steam would be saved?
A. 1.0
B. 1.5
C. 0.75
D. 0.5
C
EVAPORATION

The primary purpose of evaporator design is to


enable production of necessary amount of
satisfactory product at the
A. higher total cost
B. medium total cost
C. lowest total cost
D. maximum total cost
C
EVAPORATION

The variable having the greatest influence on total


cost of design of the evaporator is the
A. amount of steam used
B. no. of effects of evaporator
C. volume of feed
D. maintenance cost
B
EVAPORATION

In a country where there is scarce capital and the


energy cost is very low, as a chemical engineer,
what is the best type of evaporator will you
recommend?
A. single effect evaporator
B. double effect evaporator
C. triple effect evaporator
D. none of these
A
EVAPORATION

In evaporation, the valuable product is called


A. thick liquor
B. vapor
C. water
D. residue
A
EVAPORATION

The temperature driving force in an evaporator is


determined as the difference between the
condensing steam temperature and
A. condenser temperature
B. boiling point of the solvent
C. boiling point of the solution
D. BPR of the solution
C
EVAPORATION

A certain evaporator is boiling a solution that


deposits calcium sulfate scale. After 4 hr and 10
min of operation, the U is 545 BTU/hr-ft-0F and after
12 hr and 30 min, it was 430. What would the
coefficient be at the start of operation?
EVAPORATION

Seawater containing 3.5 wt % salt passes through a


series of 10 evaporators. Roughly equal quantities
of water are vaporized in each of the 10 units and
then condensed and combined to obtain a product
stream of fresh water. The brine leaving each
evaporator but the tenth is fed to the next
evaporator. The brine leaving the 10th evaporator
contains 5 wt % salt. Calculate the weight percent
of salt in the solution leaving the fourth evaporator.
EVAPORATION

An evaporator is fed continuously fed continuously


with 25 MT/h of a solution containing 10% NaOH,
10% NaCl and 80% H2O. During evaporation, water
is boiled off, and salt precipitates as crystals,
which are settled and removed from the remaining
liquor. The concentrated liquor leaving the
evaporator contains 50% NaOH, 2% NaCl and 48%
H2O. Calculate the kilograms of water evaporated
per hour, kilograms of salt precipitated per hour
and kilograms of concentrated liquor produced per
hour.
EVAPORATION

A solution of organic colloids is to be concentrated


from 20 to 60 wt% solids to a single effect
evaporator. Saturated steam is available at 172 kPa
and the pressure in the condenser is 61.67 cm Hg
vacuum. The feed enters at 250C and its specific
heat is 4 J/g-K. The solution has negligible boiling
point elevation. The OHTC is 1800 W/m2-K and the
evaporator must evaporate 9000 kg/h of water.
Given these conditions, calculate:
a. the steam consumption in kg/hr
b. the estimated heating surface required in m2;
c. the economy of evaporation
EVAPORATION

Liquor containing 15 percent solids is concentrated


to 55 percent solids in a double effect evaporator
operating at a pressure of 18kN/m2 in the second
effect. No crystals are formed. The feed rate is 2.5
kg/s at a temperature of 375 K with a specific heat
of 3.75kJ/kg-K. The boiling point rise of the
concentrated liquor is 6 K and the pressure of the
steam fed to the first effect is 240 KN/m2. The
overall heat transfer coefficients in the first and
second effects are 1.8 and 0.63 kW/m2-K,
respectively. Heat of dilution and radiation losses is
negligible. Calculate the area of the evaporator.
EVAPORATION

A single effect evaporator is to concentrate 20000


lb/hr of a 20% solution NaOH to 50% solids.
Saturated steam is available at 20 psig. The
absolute vapor pressure in the vapor space is to be
100 mmHg. The overall coefficient is to be
estimated to be 250. The feed temperature is 100 0F.
Calculate the amount of steam consumed, the
steam economy and the heating surface required.
EVAPORATION

A single effect evaporator is to be designed for the


following conditions:

Feed Solution 10% NaOH at 900F


Product Concentration 40% NaOH
Vacuum in Vapor Space 26 in Hg
Saturated Steam Pressure 20 psig
Cooling Water Entering Condenser 100 gal/min at 700F
Mixed Cooling H2O & Condensed Vapor Temp 1000F
Heat Transfer Coefficient 200

Calculate the heat transfer area.


EVAPORATION

A single-effect evaporator is used to concentrate 7


kg/s of a solution from 10 to 50 percent of solids.
Steam is available at 205 kN/m2 and evaporation
takes place at 13.5 kN/m2. If the overall heat transfer
coefficient is 3 kW/m2 K, calculate the heating
surface required and the amount of steam used if
the feed to the evaporator is at 294 K and the
condensate leaves the heating space at 352.7 K.
The specific heat capacity of a 10 per cent solution
is 3.76 kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of a 50
percent solution is 3.14 kJ/kg K.
EVAPORATION
Fresh orange juice contains 12% wt solids and the
balance water, and concentrated orange juice
contains 42% wt solids. Initially a single
evaporation process was used for the
concentration but volatile constituents of the juice
escaped with the water, leaving the concentrate
with a flat taste. The current process overcomes
this problem bypassing the evaporator with a
fraction of the fresh juice. The juice that enters the
evaporator is concentrated to 58% wt solids and
the evaporator product stream is mixed with the
bypassed fresh juice to achieve the desired final
concentration. Calculate the amount of product
(42% concentrate) produced per 100 fresh fruit fed
to the process and the fraction of the feed that
bypasses the evaporator.
EVAPORATION

A triple effect evaporator is concentrating a liquid


that exhibits no BPR. The temperature of the steam
to the first effect is 227 0F. The boiling point of the
solution in the last effect is 125 0F. If U1 = 500, U2 =
400 and U3 = 200 BTU / hr-ft2-0F. What the
temperature will the liquid boil in the first and
second effect?
EVAPORATION

A triple effect evaporator is supplied with saturated


steam at 250 0F. The temperature at the last effect is
150 0F. The OHTCs are 150, 200 and 250 BTU/hr-ft2-
0F in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd effects, respectively. If the

total BPR in the three effects is 55 0F, the area of


the first effect in square feet is if the steam
used is 10 000 lb/hr.
EVAPORATION

1.25 kg/s of a solution is concentrated from 10 to 50 per


cent solids in a triple-effect evaporator using steam at
393 K, and a vacuum such that the boiling point in the
last effect is 325 K. If the feed is initially at 297 K and
backward feed is used, what is the steam consumption,
the temperature distribution in the system and the heat
transfer area in each effect, each effect being identical?
For the purpose of calculation, it may be assumed that
the specific heat capacity is 4.18 kJ/kg-K, that there is
no boiling point rise, and that the latent heat of
vaporization is constant at 2330 kJ/kg over the
temperature range in the system. The overall heat
transfer coefficients may be taken as 2.5, 2.0 and 1.6
kW/m2 K in the first, second and third effects,
respectively.
EVAPORATION

A single effect evaporator is being used to concentrate a


feed of 10 000 lb/h of a sugar cane solution at 80 0F and
containing a sugar content of 15 0Brix (degrees Brix is
wt% sugar) to 30 0Brix for used in a food process.
Saturated steam at 240 0F is available for heating. The
overall heat transfer coefficient, U is 350 BTU/h-ft2-0F
and the heat capacity of the feed is 0.95 BTU/lb-0F. The
boiling point rise can be estimated from BPR, 0F = 3.2x +
11.2 x2, where x is weight fraction of sugar in solution.
The heat of solution can be considered negligible and
neglected. Calculate the area required for the evaporator
and the amount of steam used per hour.
EVAPORATION

The triple effect evaporator, each effect of which has 1500 ft2
of the heating surface is to be used to concentrate a solution
possessing a negligible boiling point elevation from 5% solids
to 40% solids. The 40% liquor is quite viscous and the 5%
solution is at 1800F, so as a mixed feed, in order II-III-I is to be
used. The steam available is at 250 0F and a vacuum
corresponding to 110 0F is maintained in the last effect. It is to
be expected that the overall heat transfer coefficients are 300,
500 and 400 BTU/hr-ft2-0F in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd effects,
respectively. The specific heat of the solution can be taken as
1, the condensate all leave at condensing steam temperature
and radiation is negligible. Calculate the pounds of 5% liquor
that can be concentrated per hour and the steam economy
that can be expected.
CRYSTALLIZATION
CRYSTALLIZATION

A hot solution of Ba(NO3)2 from an evaporation


contains 30.6 kg Ba(NO3)2 per 100 kg of H2O and
goes to the crystallizer where the solution is cooled
and Ba(NO3)2 crystallizes. On cooling, 10% of the
original water present evaporates. For a feed
solution of 100 kg total, the yield of crystals if the
solution is cooled to 290 K, where the solubility is
8.6 kg Ba(NO3)2 per 100 kg of total water is
CRYSTALLIZATION

What is the theoretical yield of crystals which may


be obtained by cooling a solution containing 1000
kg of sodium sulfate (mw = 142 kg/kmol) in 5000 kg
water to 283 K? The solubility of sodium sulfate at
283 K is 9 kg anhydrous salt / 100 kg water and the
deposited crystals will consist of decahydrate. It
may be assumed that 2% of the water will be lost by
evaporation during cooling.
CRYSTALLIZATION

A saturated solution containing 1500 kg of


potassium chloride at 360 K is cooled in an open
tank to 290 K. If the density of the solution is 1200
kg/m3, the solubility of potassium chloride / 100
parts of water by mass is 53.55 at 360 K and 34.5 at
290 K, calculate:
(a) the capacity of the tank required, and
(b) the mass of crystals obtained, neglecting any
loss of water by evaporation.
CRYSTALLIZATION

A batch of 1500 kg of saturated potassium chloride


solution is cooled from 360 K to 290 K in an
unagitated tank. If the solubilities of KCl are 53 and
34 kg/100 kg water at 360 K and 290 K respectively
and water losses due to evaporation may be
neglected, what is the yield of crystals?
CRYSTALLIZATION

Rasorite containing 85% Na2B4O7 x 4H2O is


dissolved, filtered, and run to the crystallizer as a
25% solution of borax, Na2B4O7 x 10H2O at 150 0F.
After cooling to 100 0F the crystals are centrifuged
and go to the drier containing 5% moisture. The
mother liquor contains 8% borax. What yield of the
crystals is obtained per ton of rasorite processed?
CRYSTALLIZATION

Glaubers salt is made by crystallization from a


water solution at 200C. The aqueous solution at
200C contains 8.4% sodium sulfate. How many
grams of water must be evaporated from a liter of
such solution whose specific gravity is 1.077 so
that when the residue solution after evaporation is
cooled to 200C, there will be crystallized out of 80%
of the original sodium sulfate as Glaubers salt? The
solubility of sodium sulphate in equilibrium with
the decahydrate is 19.4 g Na2SO4 per 100 g H2O.
CRYSTALLIZATION

A solution of potassium dichromate in water is 13%


by weight. From 1000 lb of this solution are
evaporated 640 lb of water. The remaining solution
is cooled to 200C. Calculate the percentage yield of
crystals produced. Solubility at 200C is 0.390
lbmole per 1000 lb of water.
CRYSTALLIZATION

A tank holds 10000 kg of a saturated Na2CO3 at


300C. You want to crystallize from this solution
3000 kg Na2CO3x10H2O without any accompanying
water. To what temperature must the solution be
cooled?
Temperature (0C) Solubility (gNa2CO3/100 g H2O)
0 7
10 12.5
20 21.5
30 38.8
CRYSTALLIZATION

A solution of NH4Cl is saturated at 70 0C. Calculate


the temperature to which this solution must be
cooled in order to crystallize out of 45% of the
NH4Cl. The solubility of NH4Cl in water are:

Temperature, 0C 70 10 0
Solubility, g / 100g H2O 60.2 33.3 29.4
CRYSTALLIZATION

1000 kg FeCl3 x 6H2O are added to a mixture


crystals of FeCl3 x H2O to produce a mixture of
FeCl3 x 2.5H2O crystals. How much FeCl3 x H2O
must be added to produce the most FeCl3 x
2.5H2O?
CRYSTALLIZATION

A solution containing 23% by mass of sodium


phosphate is cooled from 313 to 298 K in a
Swenson-Walker Crystallizer to form crystals of
Na3PO4 x12H2O. The solubility of Na3PO4 (mw is
163.97) at 298 K is 15.5 kg per 100 kg water and the
required product rate of crystals is 0.063 kg/s. The
mean heat capacity of the solution is 3.2 kJ/kg-K
and the heat of crystallization is 146.5 kJ/kg. If
cooling water enters and leaves at 288 and 293 K,
respectively and the overall coefficient of heat
transfer is 140 W/m2-K, what length of crystallizer is
required assuming that the area available is
typically 1 m2/m length of exchanger required?
CRYSTALLIZATION

Glaubers salt, Na2SO4 x 10H2O, is to be produced in a


SwensonWalker crystallizer by cooling to 290 K a
solution of anhydrous Na2SO4 which saturates between
300 K and 290 K. If cooling water enters and leaves the
unit at 280 K and 290 K respectively and evaporation is
negligible, how many sections of crystallizer, each 3 m
long, will be required to process 0.25 kg/s of the
product? The solubilities of anhydrous Na2SO4 in water
are 40 and 14 kg/100 kg water at 300 K and 290 K
respectively, the mean heat capacity of the liquor is 3.8
kJ/kgK and the heat of crystallization is 230 kJ/kg. For
the crystallizer, the available heat transfer area is 3 m2/m
length, the overall coefficient of heat transfer is 0.15
kW/m2 K and the molecular masses are Na2SO4 x 10H2O
= 322 kg/kmol and Na2SO4 = 142 kg/kmol.
CRYSTALLIZATION

A Swenson Walker crystallizer is fed with a


saturated solution of MgSO4 at 1100F. The solution
and its crystalline crop are cooled to 400F. The inlet
solution contains 1 g of seed crystals per 100 g of
solution. The seeds are 80mesh. Assuming ideal
growth, what is the mesh size of the crystals
leaving with the cooled product?
CRYSTALLIZATION

A Swenson-Walker crystallizer is to be used to produce 1


ton/hr of copperas crystals by cooling a saturated solution
which enters the crystallizer at 1200F. The slurry leaving the
crystallizer will be at 800F. Cooling water enters the
crystallizer jacket at 600F and leaves at 700F. It may be
assumed that U for the crystallization is 35 BTU/hr-ft2. There
are 3.5 ft2 of cooling surface per foot of crystallizer length and
a crystallization unit is 10 ft length.

Data:
Heat of solution: 4400 cal/gmol copperas
CpF: 0.70 BTU/lb0F
Solubility at 1200F: 140 parts copperas/100 parts excess water
Solubility at 800F: 74 parts copperas per 100 parts excess water

Calculate the cooling water required in gallons per minute and


the number of crystallizer units to be used.
CRYSTALLIZATION
A saturated solution of Na2CO3 at 300C is sent to a
crystallizer where it is cooled to 100C. The wet crop
(Na2CO3 x 10 H2O + adhering solution) is then sent to a
drier producing anhydrous Na2CO3. With 1000 kg of
saturated solution at 300C and 5% of the mother liquor
adheres to the crop, calculate the following:
Solubility date for Na2CO3:
Temperature (0C) 0 10 20 30
Solubility (g Na2CO3 /g H20) 2 12.5 21.5 38.8
a. Weight (kg) anhydrous Na2CO3 produced
b. With the same conditions of the feed solution, at what
temperature must the crystallizer be operated to obtain
500 kg of Na2CO3 x 10H2O without accompanying
adhering solution?