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EVAPORATION

liquefy vapor is

A. evaporator

B. condenser

C. reboiler

D. none of these

B

EVAPORATION

decreased, the boiling point of the solution inside

the chamber will

A. increase

B. decrease

C. remain the same

D. none of these

B

EVAPORATION

solution by the application of heat is

A. distillation

B. evaporation

C. crystallization

D. reverse osmosis

B

EVAPORATION

need fluid motive devices to transfer solution from

one effect to the other effect.

A. feed forward

B. backward flow

B

EVAPORATION

For the same duty and heat transfer area, the feed

forward flow evaporator is _____ compared to the

backward flow evaporator in terms of heat transfer.

A. more efficient

B. less efficient

C. just the same

D. none of these

B

EVAPORATION

multiple-effect evaporator and used outside the

evaporator system in place of the steam, the steam

saving is number of withdrawal effect times amount

of vapor withdrawal divided by the total number of

effects. If one pound of vapor withdrawn from the

third effect of a four-effect evaporator, how much

steam would be saved?

A. 1.0

B. 1.5

C. 0.75

D. 0.5

C

EVAPORATION

enable production of necessary amount of

satisfactory product at the

A. higher total cost

B. medium total cost

C. lowest total cost

D. maximum total cost

C

EVAPORATION

cost of design of the evaporator is the

A. amount of steam used

B. no. of effects of evaporator

C. volume of feed

D. maintenance cost

B

EVAPORATION

energy cost is very low, as a chemical engineer,

what is the best type of evaporator will you

recommend?

A. single effect evaporator

B. double effect evaporator

C. triple effect evaporator

D. none of these

A

EVAPORATION

A. thick liquor

B. vapor

C. water

D. residue

A

EVAPORATION

determined as the difference between the

condensing steam temperature and

A. condenser temperature

B. boiling point of the solvent

C. boiling point of the solution

D. BPR of the solution

C

EVAPORATION

deposits calcium sulfate scale. After 4 hr and 10

min of operation, the U is 545 BTU/hr-ft-0F and after

12 hr and 30 min, it was 430. What would the

coefficient be at the start of operation?

EVAPORATION

series of 10 evaporators. Roughly equal quantities

of water are vaporized in each of the 10 units and

then condensed and combined to obtain a product

stream of fresh water. The brine leaving each

evaporator but the tenth is fed to the next

evaporator. The brine leaving the 10th evaporator

contains 5 wt % salt. Calculate the weight percent

of salt in the solution leaving the fourth evaporator.

EVAPORATION

with 25 MT/h of a solution containing 10% NaOH,

10% NaCl and 80% H2O. During evaporation, water

is boiled off, and salt precipitates as crystals,

which are settled and removed from the remaining

liquor. The concentrated liquor leaving the

evaporator contains 50% NaOH, 2% NaCl and 48%

H2O. Calculate the kilograms of water evaporated

per hour, kilograms of salt precipitated per hour

and kilograms of concentrated liquor produced per

hour.

EVAPORATION

from 20 to 60 wt% solids to a single effect

evaporator. Saturated steam is available at 172 kPa

and the pressure in the condenser is 61.67 cm Hg

vacuum. The feed enters at 250C and its specific

heat is 4 J/g-K. The solution has negligible boiling

point elevation. The OHTC is 1800 W/m2-K and the

evaporator must evaporate 9000 kg/h of water.

Given these conditions, calculate:

a. the steam consumption in kg/hr

b. the estimated heating surface required in m2;

c. the economy of evaporation

EVAPORATION

to 55 percent solids in a double effect evaporator

operating at a pressure of 18kN/m2 in the second

effect. No crystals are formed. The feed rate is 2.5

kg/s at a temperature of 375 K with a specific heat

of 3.75kJ/kg-K. The boiling point rise of the

concentrated liquor is 6 K and the pressure of the

steam fed to the first effect is 240 KN/m2. The

overall heat transfer coefficients in the first and

second effects are 1.8 and 0.63 kW/m2-K,

respectively. Heat of dilution and radiation losses is

negligible. Calculate the area of the evaporator.

EVAPORATION

lb/hr of a 20% solution NaOH to 50% solids.

Saturated steam is available at 20 psig. The

absolute vapor pressure in the vapor space is to be

100 mmHg. The overall coefficient is to be

estimated to be 250. The feed temperature is 100 0F.

Calculate the amount of steam consumed, the

steam economy and the heating surface required.

EVAPORATION

following conditions:

Product Concentration 40% NaOH

Vacuum in Vapor Space 26 in Hg

Saturated Steam Pressure 20 psig

Cooling Water Entering Condenser 100 gal/min at 700F

Mixed Cooling H2O & Condensed Vapor Temp 1000F

Heat Transfer Coefficient 200

EVAPORATION

kg/s of a solution from 10 to 50 percent of solids.

Steam is available at 205 kN/m2 and evaporation

takes place at 13.5 kN/m2. If the overall heat transfer

coefficient is 3 kW/m2 K, calculate the heating

surface required and the amount of steam used if

the feed to the evaporator is at 294 K and the

condensate leaves the heating space at 352.7 K.

The specific heat capacity of a 10 per cent solution

is 3.76 kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of a 50

percent solution is 3.14 kJ/kg K.

EVAPORATION

Fresh orange juice contains 12% wt solids and the

balance water, and concentrated orange juice

contains 42% wt solids. Initially a single

evaporation process was used for the

concentration but volatile constituents of the juice

escaped with the water, leaving the concentrate

with a flat taste. The current process overcomes

this problem bypassing the evaporator with a

fraction of the fresh juice. The juice that enters the

evaporator is concentrated to 58% wt solids and

the evaporator product stream is mixed with the

bypassed fresh juice to achieve the desired final

concentration. Calculate the amount of product

(42% concentrate) produced per 100 fresh fruit fed

to the process and the fraction of the feed that

bypasses the evaporator.

EVAPORATION

that exhibits no BPR. The temperature of the steam

to the first effect is 227 0F. The boiling point of the

solution in the last effect is 125 0F. If U1 = 500, U2 =

400 and U3 = 200 BTU / hr-ft2-0F. What the

temperature will the liquid boil in the first and

second effect?

EVAPORATION

steam at 250 0F. The temperature at the last effect is

150 0F. The OHTCs are 150, 200 and 250 BTU/hr-ft2-

0F in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd effects, respectively. If the

the first effect in square feet is if the steam

used is 10 000 lb/hr.

EVAPORATION

cent solids in a triple-effect evaporator using steam at

393 K, and a vacuum such that the boiling point in the

last effect is 325 K. If the feed is initially at 297 K and

backward feed is used, what is the steam consumption,

the temperature distribution in the system and the heat

transfer area in each effect, each effect being identical?

For the purpose of calculation, it may be assumed that

the specific heat capacity is 4.18 kJ/kg-K, that there is

no boiling point rise, and that the latent heat of

vaporization is constant at 2330 kJ/kg over the

temperature range in the system. The overall heat

transfer coefficients may be taken as 2.5, 2.0 and 1.6

kW/m2 K in the first, second and third effects,

respectively.

EVAPORATION

feed of 10 000 lb/h of a sugar cane solution at 80 0F and

containing a sugar content of 15 0Brix (degrees Brix is

wt% sugar) to 30 0Brix for used in a food process.

Saturated steam at 240 0F is available for heating. The

overall heat transfer coefficient, U is 350 BTU/h-ft2-0F

and the heat capacity of the feed is 0.95 BTU/lb-0F. The

boiling point rise can be estimated from BPR, 0F = 3.2x +

11.2 x2, where x is weight fraction of sugar in solution.

The heat of solution can be considered negligible and

neglected. Calculate the area required for the evaporator

and the amount of steam used per hour.

EVAPORATION

The triple effect evaporator, each effect of which has 1500 ft2

of the heating surface is to be used to concentrate a solution

possessing a negligible boiling point elevation from 5% solids

to 40% solids. The 40% liquor is quite viscous and the 5%

solution is at 1800F, so as a mixed feed, in order II-III-I is to be

used. The steam available is at 250 0F and a vacuum

corresponding to 110 0F is maintained in the last effect. It is to

be expected that the overall heat transfer coefficients are 300,

500 and 400 BTU/hr-ft2-0F in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd effects,

respectively. The specific heat of the solution can be taken as

1, the condensate all leave at condensing steam temperature

and radiation is negligible. Calculate the pounds of 5% liquor

that can be concentrated per hour and the steam economy

that can be expected.

CRYSTALLIZATION

CRYSTALLIZATION

contains 30.6 kg Ba(NO3)2 per 100 kg of H2O and

goes to the crystallizer where the solution is cooled

and Ba(NO3)2 crystallizes. On cooling, 10% of the

original water present evaporates. For a feed

solution of 100 kg total, the yield of crystals if the

solution is cooled to 290 K, where the solubility is

8.6 kg Ba(NO3)2 per 100 kg of total water is

CRYSTALLIZATION

be obtained by cooling a solution containing 1000

kg of sodium sulfate (mw = 142 kg/kmol) in 5000 kg

water to 283 K? The solubility of sodium sulfate at

283 K is 9 kg anhydrous salt / 100 kg water and the

deposited crystals will consist of decahydrate. It

may be assumed that 2% of the water will be lost by

evaporation during cooling.

CRYSTALLIZATION

potassium chloride at 360 K is cooled in an open

tank to 290 K. If the density of the solution is 1200

kg/m3, the solubility of potassium chloride / 100

parts of water by mass is 53.55 at 360 K and 34.5 at

290 K, calculate:

(a) the capacity of the tank required, and

(b) the mass of crystals obtained, neglecting any

loss of water by evaporation.

CRYSTALLIZATION

solution is cooled from 360 K to 290 K in an

unagitated tank. If the solubilities of KCl are 53 and

34 kg/100 kg water at 360 K and 290 K respectively

and water losses due to evaporation may be

neglected, what is the yield of crystals?

CRYSTALLIZATION

dissolved, filtered, and run to the crystallizer as a

25% solution of borax, Na2B4O7 x 10H2O at 150 0F.

After cooling to 100 0F the crystals are centrifuged

and go to the drier containing 5% moisture. The

mother liquor contains 8% borax. What yield of the

crystals is obtained per ton of rasorite processed?

CRYSTALLIZATION

water solution at 200C. The aqueous solution at

200C contains 8.4% sodium sulfate. How many

grams of water must be evaporated from a liter of

such solution whose specific gravity is 1.077 so

that when the residue solution after evaporation is

cooled to 200C, there will be crystallized out of 80%

of the original sodium sulfate as Glaubers salt? The

solubility of sodium sulphate in equilibrium with

the decahydrate is 19.4 g Na2SO4 per 100 g H2O.

CRYSTALLIZATION

by weight. From 1000 lb of this solution are

evaporated 640 lb of water. The remaining solution

is cooled to 200C. Calculate the percentage yield of

crystals produced. Solubility at 200C is 0.390

lbmole per 1000 lb of water.

CRYSTALLIZATION

300C. You want to crystallize from this solution

3000 kg Na2CO3x10H2O without any accompanying

water. To what temperature must the solution be

cooled?

Temperature (0C) Solubility (gNa2CO3/100 g H2O)

0 7

10 12.5

20 21.5

30 38.8

CRYSTALLIZATION

the temperature to which this solution must be

cooled in order to crystallize out of 45% of the

NH4Cl. The solubility of NH4Cl in water are:

Temperature, 0C 70 10 0

Solubility, g / 100g H2O 60.2 33.3 29.4

CRYSTALLIZATION

crystals of FeCl3 x H2O to produce a mixture of

FeCl3 x 2.5H2O crystals. How much FeCl3 x H2O

must be added to produce the most FeCl3 x

2.5H2O?

CRYSTALLIZATION

phosphate is cooled from 313 to 298 K in a

Swenson-Walker Crystallizer to form crystals of

Na3PO4 x12H2O. The solubility of Na3PO4 (mw is

163.97) at 298 K is 15.5 kg per 100 kg water and the

required product rate of crystals is 0.063 kg/s. The

mean heat capacity of the solution is 3.2 kJ/kg-K

and the heat of crystallization is 146.5 kJ/kg. If

cooling water enters and leaves at 288 and 293 K,

respectively and the overall coefficient of heat

transfer is 140 W/m2-K, what length of crystallizer is

required assuming that the area available is

typically 1 m2/m length of exchanger required?

CRYSTALLIZATION

SwensonWalker crystallizer by cooling to 290 K a

solution of anhydrous Na2SO4 which saturates between

300 K and 290 K. If cooling water enters and leaves the

unit at 280 K and 290 K respectively and evaporation is

negligible, how many sections of crystallizer, each 3 m

long, will be required to process 0.25 kg/s of the

product? The solubilities of anhydrous Na2SO4 in water

are 40 and 14 kg/100 kg water at 300 K and 290 K

respectively, the mean heat capacity of the liquor is 3.8

kJ/kgK and the heat of crystallization is 230 kJ/kg. For

the crystallizer, the available heat transfer area is 3 m2/m

length, the overall coefficient of heat transfer is 0.15

kW/m2 K and the molecular masses are Na2SO4 x 10H2O

= 322 kg/kmol and Na2SO4 = 142 kg/kmol.

CRYSTALLIZATION

saturated solution of MgSO4 at 1100F. The solution

and its crystalline crop are cooled to 400F. The inlet

solution contains 1 g of seed crystals per 100 g of

solution. The seeds are 80mesh. Assuming ideal

growth, what is the mesh size of the crystals

leaving with the cooled product?

CRYSTALLIZATION

ton/hr of copperas crystals by cooling a saturated solution

which enters the crystallizer at 1200F. The slurry leaving the

crystallizer will be at 800F. Cooling water enters the

crystallizer jacket at 600F and leaves at 700F. It may be

assumed that U for the crystallization is 35 BTU/hr-ft2. There

are 3.5 ft2 of cooling surface per foot of crystallizer length and

a crystallization unit is 10 ft length.

Data:

Heat of solution: 4400 cal/gmol copperas

CpF: 0.70 BTU/lb0F

Solubility at 1200F: 140 parts copperas/100 parts excess water

Solubility at 800F: 74 parts copperas per 100 parts excess water

the number of crystallizer units to be used.

CRYSTALLIZATION

A saturated solution of Na2CO3 at 300C is sent to a

crystallizer where it is cooled to 100C. The wet crop

(Na2CO3 x 10 H2O + adhering solution) is then sent to a

drier producing anhydrous Na2CO3. With 1000 kg of

saturated solution at 300C and 5% of the mother liquor

adheres to the crop, calculate the following:

Solubility date for Na2CO3:

Temperature (0C) 0 10 20 30

Solubility (g Na2CO3 /g H20) 2 12.5 21.5 38.8

a. Weight (kg) anhydrous Na2CO3 produced

b. With the same conditions of the feed solution, at what

temperature must the crystallizer be operated to obtain

500 kg of Na2CO3 x 10H2O without accompanying

adhering solution?

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