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Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (1/18)

Contents

0. Definitions

1. Plan Quality

2. Perform Quality Assurance

3. Perform Quality Control

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (2/18)
0. Definitions
Definitions :
Quality : Degree to which the project fulfills requirements.
:
Grade : Category (specific technical characteristics) assigned to product.
( ) :
Precession : Values of repeated measurements have little scatter.
) (
Accuracy : Values are very close to the true.
) (
To Ensure Quality :
Identify quality level and applicable standards.
Set metrics to be measured (from customers perspective).
) (
Make sure authorized processes are followed and standard are met.
.
Evaluate effectiveness of QC system and plan for continuous improvement.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (3/18)
0. Definitions
Gold Plating :
Giving the customer extras.
Achieve your objectives instead of gold plating.

Prevention Over Inspection :


Quality must be planned in not inspected in.

Marginal Analysis :
Looking for point where added attention to quality will not produce added
value. When you reach this point, stop improving quality.
. .

KaiZen: continuous improvement


Japanese practices based on making small improvements but continuous.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (4/18)
0. Definitions

Just-in-time (JIT) :
Production strategy that aim to improving return on investment by reducing
in-process inventory and associated costs. Used in high quality practices.
) (

Responsibility for Quality :


Each team member must check his work. PM has the ultimate responsibility
for quality.

Poor Quality Impact:


Rework - delay - increased cost - low customer satisfaction - low morale -
increased risk.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (5/18)
01. Plan Quality (Planning)

Q u a l i t y M a n a g e m e n t
8.1 Plan Quality

Inputs :
Project Management Plan Stakeholder Register
Risk Register Requirements Documentation
Organizational Process Assets Enterprise Environmental Factors
Tools and Techniques :
Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost of Quality
Seven Basic Quality Tools Benchmarking
Design of Experiments Statistical sampling
Additional Quality Planning Tools Meetings
Outputs :
Quality Management Plan Process Improvement Plan
Quality Metrics Quality Checklists
Project Documents Update

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (6/18)
01. Plan Quality (Planning)
TT Cost Benefit Analysis:
Compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.
Examples of benefits: less rework, higher productivity, lower costs,
increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability.

TT Cost of Quality:

Cost of Conformance Cost of Nonconformance


Money spent during the project to avoid failure Money spent during and after the project because of failures

Training
Equipment Internal Failure Rework
Prevention
Document processes (Found by the project) Scrap
Time to do it right
Testing Liabilities
External Failure
Appraisals Destructive testing loss Warranty work
(Found by the customer)
Inspections Lost business

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (7/18)
01. Plan Quality (Planning)

TT Seven Basic Quality Tools (7QC Tools):


1. Cause & Effect Diagram
Also known as Fishbone or Ishikawa
2. Flowcharts
Also known as Process Maps
3. Checksheets
Also known as Tally Sheets
May be used as a checklist
4. Pareto Diagrams
Used to identify the vital few sources (80/20)
5. Histogram
Describe the statistical distribution shape
6. Control Charts
Will be illustrated later
7. Scatter Diagrams
Also known as Correlation Charts
Used to trace the relation between two variables (X,Y)

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (8/18)
01. Plan Quality (Planning)
Notes for Control Chart:
Control Limits: represents organization quality standards
Specification Limits: represents customer requirements and will be outside
control limits
Out of Control: outside of control limits or non-random data points
Rule of Seven: series seven points in one side

TT Benchmarking:
Comparing projects with past projects to identify best practices

TT Design of Experiments:
Statistical method allows you to change important factors at once to identify
the best combination that has lower impact on the project.

TT Statistical Sampling :
Choosing a sample from population with a planned frequency and size.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (9/18)
01. Plan Quality (Planning)

Additional Tools :
This includes meetings, brainstorming, nominal group, affinity diagrams,
PDPC, matrices, diagrams, .., etc. (will be illustrated later in QA process)

O Quality Management Plan :


Part of PM plan that describes how organizations quality policies will be
implemented. It may includes the following:
Quality standards
Meetings to be held addressing quality
Who will manage quality, when, what their duties will be
Metrics will be used
Quality reports
What deliverables will be measured and when

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (10/18)
01. Plan Quality (Planning)

O Process Improvement Plan :


Part of PM plan that analyze processes to identify
activities which enhance their value. It helps increase
efficiency, customer satisfaction, and prevent problems.

O Quality Metrics :
Specify project or product attributes, how will be measured, and tolerance.
Ex: Defect frequency, failure rate, cost control, on-time performance.

O Checklist :
Used to verify that a set of items has been performed

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (11/18)
02. Perform Quality Assurance (Executing)

Q u a l i t y M a n a g e m e n t
8.2 Perform Quality Assurance
Inputs :
Quality Management Plan
Process Improvement Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality Control Measurements
Project Documents
Tools and Techniques :
Quality Management and Control Tools
Quality Audits
Process Analysis
Outputs :
Change Requests
Project Management Plan Updates
Project Documents Updates
Organizational Process Assets Updates

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (12/18)
02. Perform Quality Assurance (Executing)
Objective :
Are we using the standard ?
Can we improve the standard ?

TT Quality Management and Control Tools :


In addition to Plan/Control Quality tools & techniques.
Other tools include:
Affinity Diagram
(Described in 5.1)

Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)


Used to understand the relation between the goal and
the steps to get the goal. It aids team to expect
intermediate steps
PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany
Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (13/18)
02. Perform Quality Assurance (Executing)

Follow # <Quality Management and Control Tools >


Interrelationships Digraphs
A digraph or directed graph is a set of nodes connected
It aids solving problems with intertwined logical relations
It may be developed from data generated in other tools
like tree diagram or fishbone diagram.

Tree diagrams
Also known as systematic diagrams
Used to decompose a high level goal
Ex: WBS, RBS, OBS

Prioritization Matrix
Used to rank the alternatives for key issues

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (14/18)
02. Perform Quality Assurance (Executing)

Follow # <Quality Management and Control Tools >


Network Diagrams
See (Sequence Activities)

Matrix Diagrams
It shows the relationships between factors

TT Quality Audit :
Check complying with policies & standards
Determine efficiency of policies & standards
Audit can be done by internal or external auditors

TT Process Analysis :
It examines problems, constraints, and non-value-added activities identified
during process operation.

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (15/18)
03. Control Quality (M/C)

Q u a l i t y M a n a g e m e n t
8.3 Control Quality

Inputs :
Project Management Plan Quality Metrics
Quality Checklists Work Performance Data
Approved Change Requests Deliverables
Project Documents Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques :
Seven Basic Quality Tools Statistical sampling
Inspection Approved Change Requests Reviews
Outputs :
Quality Control Measurements Validated Changes
Verified Deliverables Work Performance Information
Change Requests Project Management Plan Updates
Project Documents Updates Org. Process Assets Updates

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (16/18)
03. Control Quality (M/C)
Definitions:

Prevention: Keep errors out of the process


Inspection: Keep errors out of customer hands

Attribute Sampling: Result either conform or not conform


Variable Sampling: Result is rated to express the degree of nonconformity

Tolerance: Specified range of acceptable results


Control limits: Thresholds, indicate whether process is out of control

Mean: Average ( Sum / Count


Median: Middle number after sort (if even, average of two middle numbers)
Mode : Most frequently occurring value in a distribution

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (17/18)
03. Control Quality (M/C)
Follow # < Definitions >

Mutually Exclusive: Two events cannot occur at the same time


Ex: Tossing a coin can result in either heads or tails, but not both

Statistically Independent: The occurrence of one event does not affect the
probability of the other
Ex: The event of getting a 6 the first time a die is rolled and the event of getting
a 6 the second time are independent

Standard Deviation: How far you are from the mean (not Median)
Area under Normal Distribution curve will be:
1 = 68.26 % 2 = 95.46 %
3 = 99.73 % 6 = 99.99985 %

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany


Lecture 08 : Project Quality Management (18/18)
03. Control Quality (M/C)

TT Inspection:
Examination to the product to determine if it conforms to documented
standards or to validate defect repairs. Also called reviews, audits, or
walkthroughs.
Conducted at any level (ex: single activity or final product)

Note:
Plan Quality : Look forward in time
Assure Quality : Look back in time at project standards
Control Quality : Look back in time at project records

PMP Lectures Prepared By: Eng. Mohamed ElSaadany