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You are on page 1of 77

Chapter 04

Mathematical Concepts

in Photogrammetry

Compiled & developed by

Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.

saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian

Institut Teknologi Bandung

Contents

Fundamentals of Perspective Geometry

Coordinate Reference Frames

Sensor Model (Interior Orientation)

Platform Model (Exterior Orientation)

Photogrammetric Conditions

Satellite Imagery and Orbits

Problems / Exercises

References

Tugas No.

Perspective Projection of Planes

Perspective Projection Between Three-Dimensional Space

and a Plane

FUNDAMENTALS OF PERSPECTIVE

GEOMETRY

The Perspective

Projection between

Plane Px and Plane PX

Perspective Projection of Planes (1)

Perspective geometry forms the basis of the imaging model for

frame cameras, and has proven useful, by extension, for model-

ing other sensors as well.

Any point with coordinates (x, y) in Px is projected to a corres-

ponding point in PX with coordinates (X, Y), such that the two

points and the perspective center fall on a straight line.

The relationship between these two planes is completely specified

when four points, no three of which fall on a line, are given with

known coordinates (x, y) and known projected coordinates (X, Y).

This means that for any additional point with known coordinates in

plane Px, its projected coordinates in plane PX can be determined.

Perspective Projection of Planes (2)

The fundamental elements of this perspective projection bet-

ween planes consist of

a point, known as the perspective (projection) center,

a bundle of (straight) line through this point, and

two (flat) planes which cut the bundle of lines and do not contain

the perspective center.

line of the bundle and its intersection point in the cutting planes.

The Functional Model (1)

The relationship between the Cartesian coordinates of a point

(x, y) in plane Px and the coordinates of its corresponding point

(X, Y) in plane PX is

e1 x f1 y g1

X This is referred to as the projective

e0 x f0 y 1 transformation between planes.

e2 x f2 y g 2 (square quadrangular )

Y (quadrangular quadrangular)

e0 x f0 y 1

where, es, fs, and gs are the eight parameters of the transform-

ation.

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 7

The Functional Model (2)

In order to estimate the eight unknown transformation para-

meters, a minimum of four points of known coordinates (x, y)

and known projected coordinates (X, Y) is necessary.

Four planimetric (horizontal) control points.

the denominators and solving for x and y,

p1 X q1Y r1

x

p0 X q0Y 1

p2 X q2Y r2

y

p0 X q0Y 1

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 8

Perspective Projection Between 3-D Space and a Plane

The perspective projection between 3-D space and a plane is

unique only in one direction.

For any point in space, there is a unique projective point in the

plane,

1 point of (X, Y, Z) 1 point of (x, y).

For any point in the plane, there are an infinite number of

corresponding points in space.

1 point of (x, y) infinite number of points of (X, Y, Z).

one additional ray (stereo or multi-station photogrammetry), or

other constraint (DEM/DTM available)

is needed to resolve the ambiguity inherent in going from 2-D to

3-D.

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 9

3-D 2-D 2-D 3-D

One-to-one correspondence One-to-infinite correspondence

A1

A2

A3

A4

A (XA, YA, ZA) a (xa, ya) a (xa, ya) A1, A2, A3, ..

Stereo-photogrammetry

DEM/DTM (Z)

p(xp, yp) and ZP P(XP, YP) available (constraint)

Image Space Coordinate System

Object Space Coordinate System

Coordinate Reference Frames

Two primary reference coordinate systems :

The image space coordinate system / bundle coordinate system,

Object space coordinate system / ground coordinate system.

to be Cartesian and right-handed,

3-D coordinate system.

have to be transformed into such in order to satisfy the imaging

equations.

Geodetic coordinate system might be transformed into a topocen-

tric system, or into a geocentric system.

Screen display coordinate systems of pixel and line are usually left-

handed to follow computer graphic practices, but would be trans-

formed into a conventional (x, y) system for use in the imaging equa-

tions.

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 13

Object space coordinate conversion sequence

Screen

X

Display

Coordinate

System

(non-right-

handed) Y

- Real 3-D coordinate system,

(Topocentric) - Small nominal coordinates.

z

y

x The 3-D origin at the

perspective center L.

(Sensor Coordinate System)

(Bundle Coordinate System)

point at the image plane

:

x ' x x0

y ' y y

0

z' f

The object space is the

3-D region covered by

the photograph or

image.

The object space

coordinate system is a

Cartesian system used

to locate features and

points shown at the

image in the object

space.

The origin can be geo-

centric or topocentric.

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 16

The Principal Distance

The Principal Point

The Lens Distortion

Contoh Sertifikat Kalibrasi Kamera

ORIENTATION)

Sensor Model / Inner Orientation (1)

The sensor model, or interior orientation, defines the sensor or

camera characteristics required for the reconstruction of the ob-

ject space bundle of rays from the corresponding image points.

Inner orientation (sensor model) establishes the bundle of rays from

the image points.

(1).the focal length f or principal distance c,

(2).the location of the principal point in the image plane (x0, y0), and

(3).a description of the lens distortion. (Appendix 04A)

The Principal Distance

For cameras not focused

at infinity, the principal

distance is the image

distance as defined by the

lens equation (1/o + 1/i = lens

range photogrammetry)

to the focal length. (e.g., aerial cameras, satellite optical

imaging)

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 19

Sensor Model to Reconstruct the Object Space Rays

For a Pushbroom

For a Frame Camera Linear Sensor

The Principal Point (1)

The principal point, defined as the point of intersection with the

image plane of the perpendicular from the perspective center, is

usually given with respect to the coordinate axes defined by the

fiducial marks.

The Principal Point (2)

In case of digital sensors, the principal point is given with

respect to the image row-column coordinate system.

x0

x

y

x

y0

y

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 22

The Lens Distortion

Lens distortion is present when the actual image space rays are

not parallel to the corresponding object space rays.

Lens distortion, r

Radial and Tangential Lens Distortion

r : radial

lens distortion.

t : tangential

lens distortion.

r = r f tan

Sensor Model / Inner Orientation (2)

Sufficient redundancy and precision measurement may also

detect systematic departures from film, or CCD platen flatness.

Some or all of these sensor parameters are determined during

camera or sensor calibration. (Appendix 04B)

Knowledge of the parameters of inner orientation allows

correction of the raw image measurements for all known

systematic errors or displacements, and, with a properly

reconstructed bundle, the determination of valid imaging

condition equations with the object point coordinates and the

exterior orientation parameters.

Contoh Sertifikat Kalibrasi Kamera (1)

Camera body : Hasselblad 500 ELM

Lens type : Carl Zeiss Distagon 150

Lens Calibration : Undertaken with infinity fokus using the self calibrating

bundle method.

Reseau plate : Adam Technology standard 27 point reseau. The central

and four corner reseaux have been calibrated as fiducial mark.

Focussing ring shifts : 4.5 mm right (see temporary mark)

Fiducial coordinates (the principal point of autocollimation is the origin) :

Pt x (mm) y (mm)

1 22.631 22.851

2 22.631 -22.149

3 -22.369 -22.149

4 -22.369 22.851

5 0.131 0.351

Contoh Sertifikat Kalibrasi Kamera (2)

Calibrated principal distance : 151.246 mm

Symmetric lens distortion :

to suit Adam systems

polynomial coefficients from dr = Kor + K1r3 + K2r5 + K3r7

Ko = -0.9E-03, K1 = 0.27E-05, K2 = -0.722E-09, K3 = 0.000

to suit Leica systems

distortion related to radial distance from PPA

r (mm) 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39

dr (m) -3 -5 -6 -6 -5 -2 3 10 18 28 39 50 60

Asymmetric lens distortion :

The computed parameters were small and consequently failed the

Fisher statistic test at the 1.96 level

Perth,AU 3/12/93

Mg.11.2, 04/11/16

Three Elements of Position

Three Elements of Orientation

Omega, Phi, and Kappa

3-D Rotation Matrix M

The Collinearity Equations

ORIENTATION)

Platform Model / Exterior Orientation

Exterior orientation (platform model) establishes the position

and orientation of the bundle of rays with respect to the object

space coordinate system.

Each bundle requires six independent elements; three for position

and three for orientation.

image.

In the case of linear sensor, each line defines a new bundle,

theoretically with its own six elements of exterior orientation.

In practice, due to near functional dependency among these

numerous parameters, they are usually estimated with a much

smaller set of independent parameters.

Frame Camera

Camera Outer

Orientation

Elements

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 30

Linear

Array

Sensor

Image

Three Elements of Position

Orientation of a For a bundle of rays, the three ele-

Tilted Photograph ments of position fix the location

of the vertex or center of perspec-

tive (point L).

The coordinates of point L are of-

ten referred to as the camera sta-

tion or exposure station coordi-

nates, and are expressed as

XL

L YL

Z L

With only this point of the bundle established, the

rays themselves can still take any orientation in space.

Three Elements of Orientation

Three angles (or three independent parameters) are sufficient

to describe the orientation or attitude of this bundle in the

object space coordinate system.

Three independent parameters are necessary to define the rotation

matrix that relates the object space and image space systems.

object and image space coordinate systems by the following

equation : x X X L

y kM Y Y

L

f Z ZL

in which (x, y, -f) are the image space coordinates, k is a scale factor, M is a 3 X 3

matrix containing the rotation parameters, and (X, Y, Z) represent the object point.

Omega, Phi, and Kappa

The standard approach to

constructing M is by using

three sequential rotations;

(a) Rotation about the

x axis through

angle omega (),

(b) Rotation about the

y1 axis through

angle phi (),

(c) Rotation about the

z2 axis through

angle kappa ().

3-D Rotation Matrix M

1 0 0 cos 0 sin cos sin 0

M 0 cos sin ; M 0 1 0 ; M sin cos 0

0 sin cos sin 0 cos 0 0 1

m11 m12 m13

M M M M m21 m22 m23

m31 m32 m33

cos cos cos sin sin sin cos sin sin cos sin cos

M cos sin cos cos sin sin sin sin cos cos sin sin

sin sin cos cos cos

The selection of the order of rotations, that is, the primary, secondary,

and tertiary axes, is arbitrary, but it will affect the attitudes at which

singularities occur. (Appendix 04C)

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM Mg.11.2, 04/11/16 35

Mg.12.1, 09/11/16

The Plane Projectivity Equation as a Form of the Collinearity

Equations

The Reprojection Equations

The Coplanarity Condition

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC CONDITIONS

m11 = cos cos

m12 = sin sin cos + cos sin

m13 = - cos sin cos + sin sin

m21 = - cos sin

m22 = - sin sin sin + cos cos

m23 = cos sin sin + sin cos

m31 = sin

m32 = - sin cos

m33 = cos cos

Development of Collinearity Condition Equations

Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem

Applications of Collinearity

Iteration Strategies

Reprojection Equations

The Collinearity Condition

The most fundamental and

useful relationship in ana-

lytical photogrammetry.

Idealisation of aerial pho-

tograph, representing the

central projection.

that the exposure station,

any object point, and its

photo image all lie along a

straight line in 3-D space.

L, a, and A lie along a

straight line.

The Collinearity Condition Equations (1)

Two equations express the collinearity condition for any point

on a photo.

One equation for the x photo coordinate, and another for the y

photo coordinate.

The mathematical relationships are expressed by

xa x 0 f

m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A ZL )

m21 ( X A X L ) m22 (YA YL ) m23 ( Z A Z L )

ya y 0 f

m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A Z L )

The Collinearity Condition Equations (2)

m11 ( X A X L ) m12 (YA YL ) m13 ( Z A ZL )

xa x 0 f

m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A ZL )

m21 ( X A X L ) m22 (YA YL ) m23 ( Z A Z L )

ya y 0 f

m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A Z L )

Image coordinates (xa ,ya) as functions of inner (f,x0 ,y0) & exterior

(,,,XL ,YL ,ZL) orientation, and object space coordinates (XA ,YA ,ZA).

These equations may be used to compute the corresponding image

coordinates when the interior and exterior orientations are known

and an object point is known.

The transformation of 3-D object coordinates into 2-D photo coordinates

(XA ,YA ,ZA) (xa ,ya). (The reversed transformation is impossible)

Visualization

of the

Collinearity

Condition

Equations

A (XA, YA, ZA) a (xa, ya)

3-D 2-D

One-to-one

correspondence

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 41

Development of Collinearity Condition Equations (1)

tated (xyz) so that it is paral-

lel to the object space coordi-

nate system (XYZ).

Vector addition :

OA OL LA OL sa La

X A XL xa

Y Y s y ... (a)

A L a a

Z A Z L za

O sa : point scale factor of point a.

Development of Collinearity Condition Equations (2)

xyz : bundle Measurement xyz and rotated xyz

coordinate image coordinate systems.

system

Initially, it is assumed that the principal

point o is located at the origin of the xy

photo coordinate system.

A correction that compensates for

this assumption is introduced at the

end of the development.

xa xa xa xa xa

y M y y M T y M T y

a a a a a

za za za za f

Substitution to equation (a) :

X A XL xa M is a rotation matrix

Y Y s MT y (x, y, z) (x, y, z)

O A L a a ; or

Z A ZL f (X, Y, Z) (x, y, z).

Development of

Collinearity Condition Equations (3)

X A XL xa xa X A X L xa X A XL

Y Y s M T y s M T y Y Y s MM T y M Y Y

A L a a a a A L a a A L

Z A Z L f f Z A Z L f Z A Z L

sa ya M YA YL sa ya m21 m22 m23 YA YL

f Z A Z L f m31 m32 m33 Z A Z L

(2) ... sa ya m21 X A X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L

(3) ... sa f m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L

(1) xa m11 X A X L m12 YA YL m13 Z A Z L Development

(3) f m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L of Collinearity

(2) ya m21 X A X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L Condition

(3) f m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L

Equations (4)

xa f

m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L

m21 X A X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L

ya f

m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L

following collinearity equations result :

m X X L m12 YA YL m13 Z A Z L

xa x 0 f 11 A Transformation from

m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L object (ground) coor-

m X X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L dinate system into

ya y 0 f 21 A photo/image coordi-

m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L nate system.

Ringkasan Persamaan Kesegarisan

Koordinat foto merupakan fungsi dari parameter orientasi luar,

koordinat tanah/referensi, dan parameter orientasi dalam.

x = x(par.ori.luar, koord.tanah, par.ori.dalam)

y = y(par.ori.luar, koord.tanah, par.ori.dalam)

pL , c , pD

Linearization of the Collinearity

Equations by Taylors Theorem (1)

m11 ( X A X L ) m12 (YA YL ) m13 ( Z A ZL )

xa x 0 f

m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A ZL )

m ( X X L ) m22 (YA YL ) m23 ( Z A Z L )

ya y0 f 21 A

m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A Z L )

Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (2)

9 unknowns Unknown corrections to approx. values

(6 parameters, and 3 coordinates) The units of d, d, and d are radians

Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (3)

In matrix form :

d

d

dX A

b11 b12 b13 b14 b15 b16 d b14 b15 b16

J v xa

b K v

b26 dX L b24 b25 b26

dY A

b24 b25

21 b22 b23 dZ A a

y

dYL

dZ L

BL p L BC c F v

(2x6) (6x1) (2x3) (3x1) (2x1) (2x1)

Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (4)

Where :

Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (5)

Applications of Collinearity

Because higher order terms are ignored in linearization by Tay-

lors theorem, the linearized forms of the equations are ap-

proximations.

They must therefore be solved iteratively until the magni--

tudes of corrections to initial approximations become negli-

gible.

Some applications :

Space resection and intersection

Camera calibration

Relative orientation

Simple and differential rectification

Bundle block adjustment

Etc.

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 52

Iteration Strategies

Improvement of approximate values :

0 0 d

0 0

d X 0 X 0 dX

0 0 d 0A 0A A

0 0 ; YA YA dYA

X L X L dX L Z 0 Z 0 dZ

Y 0 Y 0 dYL A A A

L0 L0

Z L Z L dZ L

pL0 pL0 pL ; c0 c 0 c

pL and c smaller than certain tolerances

(0(n+1) 0(n))/0(n) smaller than a certain tolerance(%)

Fixed iteration number (3, 4, 5, .)

Etc.

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 53

PROJECTIVITY CONDITION AS A

SPECIAL CASE OF COLLINEARITY

Projectivity Condition as a

Special Case of Collinearity (1)

The derivation begins with the

collinearity equations

(projects 3-D points into a 2-D

plane), then constrains the 3-

D points in object space to lie

in a plane.

By mathematical manipulation

and using quasi-parameters,

then the projective equations

are constructed.

a : the plane slope in X-

direction,

b : the plane slope in Y-

Equation of a plane in 3-D : direction,

(X,Y,Z) : Z = aX + bY + c c : height translation.

Projectivity Condition as a Special Case of Collinearity (2)

(parameters terms)

Projectivity Condition as a Special Case of Collinearity (3)

(quasi

parameters)

Projectivity Condition as a Special Case of Collinearity (4)

p1 X q1Y r1 e1 x f1 y g1

x X

p0 X q0Y 1 e0 x f0 y 1

(4-8)

p X q2Y r2 e2 x f2 y g 2

y 2 Y

p0 X q0Y 1 e0 x f0 y 1

THE REPROJECTION EQUATIONS

The Reprojection Equations (1)

X A XL xa X A X L xa X A X L m11 m21 m31 xa

Y Y s M T y Y Y s M T y Y Y s m m22 m32 ya

A L a a A L a a A L a 12

Z A Z L f Z A Z L f Z A Z L m13 m23 m33 f

(5) ... YA YL sa m12 xa m22 ya m32 f

(6) ... Z A Z L sa m13 xa m23 ya m33 f

X A X L Z A Z L 11 a

(6) Z A Z L m13 xa m23 ya m33 f m13 xa m23 ya m33 f

(5) YA YL m12 xa m22 ya m32 f m x m22 ya m32 f

YA YL Z A Z L 12 a

(6) Z A Z L m13 xa m23 ya m33 f m13 xa m23 ya m33 f

The Reprojection Equations (2)

Adding correction s for offset of the principal point (x0 , y0 ), the following reprojecti on

equations result :

m11 xa x0 m21 ya y0 m31 f

X A X L Z A Z L

m13 xa x0 m23 ya y0 m33 f

m x x m22 ya y0 m32 f

YA YL Z A Z L 12 a 0

m13 xa x0 m23 ya y0 m33 f

These equations may be used when

the interior (f,x0,y0) and exterior (,,,XL,YL,ZL) orientations are known, and

an image coordinate (xa,ya) is known, along with

one component of the object space point coordinate (ZA),

in order to obtain the remaining two components of the object space point

position (XA,YA). [Transformation of (xa,ya,ZA) (XA,YA)]

The applications are in differential rectification, i.e., analog orthophoto, digit-

al mono-plotting, digital orthophoto.

The Visualization

of the

Reprojection

Equations

DEM/DTM (Z)

p(xp, yp) and ZP P(XP, YP) available (constraint)

Skipped

Reminder : Cross and Dot Product

Development of Coplanarity Equation

Application of the Coplanarity Equation

Skipped

The Coplanarity

Condition

Coplanarity is the con-

dition that the two ex-

posure stations of a

stereopair, any object

point, and its corres-

ponding image points

on the two photos all

lie in a common plane.

L1, L2, a1, a2, and A

all lie in the same

plane

This condition apply if these pho-

tographs are relatively oriented

with respect to each other

Skipped

The cross product or vector product of two vectors, a b

(read " a cross b" ), is another vector c which is perpendicular

to both a and b and in a direction such that a, b, and c (in this order)

form a right - handed system.

a1 b1 a2 b3 b2 a3

If a a2 and b b2 , then c a b b1a3 a1b3

a3 b3 a1b2 b1a2

c=axb

b

a

10/27/2017 4:39 PM Mathematical Concepts, SHM 65

Skipped

The dot product or scalar product of two vectors is

n

a b ap bp a1b1 a2 b2 ... an bn

p 1

it can be shown that

a b a b cos

It follows that if a is perpendicular to b, then a b 0.

Skipped

Base vector

(the displacement between the perspective centers)

bx X L2 X L1

b Y Y

y L2 L1

bz ZL2 ZL1

from the image point from the image point

on the left photograph) on the right photograph)

u1 x x0 u2 x x0

v M T y y v M T y y

1 1 0 2 2 0

w1 f 1 w 2 f 2

Skipped

Development of Coplanarity Equation (2)

Components of these three vectors may be expressed as :

b X X L1 u1 x x0 u2 x x0

X L2

b bY YL2 YL1 ; a1 v1 M1T y y 0 ; a2 v 2 M2T y y 0

bZ ZL2 ZL1 w1 f 1 w 2 f 2

We use the triple scalar product to express the coplanarity of these three vectors :

b (a1 a2 ) 0

or, in the determinat form using the vectors components,

bX bY bZ

F ( x1 , x 2 , pL1 , pL2 , pD ) u1 v1 w1 0

u2 v2 w2

Then, the coplanarity condition equation is

F bx (v1w 2 v 2w1 ) by (u2w1 u1w 2 ) bZ (u1v 2 u2v1 ) 0

Skipped

One coplanarity equation may be written for each object point

whose images appear on both photos of the stereopair.

The coplanarity equations do not contain object space coordinates

as unknowns; rather, they contain only the elements of exterior

orientation of the two photos of the stereopair.

The coplanarity equation is primarily used for computing the re-

lative orientation between pairs of photographs.

This is usually done by fixing seven parameters among XL1, YL1, ZL1,

1, 1, 1, XL2, YL2, ZL2, 2, 2, and 2, then solving for the remaining

five.

Approximate model space coordinates do not need to be generated

in this case, since object coordinates do not appear in the equation.

Coplanarity is not used nearly as extensively as collinearity in analytical photogrammetry.

Skipped

Imaging Equations

PROBLEMS / EXERCISES

Problems / Exercises

D-2. Explain why linearized collinearity equations must be iterated a number

of times before a satisfactory solution is achieved.

D-4. Given the following values, compute the photo-coordinates xa and ya.

Express your answers to the nearest 0.001 mm.

f = 152.916 mm x0 = 0.010 mm y0 = -0.004 mm

= -0.4052o = 1.2095o = 102.8006o

XL = 1027.863 m YL = 1043.998 m ZL = 611.032 m

XA = 974.435 m YA = 956.592 m ZA = 14.619 m

Typical UTSs Problems

1. Jelaskan apa yang dimaksudkan dengan prinsip kesegarisan (collinearity)

dan prinsip kesebidangan (coplanarity) serta penggunaannya dalam pro-

ses fotogrametri (gunakan sketsa gambar) !

2. Suatu foto udara memiliki unsur-unsur orientasi luar (,,) = (3, -2, 88)

derajat dan (XL, YL, ZL) = (12000, 14000, 3000) meter, serta parameter-

parameter kamera (x0, y0, f) = (-0.012, 0.006, 153.000) mm. Tugas :

a. Hitung koordinat fiducial dari titik tanah (X, Y, Z) = (11850, 13700, 200)

meter ! (Petunjuk : gunakan rumus kesegarisan)

b. Untuk titik citra pada a.) di atas, tentukan posisi dimana sinar tersebut

memotong ruang obyek yang didefinisikan oleh Z = 0 ! (Petunjuk : guna-

kan rumus reproyeksi)

References

Mikhail, E.M., J.S. Bethel, and J.C. McGlone, 2001. Introduction to Modern

Photogrammetry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 479 p.

Wolf, P.R., and B.A. Dewitt, 2000. Elements of Photogrammetry : with Appli-

cation in GIS, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 608p.

Internet browsing.

Aknowledgements

Some data, information, illustrations, and diagrams in this presentation are quoted

from .ppt files developed by Dr. Ir. Bobby S. Dipokusumo, M.Sc. and Dr. Ir. Andri

Hernandi, MT.

Tugas No.

Kerjakan Problems No. :

Waktu : 1 minggu (

Ketentuan-ketentuan Tugas seperti pada Tugas 1.

Materi kuliah GD3103 Fotogrametri I, Semester I-2016/2017

End of Chapter 04

Mathematical Concepts

in Photogrammetry

Compiled & developed by

Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.

saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian

Institut Teknologi Bandung

The Collinearity Condition

the vector equation :

y=c+lRx

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