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Materi kuliah GD3103 Fotogrametri I, Semester I-2016/2017

Chapter 04

Mathematical Concepts
in Photogrammetry
Compiled & developed by
Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.
saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis


Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Contents
Fundamentals of Perspective Geometry
Coordinate Reference Frames
Sensor Model (Interior Orientation)
Platform Model (Exterior Orientation)
Photogrammetric Conditions
Satellite Imagery and Orbits
Problems / Exercises
References
Tugas No.

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Perspective Projection of Planes
Perspective Projection Between Three-Dimensional Space
and a Plane

FUNDAMENTALS OF PERSPECTIVE
GEOMETRY

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The Perspective
Projection between
Plane Px and Plane PX

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Perspective Projection of Planes (1)
Perspective geometry forms the basis of the imaging model for
frame cameras, and has proven useful, by extension, for model-
ing other sensors as well.
Any point with coordinates (x, y) in Px is projected to a corres-
ponding point in PX with coordinates (X, Y), such that the two
points and the perspective center fall on a straight line.
The relationship between these two planes is completely specified
when four points, no three of which fall on a line, are given with
known coordinates (x, y) and known projected coordinates (X, Y).
This means that for any additional point with known coordinates in
plane Px, its projected coordinates in plane PX can be determined.

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Perspective Projection of Planes (2)
The fundamental elements of this perspective projection bet-
ween planes consist of
a point, known as the perspective (projection) center,
a bundle of (straight) line through this point, and
two (flat) planes which cut the bundle of lines and do not contain
the perspective center.

There is a natural one-to-one correspondence between each


line of the bundle and its intersection point in the cutting planes.

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The Functional Model (1)
The relationship between the Cartesian coordinates of a point
(x, y) in plane Px and the coordinates of its corresponding point
(X, Y) in plane PX is

e1 x f1 y g1
X This is referred to as the projective
e0 x f0 y 1 transformation between planes.
e2 x f2 y g 2 (square quadrangular )
Y (quadrangular quadrangular)
e0 x f0 y 1
where, es, fs, and gs are the eight parameters of the transform-
ation.
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The Functional Model (2)
In order to estimate the eight unknown transformation para-
meters, a minimum of four points of known coordinates (x, y)
and known projected coordinates (X, Y) is necessary.
Four planimetric (horizontal) control points.

The projective transformation can be inverted by multiplying by


the denominators and solving for x and y,

p1 X q1Y r1
x
p0 X q0Y 1
p2 X q2Y r2
y
p0 X q0Y 1
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Perspective Projection Between 3-D Space and a Plane
The perspective projection between 3-D space and a plane is
unique only in one direction.
For any point in space, there is a unique projective point in the
plane,
1 point of (X, Y, Z) 1 point of (x, y).
For any point in the plane, there are an infinite number of
corresponding points in space.
1 point of (x, y) infinite number of points of (X, Y, Z).

If a frame photograph represents the plane, at least


one additional ray (stereo or multi-station photogrammetry), or
other constraint (DEM/DTM available)
is needed to resolve the ambiguity inherent in going from 2-D to
3-D.
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3-D 2-D 2-D 3-D
One-to-one correspondence One-to-infinite correspondence

A1
A2
A3
A4

A (XA, YA, ZA) a (xa, ya) a (xa, ya) A1, A2, A3, ..

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Stereo-photogrammetry

a1(x1, y1) and a2(x2, y2) A(XA, YA, ZA)

DEM/DTM (Z)
p(xp, yp) and ZP P(XP, YP) available (constraint)

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Image Space Coordinate System
Object Space Coordinate System

COORDINATE REFERENCE FRAME

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Coordinate Reference Frames
Two primary reference coordinate systems :
The image space coordinate system / bundle coordinate system,
Object space coordinate system / ground coordinate system.
to be Cartesian and right-handed,
3-D coordinate system.

Non-Cartesian or non-right-handed coordinate systems, would


have to be transformed into such in order to satisfy the imaging
equations.
Geodetic coordinate system might be transformed into a topocen-
tric system, or into a geocentric system.
Screen display coordinate systems of pixel and line are usually left-
handed to follow computer graphic practices, but would be trans-
formed into a conventional (x, y) system for use in the imaging equa-
tions.
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Object space coordinate conversion sequence

Screen
X
Display
Coordinate
System
(non-right-
handed) Y

The best one for photogrammetric processing :


- Real 3-D coordinate system,
(Topocentric) - Small nominal coordinates.

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z
y
x The 3-D origin at the
perspective center L.

Image Space Coordinate System


(Sensor Coordinate System)
(Bundle Coordinate System)

The coordinates of any


point at the image plane
:
x ' x x0
y ' y y
0

z' f

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The object space is the
3-D region covered by
the photograph or
image.
The object space
coordinate system is a
Cartesian system used
to locate features and
points shown at the
image in the object
space.
The origin can be geo-
centric or topocentric.

Object Space Coordinate System (X, Y, Z)


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The Principal Distance
The Principal Point
The Lens Distortion
Contoh Sertifikat Kalibrasi Kamera

SENSOR MODEL (INTERIOR


ORIENTATION)

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Sensor Model / Inner Orientation (1)
The sensor model, or interior orientation, defines the sensor or
camera characteristics required for the reconstruction of the ob-
ject space bundle of rays from the corresponding image points.
Inner orientation (sensor model) establishes the bundle of rays from
the image points.

In a frame camera, these characteristics would include at least :


(1).the focal length f or principal distance c,
(2).the location of the principal point in the image plane (x0, y0), and
(3).a description of the lens distortion. (Appendix 04A)

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The Principal Distance
For cameras not focused
at infinity, the principal
distance is the image
distance as defined by the
lens equation (1/o + 1/i = lens

1/f). (e.g., extremely close-


range photogrammetry)

For cameras focused at infinity, the principal distance is equal


to the focal length. (e.g., aerial cameras, satellite optical
imaging)
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Sensor Model to Reconstruct the Object Space Rays

For a Pushbroom
For a Frame Camera Linear Sensor

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The Principal Point (1)
The principal point, defined as the point of intersection with the
image plane of the perpendicular from the perspective center, is
usually given with respect to the coordinate axes defined by the
fiducial marks.

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The Principal Point (2)
In case of digital sensors, the principal point is given with
respect to the image row-column coordinate system.
x0
x
y

x
y0

y
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The Lens Distortion
Lens distortion is present when the actual image space rays are
not parallel to the corresponding object space rays.

Lens distortion, r

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Radial and Tangential Lens Distortion
r : radial
lens distortion.
t : tangential
lens distortion.

r = r f tan

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Sensor Model / Inner Orientation (2)
Sufficient redundancy and precision measurement may also
detect systematic departures from film, or CCD platen flatness.
Some or all of these sensor parameters are determined during
camera or sensor calibration. (Appendix 04B)
Knowledge of the parameters of inner orientation allows
correction of the raw image measurements for all known
systematic errors or displacements, and, with a properly
reconstructed bundle, the determination of valid imaging
condition equations with the object point coordinates and the
exterior orientation parameters.

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Contoh Sertifikat Kalibrasi Kamera (1)
Camera body : Hasselblad 500 ELM
Lens type : Carl Zeiss Distagon 150
Lens Calibration : Undertaken with infinity fokus using the self calibrating
bundle method.
Reseau plate : Adam Technology standard 27 point reseau. The central
and four corner reseaux have been calibrated as fiducial mark.
Focussing ring shifts : 4.5 mm right (see temporary mark)
Fiducial coordinates (the principal point of autocollimation is the origin) :
Pt x (mm) y (mm)
1 22.631 22.851
2 22.631 -22.149
3 -22.369 -22.149
4 -22.369 22.851
5 0.131 0.351

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Contoh Sertifikat Kalibrasi Kamera (2)
Calibrated principal distance : 151.246 mm
Symmetric lens distortion :
to suit Adam systems
polynomial coefficients from dr = Kor + K1r3 + K2r5 + K3r7
Ko = -0.9E-03, K1 = 0.27E-05, K2 = -0.722E-09, K3 = 0.000
to suit Leica systems
distortion related to radial distance from PPA
r (mm) 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39
dr (m) -3 -5 -6 -6 -5 -2 3 10 18 28 39 50 60
Asymmetric lens distortion :
The computed parameters were small and consequently failed the
Fisher statistic test at the 1.96 level
Perth,AU 3/12/93

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Mg.11.2, 04/11/16

Platform Model / Exterior Orientation


Three Elements of Position
Three Elements of Orientation
Omega, Phi, and Kappa
3-D Rotation Matrix M
The Collinearity Equations

PLATFORM MODEL (EXTERIOR


ORIENTATION)

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Platform Model / Exterior Orientation
Exterior orientation (platform model) establishes the position
and orientation of the bundle of rays with respect to the object
space coordinate system.
Each bundle requires six independent elements; three for position
and three for orientation.

In the case of a frame camera, one bundle represents the entire


image.
In the case of linear sensor, each line defines a new bundle,
theoretically with its own six elements of exterior orientation.
In practice, due to near functional dependency among these
numerous parameters, they are usually estimated with a much
smaller set of independent parameters.

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Frame Camera

Camera Outer
Orientation
Elements
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Linear
Array
Sensor
Image

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Three Elements of Position
Orientation of a For a bundle of rays, the three ele-
Tilted Photograph ments of position fix the location
of the vertex or center of perspec-
tive (point L).
The coordinates of point L are of-
ten referred to as the camera sta-
tion or exposure station coordi-
nates, and are expressed as
XL
L YL
Z L
With only this point of the bundle established, the
rays themselves can still take any orientation in space.

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Three Elements of Orientation
Three angles (or three independent parameters) are sufficient
to describe the orientation or attitude of this bundle in the
object space coordinate system.
Three independent parameters are necessary to define the rotation
matrix that relates the object space and image space systems.

The exterior orientation defines the relationship between the


object and image space coordinate systems by the following
equation : x X X L
y kM Y Y
L

f Z ZL

in which (x, y, -f) are the image space coordinates, k is a scale factor, M is a 3 X 3
matrix containing the rotation parameters, and (X, Y, Z) represent the object point.

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Omega, Phi, and Kappa
The standard approach to
constructing M is by using
three sequential rotations;
(a) Rotation about the
x axis through
angle omega (),
(b) Rotation about the
y1 axis through
angle phi (),
(c) Rotation about the
z2 axis through
angle kappa ().

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3-D Rotation Matrix M
1 0 0 cos 0 sin cos sin 0
M 0 cos sin ; M 0 1 0 ; M sin cos 0
0 sin cos sin 0 cos 0 0 1

The total rotation matrix is then constructed as


m11 m12 m13
M M M M m21 m22 m23
m31 m32 m33
cos cos cos sin sin sin cos sin sin cos sin cos
M cos sin cos cos sin sin sin sin cos cos sin sin
sin sin cos cos cos

The selection of the order of rotations, that is, the primary, secondary,
and tertiary axes, is arbitrary, but it will affect the attitudes at which
singularities occur. (Appendix 04C)
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Mg.12.1, 09/11/16

The Collinearity Condition


The Plane Projectivity Equation as a Form of the Collinearity
Equations
The Reprojection Equations
The Coplanarity Condition

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC CONDITIONS

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m11 = cos cos
m12 = sin sin cos + cos sin
m13 = - cos sin cos + sin sin
m21 = - cos sin
m22 = - sin sin sin + cos cos
m23 = cos sin sin + sin cos
m31 = sin
m32 = - sin cos
m33 = cos cos

The Collinearity Condition Equations


Development of Collinearity Condition Equations
Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem
Applications of Collinearity
Iteration Strategies
Reprojection Equations

THE COLLINEARITY CONDITION

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The Collinearity Condition
The most fundamental and
useful relationship in ana-
lytical photogrammetry.
Idealisation of aerial pho-
tograph, representing the
central projection.

Collinearity is the condition


that the exposure station,
any object point, and its
photo image all lie along a
straight line in 3-D space.
L, a, and A lie along a
straight line.

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The Collinearity Condition Equations (1)
Two equations express the collinearity condition for any point
on a photo.
One equation for the x photo coordinate, and another for the y
photo coordinate.
The mathematical relationships are expressed by

m11 ( X A X L ) m12 (YA YL ) m13 ( Z A ZL )


xa x 0 f
m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A ZL )
m21 ( X A X L ) m22 (YA YL ) m23 ( Z A Z L )
ya y 0 f
m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A Z L )

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The Collinearity Condition Equations (2)
m11 ( X A X L ) m12 (YA YL ) m13 ( Z A ZL )
xa x 0 f
m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A ZL )
m21 ( X A X L ) m22 (YA YL ) m23 ( Z A Z L )
ya y 0 f
m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A Z L )

Image coordinates (xa ,ya) as functions of inner (f,x0 ,y0) & exterior
(,,,XL ,YL ,ZL) orientation, and object space coordinates (XA ,YA ,ZA).
These equations may be used to compute the corresponding image
coordinates when the interior and exterior orientations are known
and an object point is known.
The transformation of 3-D object coordinates into 2-D photo coordinates
(XA ,YA ,ZA) (xa ,ya). (The reversed transformation is impossible)

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Visualization
of the
Collinearity
Condition
Equations
A (XA, YA, ZA) a (xa, ya)

3-D 2-D
One-to-one
correspondence
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Development of Collinearity Condition Equations (1)

Image coordinate system ro-


tated (xyz) so that it is paral-
lel to the object space coordi-
nate system (XYZ).
Vector addition :

OA OL LA OL sa La
X A XL xa
Y Y s y ... (a)
A L a a
Z A Z L za
O sa : point scale factor of point a.

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Development of Collinearity Condition Equations (2)
xyz : bundle Measurement xyz and rotated xyz
coordinate image coordinate systems.
system
Initially, it is assumed that the principal
point o is located at the origin of the xy
photo coordinate system.
A correction that compensates for
this assumption is introduced at the
end of the development.
xa xa xa xa xa
y M y y M T y M T y
a a a a a
za za za za f
Substitution to equation (a) :
X A XL xa M is a rotation matrix
Y Y s MT y (x, y, z) (x, y, z)
O A L a a ; or
Z A ZL f (X, Y, Z) (x, y, z).

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Development of
Collinearity Condition Equations (3)
X A XL xa xa X A X L xa X A XL
Y Y s M T y s M T y Y Y s MM T y M Y Y
A L a a a a A L a a A L
Z A Z L f f Z A Z L f Z A Z L

xa X A XL xa m11 m12 m13 X A X L


sa ya M YA YL sa ya m21 m22 m23 YA YL
f Z A Z L f m31 m32 m33 Z A Z L

(1) ... sa xa m11 X A X L m12 YA YL m13 Z A Z L


(2) ... sa ya m21 X A X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L
(3) ... sa f m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L

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(1) xa m11 X A X L m12 YA YL m13 Z A Z L Development

(3) f m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L of Collinearity
(2) ya m21 X A X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L Condition

(3) f m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L
Equations (4)

m11 X A X L m12 YA YL m13 Z A Z L


xa f
m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L
m21 X A X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L
ya f
m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L

Adding correction s for offset of the principal point (x 0 , y 0 ), the


following collinearity equations result :
m X X L m12 YA YL m13 Z A Z L
xa x 0 f 11 A Transformation from
m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L object (ground) coor-
m X X L m22 YA YL m23 Z A Z L dinate system into
ya y 0 f 21 A photo/image coordi-
m31 X A X L m32 YA YL m33 Z A Z L nate system.

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Ringkasan Persamaan Kesegarisan
Koordinat foto merupakan fungsi dari parameter orientasi luar,
koordinat tanah/referensi, dan parameter orientasi dalam.
x = x(par.ori.luar, koord.tanah, par.ori.dalam)
y = y(par.ori.luar, koord.tanah, par.ori.dalam)
pL , c , pD

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Linearization of the Collinearity
Equations by Taylors Theorem (1)
m11 ( X A X L ) m12 (YA YL ) m13 ( Z A ZL )
xa x 0 f
m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A ZL )
m ( X X L ) m22 (YA YL ) m23 ( Z A Z L )
ya y0 f 21 A
m31 ( X A X L ) m32 (YA YL ) m33 ( Z A Z L )

The collinearity equations are rewritten as follows :

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Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (2)

Initial approximation Partial derivatives


9 unknowns Unknown corrections to approx. values
(6 parameters, and 3 coordinates) The units of d, d, and d are radians

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Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (3)

In matrix form :
d
d
dX A
b11 b12 b13 b14 b15 b16 d b14 b15 b16
J v xa
b K v
b26 dX L b24 b25 b26
dY A
b24 b25
21 b22 b23 dZ A a
y
dYL

dZ L

BL p L BC c F v
(2x6) (6x1) (2x3) (3x1) (2x1) (2x1)

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Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (4)

Where :

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Linearization of the Collinearity Equations by Taylors Theorem (5)

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Applications of Collinearity
Because higher order terms are ignored in linearization by Tay-
lors theorem, the linearized forms of the equations are ap-
proximations.
They must therefore be solved iteratively until the magni--
tudes of corrections to initial approximations become negli-
gible.

Some applications :
Space resection and intersection
Camera calibration
Relative orientation
Simple and differential rectification
Bundle block adjustment
Etc.
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Iteration Strategies
Improvement of approximate values :
0 0 d
0 0
d X 0 X 0 dX
0 0 d 0A 0A A
0 0 ; YA YA dYA
X L X L dX L Z 0 Z 0 dZ
Y 0 Y 0 dYL A A A
L0 L0
Z L Z L dZ L
pL0 pL0 pL ; c0 c 0 c

Convergence criteria for iterative process :


pL and c smaller than certain tolerances
(0(n+1) 0(n))/0(n) smaller than a certain tolerance(%)
Fixed iteration number (3, 4, 5, .)
Etc.
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PROJECTIVITY CONDITION AS A
SPECIAL CASE OF COLLINEARITY

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Projectivity Condition as a
Special Case of Collinearity (1)
The derivation begins with the
collinearity equations
(projects 3-D points into a 2-D
plane), then constrains the 3-
D points in object space to lie
in a plane.
By mathematical manipulation
and using quasi-parameters,
then the projective equations
are constructed.
a : the plane slope in X-
direction,
b : the plane slope in Y-
Equation of a plane in 3-D : direction,
(X,Y,Z) : Z = aX + bY + c c : height translation.

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Projectivity Condition as a Special Case of Collinearity (2)

(parameters terms)

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Projectivity Condition as a Special Case of Collinearity (3)

(quasi
parameters)

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Projectivity Condition as a Special Case of Collinearity (4)

p1 X q1Y r1 e1 x f1 y g1
x X
p0 X q0Y 1 e0 x f0 y 1
(4-8)
p X q2Y r2 e2 x f2 y g 2
y 2 Y
p0 X q0Y 1 e0 x f0 y 1

(xy XY ) (XY xy)

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THE REPROJECTION EQUATIONS

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The Reprojection Equations (1)
X A XL xa X A X L xa X A X L m11 m21 m31 xa
Y Y s M T y Y Y s M T y Y Y s m m22 m32 ya
A L a a A L a a A L a 12
Z A Z L f Z A Z L f Z A Z L m13 m23 m33 f

(4) ... X A X L sa m11 xa m21 ya m31 f


(5) ... YA YL sa m12 xa m22 ya m32 f
(6) ... Z A Z L sa m13 xa m23 ya m33 f

(4) X A X L m11 xa m21 ya m31 f m x m21 ya m31 f


X A X L Z A Z L 11 a
(6) Z A Z L m13 xa m23 ya m33 f m13 xa m23 ya m33 f
(5) YA YL m12 xa m22 ya m32 f m x m22 ya m32 f
YA YL Z A Z L 12 a
(6) Z A Z L m13 xa m23 ya m33 f m13 xa m23 ya m33 f

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The Reprojection Equations (2)
Adding correction s for offset of the principal point (x0 , y0 ), the following reprojecti on
equations result :
m11 xa x0 m21 ya y0 m31 f
X A X L Z A Z L
m13 xa x0 m23 ya y0 m33 f
m x x m22 ya y0 m32 f
YA YL Z A Z L 12 a 0
m13 xa x0 m23 ya y0 m33 f
These equations may be used when
the interior (f,x0,y0) and exterior (,,,XL,YL,ZL) orientations are known, and
an image coordinate (xa,ya) is known, along with
one component of the object space point coordinate (ZA),
in order to obtain the remaining two components of the object space point
position (XA,YA). [Transformation of (xa,ya,ZA) (XA,YA)]
The applications are in differential rectification, i.e., analog orthophoto, digit-
al mono-plotting, digital orthophoto.

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The Visualization
of the
Reprojection
Equations

DEM/DTM (Z)
p(xp, yp) and ZP P(XP, YP) available (constraint)

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Skipped

The Coplanarity Condition


Reminder : Cross and Dot Product
Development of Coplanarity Equation
Application of the Coplanarity Equation

THE COPLANARITY CONDITION

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Skipped

The Coplanarity
Condition
Coplanarity is the con-
dition that the two ex-
posure stations of a
stereopair, any object
point, and its corres-
ponding image points
on the two photos all
lie in a common plane.
L1, L2, a1, a2, and A
all lie in the same
plane
This condition apply if these pho-
tographs are relatively oriented
with respect to each other

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Skipped

Reminder (1) : Cross (or Vector) Product


The cross product or vector product of two vectors, a b
(read " a cross b" ), is another vector c which is perpendicular
to both a and b and in a direction such that a, b, and c (in this order)
form a right - handed system.

a1 b1 a2 b3 b2 a3
If a a2 and b b2 , then c a b b1a3 a1b3
a3 b3 a1b2 b1a2
c=axb
b

a
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Reminder (2) : Dot (or Scalar) Product


The dot product or scalar product of two vectors is
n
a b ap bp a1b1 a2 b2 ... an bn
p 1

This is also called inner product. It is a scalar.

If is the angle between two vectors a and b (in 2 - or 3 - D space),


it can be shown that
a b a b cos
It follows that if a is perpendicular to b, then a b 0.

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Development of Coplanarity Equations (1)


Base vector
(the displacement between the perspective centers)
bx X L2 X L1
b Y Y
y L2 L1

bz ZL2 ZL1

(the object space vector (the object space vector


from the image point from the image point
on the left photograph) on the right photograph)
u1 x x0 u2 x x0
v M T y y v M T y y
1 1 0 2 2 0
w1 f 1 w 2 f 2

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Development of Coplanarity Equation (2)
Components of these three vectors may be expressed as :
b X X L1 u1 x x0 u2 x x0
X L2
b bY YL2 YL1 ; a1 v1 M1T y y 0 ; a2 v 2 M2T y y 0
bZ ZL2 ZL1 w1 f 1 w 2 f 2
We use the triple scalar product to express the coplanarity of these three vectors :

b (a1 a2 ) 0
or, in the determinat form using the vectors components,
bX bY bZ

F ( x1 , x 2 , pL1 , pL2 , pD ) u1 v1 w1 0
u2 v2 w2
Then, the coplanarity condition equation is
F bx (v1w 2 v 2w1 ) by (u2w1 u1w 2 ) bZ (u1v 2 u2v1 ) 0

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Application of the Coplanarity Equation


One coplanarity equation may be written for each object point
whose images appear on both photos of the stereopair.
The coplanarity equations do not contain object space coordinates
as unknowns; rather, they contain only the elements of exterior
orientation of the two photos of the stereopair.
The coplanarity equation is primarily used for computing the re-
lative orientation between pairs of photographs.
This is usually done by fixing seven parameters among XL1, YL1, ZL1,
1, 1, 1, XL2, YL2, ZL2, 2, 2, and 2, then solving for the remaining
five.
Approximate model space coordinates do not need to be generated
in this case, since object coordinates do not appear in the equation.
Coplanarity is not used nearly as extensively as collinearity in analytical photogrammetry.

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Imaging Equations

SATELLITE IMAGERY AND ORBITS

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PROBLEMS / EXERCISES

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Problems / Exercises
D-2. Explain why linearized collinearity equations must be iterated a number
of times before a satisfactory solution is achieved.

D-4. Given the following values, compute the photo-coordinates xa and ya.
Express your answers to the nearest 0.001 mm.
f = 152.916 mm x0 = 0.010 mm y0 = -0.004 mm
= -0.4052o = 1.2095o = 102.8006o
XL = 1027.863 m YL = 1043.998 m ZL = 611.032 m
XA = 974.435 m YA = 956.592 m ZA = 14.619 m

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Typical UTSs Problems
1. Jelaskan apa yang dimaksudkan dengan prinsip kesegarisan (collinearity)
dan prinsip kesebidangan (coplanarity) serta penggunaannya dalam pro-
ses fotogrametri (gunakan sketsa gambar) !

2. Suatu foto udara memiliki unsur-unsur orientasi luar (,,) = (3, -2, 88)
derajat dan (XL, YL, ZL) = (12000, 14000, 3000) meter, serta parameter-
parameter kamera (x0, y0, f) = (-0.012, 0.006, 153.000) mm. Tugas :
a. Hitung koordinat fiducial dari titik tanah (X, Y, Z) = (11850, 13700, 200)
meter ! (Petunjuk : gunakan rumus kesegarisan)
b. Untuk titik citra pada a.) di atas, tentukan posisi dimana sinar tersebut
memotong ruang obyek yang didefinisikan oleh Z = 0 ! (Petunjuk : guna-
kan rumus reproyeksi)

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References
Mikhail, E.M., J.S. Bethel, and J.C. McGlone, 2001. Introduction to Modern
Photogrammetry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 479 p.
Wolf, P.R., and B.A. Dewitt, 2000. Elements of Photogrammetry : with Appli-
cation in GIS, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 608p.
Internet browsing.

Aknowledgements
Some data, information, illustrations, and diagrams in this presentation are quoted
from .ppt files developed by Dr. Ir. Bobby S. Dipokusumo, M.Sc. and Dr. Ir. Andri
Hernandi, MT.

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Tugas No.
Kerjakan Problems No. :
Waktu : 1 minggu (
Ketentuan-ketentuan Tugas seperti pada Tugas 1.

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Materi kuliah GD3103 Fotogrametri I, Semester I-2016/2017

End of Chapter 04
Mathematical Concepts
in Photogrammetry
Compiled & developed by
Saptomo H Mertotaroeno, Ir., M.Sc.
saptomo@gd.itb.ac.id

KK Inderaja & Sains Informasi Geografis


Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian
Institut Teknologi Bandung
The Collinearity Condition
the vector equation :
y=c+lRx

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