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physics lec

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You are on page 1of 23

properties, addition, components of vectors

When you see a vector, think components!

Multiplication of vectors will come in later chapters.

Vectors have magnitude and direction.

Vectors: Magnitude and direction

Scalars: Only Magnitude

A scalar quantity has a single value with an appropriate unit and has no direction.

Vectors:

Scalars:

arbitrary path (dotted line). Displacement is a

vector

Coordinate systems

Cartesian coordinates:

ordinate

abscissa

Vectors:

Represented by arrows (example: displacement).

Tip points away from the starting point.

Length of the arrow represents the magnitude.

In text: a vector is often represented

in bold face (A)

or by an arrow over the letter; A.

In text: Magnitude is written as A or A

the same magnitude (length) and the same

direction

Adding vectors:

Graphical method (triangle method):

Draw vector A.

Draw vector B starting at the tip of vector A.

The resultant vector R = A + B is drawn from the tail of A to the

tip of B.

Adding several vectors together.

Resultant vector

R A B C D

is drawn from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the

last vector.

Commutative Law of vector addition

A B B A

Order does not

matter for additions

Associative Law of vector addition

A ( B C ) ( A B) C

The order in which vectors are added together does not matter.

Negative of a vector.

The vectors A and A have the same magnitude but

opposite directions.

A ( A) 0

A -A

Subtracting vectors:

A B A ( B )

Multiplying a vector by a scalar

as A and magnitude mA (same direction, m times

longer).

The product mA is a vector that has the opposite

direction of A and magnitude mA.

Examples:

5A

1

B

3

Components of a vector

vector:

Ax A cos

Ay A sin

A A Ax Ay

2 2

Ay

The angle between vector and x-axis: tan

1

Ax

i-clicker:

sides of 3 m and 4 m to the other corner.

of the vector)?

A. 3m

B. 4m

C. 5m

D. 7m

A

E. 12 m

What is the angle ?

The signs of the components Ax and Ay depend on

the angle and they can be positive or negative.

(Examples)

Unit vectors

A unit vector is a dimensionless vector having a magnitude of 1.

Unit vectors are used to indicate a direction.

i, j, k represent unit vectors along the x-, y- and z- direction

i, j, k form a right-handed coordinate system

Use your right hand:

x thumb x index

y index finger or: y middle finger

z middle finger z thumb

i-clicker:

Which of the following coordinate systems is not a

right-handed coordinate system?

A B C

x z y

y

z

y x

z x

The unit vector notation for

the vector A is:

A = Axi + Ayj

The column notation often

used in this class:

Ax

A

Ay

Vector addition using

unit vectors:

From diagram: R = (Ax + Bx)i + (Ay + By)j

The components of R: Rx = Ax + Bx

Ry = Ay + By

Vector addition using

unit vectors:

The magnitude of a R:

R Rx Ry ( Ax Bx ) 2 ( Ay By ) 2

2 2

Ry Ay By

The angle between vector R and x-axis: tan R

Rx x

A Bx

Blackboard example 3.1

A commuter airplane takes the

route shown in the figure.

First, it flies from the origin

to city A, located 175 km in

a direction 30 north of east.

Next, it flies 153 km 20

west of north to city B.

Finally, it flies 195 km due

west to city C

(a) Find the location of city C relative to the origin (the x- and y-

components, magnitude and direction (angle) of R.

(b) The pilot is heading straight back to the origin. What are the

coordinates of this vector.

Polar Coordinates

A point in a plane: Instead of x and y coordinates a point in a plane

can be represented by its polar coordinates r and .

x r cos y

tan r x y 2 2

y r sin x

Blackboard example 3.2

3 3

A vector A and a vector B are given in

4 2

Cartesian coordinates.

(a) Calculate the components of vector C 3A 4B.

(b) What is the magnitude of C ?

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