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Presented TO: Presented By:

Tsion Getachew
E-learning is an abbreviation of the term electronic
learning. Electronic learning in its literal meaning
stands for the type of learning carried out, facilitated
or supported by some or the other electronic
gadgets, media or resources. Judging in this sense, the
learning facilitated by the use of an electronic media
or means like microphones and listening devices or
audio and visual tapes can be termed as e-learning.
In this sense, e-learning calls for the services of the
advance electronic information and communication
media and means like teleconferencing, video-
conferencing and computer based conferencing, e-
mail, live chat, surfing on the Internet and Web
browsing, online reference libraries, video games,
customized e-learning courses etc.
1.Empowered by digital technology : E-learning is
pedagogy empowered by digital technology.
2.Computer enhanced learning : E-learning is a term
which is used to refer computer enhanced learning.
3.Technology enhanced learning: E-learning includes
all types of technology enhanced learning (TEL),
where technology is used to support the learning
4.Online learning: Use of e-learning is generally
confined to on-line learning carried out through
the Internet or Web-based technology, with no face-
to-face interaction.
5. More then CBL and CAI: E-learning conveys broader
meaning than the terms CBL (Computer based
learning) and CAI (Computer assisted instruction).
6. More than on-line learning: E-learning is broader in
its meaning that they conveyed through the simple
terms like on-line learning or on-line education.
7. Not synonymous to audio-visual and multimedia
learning: E-learning should not be considered as
synonymous to audio- visual learning, multi-media
learning, distance education or distance learning.
Although the audio-visual and multimedia
technology and distance education programmes are
based on the Internet and Web services provided
through the computers, yet these are not identical
but complementary.
8. Confined to Web-based and Internet-based learning: The
use of the term e-learning should be confined to the type of learning
carried out, supported or facilitated through Web enhanced
instruction and the Internet based communications like e-mail, audio
and video conferencing, mail list, live chats and telephony.
9. Exclusion of non-Internet and non-Web technology: All
types of non-Internet and non-Web technology are not included in e-
learning. Taking a clear stand on this issue Kumar and John (2008)
write, Though computer is used for instruction and learning, the non-
Web technology thus not come under technology. The entire
computer based instructions, computer managed instructions,
integrated learning systems, multimedia, interactive video, virtual
reality, artificial intelligence, etc. which are not delivered through the
Internet but are still used for learning and instruction cannot be
included in e-learning. However, these techniques, when delivered via
Internet for instruction and learning, become e-learning.
The essential condition for calling a particular
learning as e-learning lies in its characteristics of
delivering the instructional contents through
advanced electronic means. While fulfilling this
condition, various e-learning situations may be
seen to adopt any of the following delivery modes
and styles:
1. Support Learning: E-learning can play a more
supporting role to the teaching-learning activities
organized in the class. As a result, a teacher may
make its use for his better teaching and a learner for
his needed learning, e.g., they may use multimedia,
Internet and Web services for their teaching and
learning to enhance their class room activities.
2. Blended learning: In this mode, attempts are made for
making use of a combination of traditional and ICT
enhanced e-learning practices. The programmes and
activities are so planned and executed as to present a
happy combination of both the traditional class room
teaching practices and e-learning based instructions. Thus,
one can reap the benefits of both the practices of
traditional and e-learning.
3. Complete e-learning: In this mode of learning the
traditional class room teaching-learning is totally replaced
by the virtual classroom teaching-learning. There is no
existence of class rooms, schools and teaching-learning
environment as happens in the traditional setup of school
education. The learners are free to take the learning tasks
independently with the help of properly designed e-
learning courses.
Most of the learning activities are carried out
entirely on-line, but at the same time, they may have
also access to the well stored information and
learning packages available in the form of recorded
CD-ROM, DVD, etc. Such type of e-learning
activities may be found to adopt the following two
distinctive communication styles narrated:
Asynchronous communication style: In this style, the
course information or learning experiences are
passed to the learners through e-mail, discussion
forum, Web pages, Web logs, wikis or through the
recorded CD-ROM and DVD. As a result, the
teachers and learners do not interact
Synchronous communication style: Here the
communication between the teacher and
students directly occurs in an online chat
room or through live audio-video
conferencing. It allows them properly together
at a specified time for communicating with
each other regarding the course material. As a
result, a teacher can provide valuable
information, lecture or share one or the other
learning experiences with his students.

E-learning is the demand of the time. We have to prepare

our students and bring suitable modification and
improvements in the prevailing system of our
educational institution to face this challenge. The
following steps for promoting e-learning are:
The first and foremost thing that need to be done is to
develop a positive attitude towards the processes and
products of e-learning. The students should be made to
appreciate the fruits of e-learning.
Provide the need facilities for training and equipping the
students and teachers with the essential technical
knowledge and skills related to the operation.
3. Provide proper orientation to the staff and students
not only in terms of making them technologically
capable for engaging in e-learning but also to have full
awareness about all the possible advantages and gains
drawn from such ventures.
4. Make provision of the Internet facilities and class
room Websites for giving opportunities to the teachers
and students to carry out the teaching-learning tasks
using the mechanism of e-learning.
5. Last but not the least, make adequate provision for
the availability of the technical support services to
train and provide online support to both the teachers
and students in reaping maximum benefits from e-
learning programme.
Individualized instructions: E-learning provides
individualized instructions suiting to the need, abilities,
learning styles and interests of the learners. E-learning
has much potential to make the education, instruction
and learning opportunities provided to the learners
adaptable to their need, local need and resources at
their hands. Thus, it is learner-centered
1.Easy access: The learner get access to learning by
breaking all barriers of time, place and distance. The
learners can access information and educational
contents any time and at any place. E-learning is available
even in areas where there is no school or college. It can
reach any remote or far off areas of the country or
3. Disadvantageous children: it is available for those with
poor health or disadvantageous conditions that can
inhibit them from undergoing any institutionalized
education. E-learning enables even handicapped like deaf
and dumb to learn.
4 . Qualitative: E-learning has a unique feature of
arranging an access to unlimited number of students the
same quality of the content that a full time student has.
5. Effective media: E-learning can prove an effective media
and tool for facing the problems of lack of trained
teachers, shortage of schools and needed facilities for
providing quality education to the number of students
residing in far and wide corners of the country.
6. Different learning styles: Unlike traditional class room
education, e-learning can cater to different learning styles
and promote collaboration among students from different
localities, cultures, regions, states and countries.
7 . Flexibility: The flexibility of e-learning in terms of
delivery media (like CD, DVD, Laptops and Mobile
Phones), type of courses and access may prove very
beneficial for the learners.
8. Play-way spirit and learning by doing: Learning
experiences via simulated and gaming techniques
may also provide the advantages of getting richer
experiences on the useful pedagogical footings of
play-way spirit and learning by doing or leaving.
9. Interesting and motivating: E-learning may make the
students more interested and motivated towards
learning as they may get a wide variety of learning
experiences by having an access to multimedia .
10. On-line, Off-line and live interaction: The
opportunities of having an on-line, off-line and live
interaction between the students and teachers and
among the students themselves may make the task of e-
learning a joy and best alternative to the lively face-to-
face interaction and real time sharing of the experiences
in a traditional class room settings.
11. Self-learning and self-improvement: E-learning leads to
self-learning. It can be utilized for improving technical and
vocational skills.
12. Evaluation and feed back: E-learning can also provide
opportunities for testing and evaluating the learning
outcomes of the learners through teachers, peers and
auto-instructional devices and software available with the
reading material online, or through the internet and
mobile phone facilities.
Requires knowledge and skills: E-learning requires
special knowledge and skills for the use of multimedia
Internet and Web technology on the part of the
users. Lack of knowledge and skills on this account
may prove futile in taking advantages from the
valuable services of e-learning.
Lack of equipment: Most of our schools are not at
all ready, willing and equipped for making use of e-
learning in the proper interest of the teachers and
students. Leaving aside a small number of self
financing public schools meant for children of rich
parents, most of the schools in our country cannot
even imagine for venturing in the area of e-learning.
3. Costly: E-learning is more costly than traditional
education. E-learning tools are very expensive. Their
repair is also very expensive. Hence, e-learning is beyond
the rich of most of the students. They do not have
resources for purchasing electronic equipment.
4. Feeling of isolation: The feeling of isolation
experienced by the users of e-learning is one of the main
defects quite visible in any system of distance learning
including e-learning. There is no face-to-face interaction
and humanistic touch profoundly available in the
traditional class room setup. Moreover the lack of social
participation and community sharing experiences may
prove handicap to the students of e-learning in their
adequate physical, emotional and social development.
5. Lack of provision for teacher training programme:
There is lack of provision of equipping the teachers in
their pre-service or in-service programmes for getting
acquainted with the knowledge and skills required on
their part for the use of e-learning at their work places.
As a result, the teachers neither have any inclination
towards e-learning nor have any competence for its
organization in the school or providing guidance to their
students in its use.
6. Negative attitude: an overall attitude of the learners,
teachers, parents, educational authorities and society is
usually found negative towards the processes and
products of e-learning. E-learning is adjusted as second
rate in comparison to regular classroom teaching.
7. Adverse effect on health: E-learning adversely
effects the eyesight and some other parts of the
body. The learners become physically inactive.
Sometimes they become victims of physical
8 . Lack of co-curricular activities: Co-curricular
have great importance in the field of learning and
education. But these activities are neglected in e-
9. Technical defect: E-learning is based on
technology. When technical defect occurs, e-learning
stops. As a result, continuity of learning is broken
and there is no progress in e-learning.
From the above discussion we conclude that e-
learning is an innovative technique or a form of
ICT (Information and Communication
Technology) used in providing learning
experiences to the students on-line through the
use of Internet services and Web technology of
computers on the same lines as witnessed by us
in the form of e-mail, e-banking, e-booking and e-
commerce in our day-to-day life. E-learning is also
having some disadvantages which are discussed
earlier. In spite of certain defect, e-learning is very
useful and it is becoming more and more popular