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Chapter 11

Media Analysis
Why Media analysis?

A systematic and careful media


selection decision is crucial to
successful and cost effective resolution
of business problems

Many types of media to be considered


in making the appropriate selection
Table 10.1
Types of Delivery Media
Media Description
Instructor-led presented by a teacher or
facilitator
- a traditional classroom
presentation
- on the specific job, lecture,
discussion, demonstration,
workshop, etc

Computer-based Any form of delivery involving


use of a computer
computer-assisted instruction
(CAI) which also supports printed
materials or instructor
- totally computer-based
instruction (all content is presented by
computer) courseware
Cont,d
Description
Media Instruction delivered over television, telephone, or
Distance Broadcast via satellite to distant/far-off locations tv3 astro kena
(bidang penyiaran) ada signal
-video or audio teleconferencing
-interactive distance broadcasting
Use of the Internet global can acsess anthime or
Web-based intranets ada distance limition Cuma boleh acces on
this building only to distribute training over wide-area
networks (WAN) or local-area networks (LAN)

Audiotapes Use of prerecorded audiotapes to deliver instruction


with or without the supporting materials
Use of prerecorded video to deliver instruction with
or without supporting materials
Videotapes
Job aids, either electronic or paper-based, used to
help and support people on the job, on the job-aid
tool

Performance support
systems (PSS)
Electronic
performance support
systems (EPSS)
Media Analysis Procedure
7 processes to perform a media analysis:
1. Rate each of the factors 1-5 important or not suruh dia evaluate website ke
mobile apps ke suruh dia rate
2. Summarize findings (dapatkan feedback from orang jawap
3. Place the resulting media in a hierarchy susunan dari atas ke bawah percen%
plg tinggi ke apa susun
4. Match media advantages and limitations (senaraikan kebaikan n keburukan)
5. Compare results and decide on the media
6. Match media to the appropriate objectives
7. Document the results
1. Rate each of the factors
All project team members, including
SMEs, possibly customers, rate the
factors on the media Analysis Rating
Form (Ass & Ana Section, Appx B)
On scale of 1 to 5 regarding the
importance to the issue
(rating 5 meaning very important, 1 not important at all, 3 is
neutral)
2. Summarize Findings
Use media and summ sheet, Appx E) to calculate the results of the
rating.
E.g. 4-5 rating is high, 1-2 is low, deduct the low from the high
occurrences for each and record the number

3. Place the resulting media in hierarchy


Make a ranking list from highest to the lowest, the highest ranked are
the most likely possibilities for your solution
4. Match media Advantages and
limitations
Make the strengths and weaknesses of the
media to business requirements

Analyze the advantages & limitations of each


type of medium
(Depending on your location, size of the organization, internal & external
resources, your level of dev experience factors are differ)
Table 11.2
Advantages and limitations of media

Media Advantages Limitations


Instructor-led Allows social Scheduling may not meet the needs of
interaction 2 way all who require the information or
comunication instruction
Useful with variable- Not enough time to give everyone
size audiences bestari feedback they may need
hall
does not account for individual rates and
Materials can be styles of learning
tailored to the group
takde campur kelas Relies heavily on instructor knowledge
classific in group
Inconsistent delivery, may
Short development stressed/deemphasized, causing gaps in
time slide learning
Traditional method of Only limited numbers can participate at
teaching that is one time
comfortable for students
and instructors
Table 11.2
Advantages and limitations of media, contd
Media Advantages Limitations
Computer- Consistent delivery dia x May be too text based
based depends on instructor
Expensive (number of design-team,
Accommodates individual time authoring platform hardware and
schedules sukhati nk bukk kul software, and cost of added media)
bpe
Long design and development time
Learner-controlled pace (range from 250 750 design and
development hours per hour of
High degree of interactivity and delivered instruction), depending on
involvement by the learner the complexity of the content. For a
first project, more time has to be
Adapts to learner performance schedule
Unlimited opportunity for review Specialized computer skills of
programmers and authors are required
Any poorly designed user interface
makes navigation difficult
Table 11.2
Advantages and limitations of media, contd
Media Advantages Limitations
Distance Surpass geographical Large time-zone differences require
broadcast boundaries some participants to view at
inappropriate times
High level of interaction and
immediate feedback to May rely on a talking head with
questions in spite of distance little or no interaction, which
becomes boring; participants lose
Reduced travel for interest
participants and instructors
(cost) Special training of instructor to
handle technology, or large staff to
Incorporates a variety of handle broadcast equipment
media
Much preparation by instructor is
Two way video permits needed to coordinate technology
instructor to see participants
and participants to see each One-way video does not allow
other students and instructor to see each
other
Table 11.2
Advantages and limitations of media, contd
Media Advantages Limitations
Video Less expensive than May rely on a talking head with little or
teleconferencing satellite broadcasting with use no interaction, which becomes boring;
of existing telephone lines participants lose interest
Transcends geographical Special training of instructor to handle
boundaries technology, or large staff to handle
High level of interaction and broadcast equipment, is often required
immediate feedback to
questions in spite of distance Much preparation by instructor is
Reduced travel n cost for needed to coordinate technology
participants and instructors
One-way video does not allow students
Incorporates variety of and instructor to see each other
media
Two way video permits
instructor to see participants
and participants to see each
other
Table 11.2
Advantages and limitations of media, contd
Media Advantages Limitations
Web-based Includes chat rooms, Much preparation by instructor to
participants and instructor can coordinate and plan course elements
have dialogue or interactive,
real-time, collaborative Requires specialized design skills of
discussions programmers and authors
Includes electronic Security, testing, and feedback may be
mailboxes, where participants limited
can pose questions to
instructor or participants A poorly designed user interface may
be difficult to navigate (ex: extensive
Includes reference and data- menu layers) or interfere with learning
storage capabilities (too many bells and whistles)
sharing of files and data Slow video compression and
decompression rates cause video and
incorporate audio, video, audio to be out of synchronization
and graphics
Material is easily updated
Table 11.2
Advantages and limitations of media, contd
Media Advantages Limitations
Audiotapes Flexible in delivery; Only one sensory modality used for
participants can get learning
information anywhere there is
a tape player
Inexpensive to develop and
deliver
Videotapes Flexible in delivery; Only two sensory modalities used for
participants can get learning
information anywhere there is
video playback equipment Expensive to produce because of
highly specialized skills of
Inexpensive to duplicate and videographers, editors, producers, and
deliver script writers. Industry range is from
$500-2,000 per finished minute of video
Table 11.3
Cost Factors Associated with Media
Category Factors Consideration
Development-team Project leader Hourly costs for team members
resources involved in development
Instructional designer activities
Subject-matter expert
Media specialists (audio
technician, video
technician, graphic
designer, system designer,
etc)
Programmer (author,
interactive designer,
system engineer, etc)
Publisher (editor, etc)
Table 11.3
Cost Factors Associated with Media, contd
Category Factors Consideration
Administrative Manager Hourly costs for administration
resources of development activities
Clerical
Production Reproduction of videos, Production costs for developing
diskettes, or CD-ROMs media
Postproduction Narration
Studio rental
Video equipment rental
Videotaping
Facilities costs
Materials Diskettes Materials cost
CD-ROMs
Videotapes
Audiotapes
Software
Hardware
Breaks 5 mins
5. Compare results and decide on
the media
Compare the results of the media selection with the
cost factors and decide on the right media
6. Match media to the appropriate
objectives
Use the media/Objectives Mapping Tool (CD-
ROM) to match objectives with the most
appropriate media

Remember you can use more than 1 medium


7. Document the results
Document the results by making a
list of the final media choices
Validity and reliability of the media
analysis tool

High degree of validity and reliability due to:

- Used a team of highly experienced instructional


designers who used consensus to arrive at the
factors
- Used concept mapping & information structure
- Used predictive validity established by actual
participants over and over again
Exercise 1

Describe the 7 processes to perform a


media analysis:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Chapter 12

Extant Data Analysis


What is Extant Data Analysis?
Determine if the solution, or parts of the solution, already exists (is
extant or present), which avoids unneeded development costs
Can save your time and money
Yield an added level of confidence

Kita nk tgk current design boleh guna ke tak balik.


Save cost and time.
Extant Data Analysis
6 processes to conduct an extant data
analysis:

1. Identify likely sources of information


2. Collect information and existing course materials
3. Compare information
4. Make a buy-or-build decision
5. Evaluate off-the-shelf solutions
6. Document the decision
Extant data analysis procedure
Follow these activities:

1. Identify likely sources of information


-Decide what you are looking for: is it an entire solution, or one or
more pieces of the solution? Make determination accordingly: 1.
the size & complexity of your solution 2. the amount of
proprietary company material to be included design certain part

2. Collect information and existing course Materials


Use web search engines: -Bulletin board services (BBS), special-
interest group (SIGs) on the internet (provided u have an online
account or access to one), go interview ke observation ke
(*Extant data Analysis Form in the Ass & Fr-end Ana Tools, Appx E)

3. Compare information compare suit most of your design


-Evaluate the collected information, being aware of objectives,
audience, and business needs
Extant data analysis procedure

4. Make a Buy-or-Build Decision


- Decide whether in real meaning, to buy (make use) or
build (develop a new one)
(if the results shows that the off-the-shelf material is usable as is or can be
modified to meet the business need)
*develop materials if the results shows that an off-the-shelf product is not
appropriate for the solutiony
5. Evaluate the Off-the-shelf solutions
- evaluate for its quality and suitability (Extant-data materials
review tool, Appx E) why u nak guna benda yg sama sbb org dh
kenal
6. Document your Decision
Listing the sources, rationale, and decisions reached during
the analysis (findings)
Extant data Analysis
Advices from the expert:
o No need to develop a solution that already exists or a course that can be
purchased to meet your particular business need x semestinya design semula guna
balik pun boleh speed up ur cost n time

o Many sources of information available


(web resources, advertisements, vendors)

o The key to successful searches is organizing the search

o Take time to focus it by listing key wards or phrases, or asking specific questions

o Only collecting the most relevant information, and efficiently as possible

o Narrow your questions for the search

o Schedule and plan your analysis

o Sorting through the results, obtain and analyze the content or products listed
Extant data Analysis
Summary:

o You now know what is available,


o What to include in your solution, and
o What the project team has to develop
o But dont forget to note the costs of off-the-shelf materials to
include them in your cost analysis

Read and get ready for cost analysis next week..