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You are on page 1of 66

List of Practical

Experiment

Name of Experiment

No.

Determination of the Coefficient of Static and Rolling Friction for an

5

Inclined Plane

Dr. SV Bakre

Schedule/Conduct of Practicals

Form 6 group

Group 1: Roll # 1-4

Group 2: Roll # 5-8

Group 3: Roll # 9-12

Group 4: Roll # 13-15

Group 5: Roll # 16-18

Dr. SV Bakre

Schedule/Conduct of Practicals

Group 1 Pract # 1 Pract # 2

Group 2 Pract # 2 Pract # 3

Group 3 Pract # 3 Pract # 4

Group 4 Pract # 4 Pract # 5

Group 5 Pract # 5 Pract # 6

Group 6 Pract # 6 Pract # 1

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

supports of Simply Supported Beam

Apparatus: Simply Supported Beam

Set-up, Weights and Measuring

Scale

Theory: Types of Support, Types of

Loads, Types of Beam and

Conditions of Equilibrium

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Support

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Loads:

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Loads:

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Continuous

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Apparatus

Wooden Beam

Spring

Spring

Balance

Balance

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Theoretical Determination of

Reactions

Fy = 0, RA + RB - W1 - W2 = 0 ------------------ (1)

W1 W2

A B

MA = 0, RB . L W1. a W2 . b = 0 --------------(2)

a

Solving (1) and (2),

b

RA RB

W a W2 b

RB 1 L

L

and RA = W1 + W2 RB

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Procedure

Record the beam length L in centimeters

Place the beam gently on the two dual spring

balances and record the initial readings at

both the balances in kg

Apply the loads W1 and W2 at distance a &

b from end A

Take final readings of spring balances

The difference of initial and final readings

gives the experimental values of reactions RA

and RB; while their theoretical values are

calculated as derived

Repeat the procedure by changing the values

of W1 & W2 and a & b

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Precautions

Before taking the readings

compress the beam and release

it for 1-2 minutes

Apparatus should be well-

lubricated

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 1

Determination of Support Reactions of

a Simply Supported Beam

Observation Table

%Deviation x100

Theortical Re action

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Forces using Force Table

Apparatus: Universal Force Table,

Weights, Pans and Thread

Theory: Law of Polygon of Forces,

Proof and Analytical Solution

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

If any number of forces acting on a particle

can be represented in magnitude and

direction by the sides of a closed polygon

taken in order, then the particle will be in

equilibrium. Conversely, if any number of

forces acting on a particle keep it in

equilibrium, then a closed polygon can be

drawn whose sides represent these forces

both in magnitude and direction.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Proof

Suppose forces P, Q, R and S act on a

body keeping it in equilibrium. Take a

point O as origin and draw OA parallel

and equal to P to some scale. From A

draw AB parallel and equal to Q to the

same scale. The resultant of these two

forces will be represented by OB

according to law of triangle of forces.

From B draw BC parallel and equal to

R. Then OC will represent the resultant

of OB and R. From C draw CD parallel

and equal to S. Then OD will represent

the resultant of all the forces. If the

body is in equilibrium, this resultant

OD must be zero; i.e. O & D must

coincide or it must be a closed

polygon; as shown by the force or

vector diagram.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Analytical Solution

H = P + Q cos + R cos + S cos

V = Q sin + R sin + S sin

and resultant of all the forces will be

R H 2 V 2

at an angle,

V

tan 1

H

with the horizontal.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Apparatus

Pulleys

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Procedure

1. Fix a pulley with its index y

R

mark on zero angle and Q

the other three with the

index marks making any

set of known angles , x P

and with the first one.

2. Adjust the weights in the S

pan / hangers to bring the

y

ring exactly at the center

(Concentric with the

central pivot).

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Precautions

1. The directions , and of the forces as observed are

correct only if the threads connecting the force to the

ring pass through centre of the table. For this the ring

should be exactly concentric with the central pivot.

threads if any should be fine.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 2

Observation Table

Dr. SV Bakre

Drawing Vector Diagram

b Scale:

1cm = 1N

Q

P

c

a

R

P S

S

a d

Closed Polygon,

b Particle is in

d Equillibrium Resultant

c Q

R

Force Diagram Vector Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Jib Crane

Apparatus: Jib Crane, Weights,

Measuring Scale

Theory: Lamis theorem, Proof of

Lamis theorem

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Lamis theorem

If three Coplanar forces acting on a

particle, keep it in equilibrium, then each

force is proportional to the sine of the angle

between the other two forces.

F3

F1 F2 F3

F1

sin sin sin

F2

Force Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Set-up

Spring Balance

Spring

Balance

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Procedure

1. Measure length of the post (Lv). Note initial readings

of the forces in the jib and the tie without loading.

2. Place a load (W) on the pan and note final readings

of the jib and tie forces.

3. Measure the lengths (Lt) and (Lj).

4. Complete the space and the force diagrams.

5. Measure angles , and from the diagram.

6. Measure ac and bc to get Pt and Pj graphically and

calculate the same by Lamis Theorem.

7. Repeat above procedure with different weights.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Precautions

2. Apparatus should be well lubricated

3. Note the initial readings in Jib crane and

spring balance carefully.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Observation Table

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Analytical Calculations

L2j L2v L2t

Cos 1

2 L j Lv

Cos 1

2 Lt L j

L2

L2

L2

Cos 1 v t j

2L L

v t

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 3

Graphical Solution

Scale:

1cm = 1/30 Units

b c

Lt

Lv

Lj

a

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 4

members of loaded shear-legs

space frame

Apparatus: Shear-Legs apparatus,

Weights, Measuring Scale

Theory: Background Information

about the experiment

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 4

Background Information

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 4

Apparatus

A

F

3

F2

B W

D O F

1

C

Balance

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 4

Procedure

1. Note initial readings of the forces in the Shear Legs

and the Tie without loading, if any.

2. Note the lengths OD, OB and OC using Meter Rod.

3. Place a load (W) on the pan and note final readings

of the Shear Legs and Tie forces.

4. Measure the lengths AB, AC, AD and AO.

5. Repeat above procedure with different weights.

6. Complete the Force and the Space Diagrams.

7. Obtain the forces in the Shear Legs and Tie

graphically.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 4

Precautions

2. Apparatus should be well lubricated

3. Note the initial readings in Shear Legs and

Tie carefully.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 4

Observation Table

Dr. SV Bakre

A

Practical # 4 F

3

F2

B W

D O F

Graphical Solution C

1

A

F3 c

a

LDA F12

LOA W

Direction of F12

D LDO O b

3 A Scale: 4 Scale: 1cm = 10 N

1cm =

1/30

Units F1 b F2

1 2

1 2

a 1 c

2 F12

LBA LCA F2 d F1

B LBC C

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

friction using inclined plane set-up

Apparatus: Inclined Plane Set-up,

Wooden, Glass and Steel Box, Cord,

Pan and Weights

Theory: What is Friction? Laws of

Friction, Formula

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

What is Friction?

the surface of another body, the opposing

force that is produced between the surfaces

of contact is Friction

Box

Force, P

Inclined Plane

Friction

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Coefficient of Friction

Frictional resistance along the Surface of contact is

proportional to the normal reaction on the Surface

FN

Or F = . N

Where, is Coefficient of Friction.

Box

Force, P

Inclined Plane

Normal

Frictional

Reaction (N)

Force (F)

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Laws of Friction

1. Frictional force value varies from zero to maximum value

and adjusts itself to resultant force tending to cause

motion.

called the static friction and when the motion occurs, the

frictional force is called kinetic friction.

the normal reaction, with the normal reaction is called the

angle of friction.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Apparatus

Angle Measurement

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Apparatus

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Apparatus

The sliding body is a Box of Glass / Wood / Steel kept on a

glass plate.

weight kept in it.

passing over a pulley at top of the plane and carrying a

hanger / pan at its end; so that P = Weight of the pan plus

weights kept on it.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Procedure

1. Adjust the inclined plane at some suitable angle. Record

it as .

of weight of box)

4. Add some weights to the pan till the box just starts

moving up. Record P (Inclusive of weight of pan )

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Precautions

2. Check the surface for horizontal level with spirit level and

apply correction to the inclination of the plane, if any.

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Observations

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 5

between a Box and Inclined Plane

Theoretical value of

Forces parallel to plane = 0, i.e. Fx = 0

-W Sin + P - N = 0 (1)

-W Cos + N = 0 (2)

P W sin

y x

W cos

F= .N

P N

FW

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Aim: To graphically determine

forces in various members of a

truss

Apparatus: Graph Paper, Colored

Pens/Pencils and drawing

instruments

Theory: Trusses, Applications,

Analysis Methods, Modeling of

Trusses, Graphical Method of

Analysis

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Trusses are structural systems composed of individual

linear members, connected at their ends to other

members to form an assembly of triangles enclosed on

three sides by members. When load is applied to a

truss the joints (i.e., the vertices of the triangular

areas), each member within the truss is placed into a

state of pure tension or pure compression.

Compression

Tension

Truss

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Applications

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Analysis Methods

Analytical:

1) Method of Joints & 2) Method of Sections

Graphical:

Method of Joints

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Similar to solving Concurrent Force System

E.g.: Law of Polygon of Forces, Lamis

Theorem

F3

b c

Lt

F1

Lv

Lj

a

F2

Force Diagram Vector Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Given Truss

40 kN

60 kN 20 kN

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Notations

B C

40 kN

3

60 kN 20 kN

2 4

H I

F G J K

1

5

8 7 6

R1 R2

A E D

Determine Unknown Reactions: R1 & R2

Space Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Notations

B C

40 kN

3

60 kN 20 kN

2 4

H I

F G J K

1

5

8 7 6

R1 R2

A E D

Determine Unknown Reactions: R1 & R2

Space Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Reactions

B C

40 kN

60 kN 3

20 kN Scale: 1cm = 10 kN

2 4

H I

a

F G J K

1

5

8 7 6

A

R1

E

R2

D R1

O

Space Diagram

b

e

R2c

d

Funnicular Polygon

Vector Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Truss in Equillibrium

B C

40 kN

3

60 kN 20 kN

2 4

H I

F G J K

1

5

8 7 6

70 kN 50 kN

A E D

Space Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Determining Forces at Joint 1

F12

F Scale:

1 1cm = 10 kN

F18

A E

70 kN

e

Space Diagram F18 f

R1

B

40 kN

C

F12

60 kN

3

20 kN a

2 4

H I

F G J K

1

5

8 7 6

R1 R2

A E D

Space Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre

Practical # 6

Completed Example

Dr. SV Bakre

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