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C. I.

(COMPRESSION IGNITION)

ENGINES
Prof. K. K. SHARMA

Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
IN DIESEL ENGINE

Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE
Fuel tank:-
It is a storage tank for diesel. A wire gauge
strainer is provided under the cap to prevent
foreign particles entering the tank.
Fuel injection pump:-
It is a high pressure pump which supplies
fuel to the injectors through distributor according
to the firing order of the engine.
Distributor:-
The function of distributor is to supply the
right quantity of fuel to each cylinder.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE
Preliminary filter :-
This filter is mostly fitted on fuel pump. It
prevents foreign materials from reaching inside
he fuel line.
Fuel filter :-
Mostly two stage filters are used in diesel engines
1. Primary filter 2. Secondary filter
Primary filter removes coarse materials,
water and dust.
Secondary filter removes fine dust particles.

Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE
Fuel injector
It is the component which delivers finely
atomized fuel under high pressure to combustion
chamber of the engine

Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE
Fuel injector
Main parts of
injectors are nozzle
body, and needle valve.
The needle valve is
pressed against a
conical seat in the
injector body by a
spring. The injection
pressure is adjusted by
adjusting a screw.

Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM IN DIESEL ENGINE
Fuel injector
In operation, fuel
from injection pump
enters the injector body
through fuel passage way.
When fuel pressure
becomes so high that it
exceeds the set spring
pressure, the needle valve
lifts off its seat. The fuel is
forced out of the nozzle
spray holes into the
combustion chamber.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
OBJECTIVES:-
1.Meter the correct amount of fuel as per engine demand,
2.Equally distribute this fuel among all cylinders,
3.Inject this fuel inside the cylinder at the correct time and
rate,
4.Inject this fuel into the cylinder with a proper pattern
and atomization as the combustion chamber design
demands,
5.Start and end of injection should be sharp without
dribbling or after injection,
6.Injection timing should vary as per engine load and
speed
Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Classification:-
1) Air Injection System:-
In this system, fuel is forced into the
cylinder by means of compressed air. But it is
absolute because it requires a bulky multistage
compressor.

2) Solid injection system:-


In this system, the liquid fuel is injected
directly into the combustion chamber without the
aid of compressed air.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

Classification:-
Solid injection system:-
1) Individual pump and nozzle system.
2) Unit injector system
3) Common rail system
4) Distributor system.

Prof. K. K. Sharma
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
1) Individual pump and nozzle system:-
In this system, each cylinder is provided with
one pump and one injector.

Prof. K. K. Sharma
2) Unit Injector system :-
In this system, pump and injector nozzle are
combined in one housing. Each cylinder is provided
with one of those unit injector.

Prof. K. K. Sharma
3) Common Rail system :-
In this system, a pump supplies fuel under high
pressure to a common rail. From the common rail
fuel is supplied at proper time to each nozzle through
a valve.

Prof. K. K. Sharma
3) Common Rail system :-

Prof. K. K. Sharma
COMBUSTION IN C.I. ENGINE
In SI engine, uniform A: F mixture is
supplied, but in CI engine A: F mixture is not
homogeneous and fuel remains in liquid
particles.
The combustion in SI engine starts at
one point and generated flame at the point
of ignition propagates through the mixture
for burning of the mixture.
Where as in CI engine, the combustion
takes place at number of points
simultaneously and number of flames
generated are also many
Prof. K. K. Sharma
STAGES OF COMBUSTION IN CI ENGINE
The combustion in CI engine is
considered to be taking place in four
phases:
1. Ignition Delay period /Pre-flame
combustion
2. Uncontrolled combustion
3. Controlled combustion
4. After burning
Prof. K. K. Sharma
1. Ignition Delay period
The fuel does not ignite immediately
upon injection into the combustion chamber.
There is a definite period of inactivity
between the time of injection and the actual
burning this period is known as the ignition
delay period.
The ignition delay period can be divided
into two parts, the physical delay and the
chemical delay.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
1. Ignition Delay period
Physical Delay:-
It is the time between the beginning of
injection and the attachment of chemical
reaction conditions.
Chemical Delay:-
During the chemical delay, reactions
start slowly and then accelerate until
ignition takes place.
Generally chemical delay is larger than
the physical delay.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
1. Ignition Delay period

Prof. K. K. Sharma
1. Ignition Delay period

Prof. K. K. Sharma
2. Uncontrolled / Rapid Combustion
The period of rapid combustion also
called the uncontrolled combustion, is that
phase in which the pressure rise is rapid.
The period of rapid combustion is
counted from end of delay period or the
beginning of the combustion to the point of
maximum pressure on the indicator diagram.
The pressure reached during the period
of rapid combustion will depend on the
duration of the delay period.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
3. Controlled Combustion
The rapid combustion period is followed
by the third stage, the controlled combustion.
The temperature and pressure in the
second stage are so high, that fuel droplets
injected burn almost as they enter and find
the necessary oxygen and any further
pressure rise can be controlled by injection
rate.
The period of controlled combustion is
assumed to end at maximum cycle
temperature.
Prof. K. K. Sharma
4. After-Burning
Combustion does not stop with the
completion of the injection process.
The un-burnt and partially burnt fuel
particles left in the combustion chamber start
burning as soon as they come into contact
with the oxygen.
This process continues for a certain
duration called the after-burning period.
This burning may continue in expansion
stroke up to 70 to 80 degree of crank travel
from TDC. Prof. K. K. Sharma