Carbohydrates

AP Biology

CH2OH H HO H O H OH H OH H OH

Carbohydrates
energy molecules

AP Biology

2006-2007

Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O
carbo - hydr - ate CH2O (CH2O)x C6H12O6 (CH2O)x C6H12O6 Function:
energy  energy storage  raw materials structural materials   

Monomer: sugars  ex: sugars, starches, cellulose
AP Biology

sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar

Sugars  Most names for sugars end in -ose  Classified by number of carbons
6C = hexose (glucose)  5C = pentose (ribose)  3C = triose (glyceraldehyde) 

H C

O

CH2OH H HO H
AP Biology

CH2OH H OH HO H O H HO H H H H

O H OH

C C H

OH

6H
OH

5

3OH

OH

Glucose

Ribose

Glyceraldehyde

Functional groups determine function
carbonyl aldehyde

carbonyl ketone
AP Biology

Sugar structure
5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution

Where do you find solutions in biology? In cells!
AP Biology

Carbons are numbered

Numbered carbons

C 6' 5' C C 4' C3'
AP Biology

What about the Hydrogen??

O C1' C2'

energy stored in C-C bonds

Simple & complex sugars  Monosaccharides
simple 1 monomer sugars  glucose 

CH2OH H HO H OH O H OH H H OH

Glucose 

Disaccharides
2 monomers  sucrose  

Polysaccharides
large polymers  starch 

AP Biology

Building sugars  Dehydration synthesis
monosaccharides disaccharide

| glucose

H2O

| glucose

| maltose glycosidic linkage

AP Biology

Building sugars  Dehydration synthesis
monosaccharides disaccharide

| glucose

H2O

| fructose

| sucrose (table sugar)

AP Biology

Let·s go to the animation

Polysaccharides  Polymers of sugars
costs little energy to build  easily reversible = release energy  

Function: 

energy storage 
starch (plants)  glycogen (animals)  in liver & muscles 

structure 
cellulose (plants)  chitin (arthropods & fungi)

AP Biology

Linear vs. branched polysaccharides
slow release

starch (plant) energy storage glycogen (animal)
AP Biology fast

What does branching do?

release

Let·s go to the videotape!

Polysaccharide diversity  Molecular structure determines function
in starch in cellulose

isomers of glucose  structure determines function« 

AP Biology

Digesting starch vs. cellulose
starch easy to digest

enzyme

cellulose hard to digest
enzyme
AP Biology

Cellulose  Most abundant organic
compound on Earth
herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose  most carnivores have not  

that¶s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients  cellulose = undigestible roughage
But it tastes like hay! Who can live on this stuff?!

AP Biology

Cow
can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars

Gorilla
can¶t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

Regents Biology

Helpful bacteria 
How can herbivores digest cellulose so well? 

BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals

Caprophage

Ruminants Regents Biology

Let¶s build some X

EAT

Carbohydrates!

Regents Biology

2006-2007

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