Doug Mandler & Albert Teo


Trichinela spiralis

Kingdom: Anamalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Adenophorea
Order: Trichocephalida
Family: Trichinellidae
Genus: Trichinella
Species: spiralis

* Please note that we will be discussing 5 different
subspecies of Trichenella spiralis

General Facts
 Able to infect a wide range of mammalian hosts
 Trichinellosis is the collective term used to
describe the diseases that this parasite cause
 Considered endemic in Japan and China
 Top carnivores are usually infected
 Smallest nematode of humans
 Trichinella spiralis is the worlds largest intracellular

Question!  There are five different subspecies for Trichinela spirals. T. T. britovi (T3) . T. nativa (T2) . T. spiralis (T1) . pseudospiralis (T4) . nelsoni (T7) . Can you name one of them?  5 subspecies are: . T.


Geographic Range  Worldwide  Most common in parts of Europe and the United States. .

Pigs/boars . Raccoon dogs  Domestic pigs are the main reservoir host for T. Humans . Tasmanian devil . spiralis . Bears . Definitive Host  Almost any species of mammal can get affected . Walruses .

Morphology .

 The males measure 1.08 mm long by 7 µm in diameter . Morphology cont.5 mm in length by 36 µm in diameter  Females are about twice the size of males (measuring 3 mm in length by 36 µm in diameter)  Larvae are about 0.

Life Cycle CDC .

Life Cycle in picture .

500 . Question II • How many newborn larvae are estimated to be shed from the adult female in her life time? ~ 500 to 1.

an infected host must die and be eaten by another mammal . Life Cycle in words  Adult worms live around the columnar epithelial cells of the small intestine and the larvae live in striated muscle cells of the same mammal  The worm can infect any species of mammal that consumes its encysted larval stages (Nurse cell complex)  While in the small intestine. they are considered to be intracellular-multicellular organisms  In order for the life cycle to continue.

in 1–2 days (30 hours). adult females produce larvae  The female is ovo-viviparous. become mature (molts about 4 times)  After mating. but doesn't lay them until they have already hatched in her uterus  She lays her living larvae within the small intestine beginning the fifth or sixth day after infection . This means that she produces eggs. the acid in the stomach dissolves the hard covering of the cyst and releases the worms  The worms pass into the columnar epithelium of the small intestine and. Life Cycle : Enteral Phase  When an animal eats meat that contains infective Trichinella cysts.

a net of blood vessels surround the nurse cell.Life Cycle : Parenteral Phase  Parenteral phase begins approximately one week after infection and may last several weeks  Larvae breaks through the intestinal wall and travel through the lymphatic system to the circulatory system to find a suitable cell  Larvae can penetrate any cell. but can only survive in skeletal muscle (sword-like stylet)  Within a muscle cell. Soon. providing added nutrition for the larva inside  The Nurse cell-parasite complex can live for as long as the host remains alive . the worms curl up and direct the cell functioning much as a virus does. The cell is now called a nurse cell complex.





Question III • What is the only way of getting infected? ~ Ingesting raw or undercooked meat that contains the parasite .

there may also be edema (swelling). deafness and delayed or lost reflexes  Fever can also be caused  Many cases are never diagnosed because of the vagueness of the symptoms . delirium. Clinical Signs  Dysentery due to invasion by adult worms  Migrating juveniles cause pain as they invade muscle tissue. nervous disorders. cardiac and pulmonary difficulty. pneumonia.

or extremities . face. Clinical Signs Continued  Severe symptoms include:  High fever  severe muscle pain  skin rash  headaches  swelling of eyelids.

and prolonged insomnia affects their behavior.  Other neurologic symptoms such as meningitis. vertigo and tinnitus.  Generally. are frequent complaints or signs found in severely infected individuals. deafness. encephalitis. patients are alert but apathetic. More Clinical Signs  Patients may develop neurologic manifestations that rarely appear before the end of the second week of infection and provoke distress. convulsions. causing them to become irritable. aphasia. and/or hemiplegia may develop in relation to diffuse damage of brain tissue due to occlusion of arteries or to granulomatous inflammation . among others.  Headache. and abnormalities related to peripheral reflexes.

hands. . and feet are a prominent feature of mild symptoms.Edema of the face. eyelids.

Complications  Stillbirths in pregnant women  Hearing loss  Weight disorders  Loss of hair and nails  Disturbance of menstruation  Muscle stiffness  Death may occur from heart failure or central nervous system failure .

 ELISA test . Stool studies can identify adult worms. spirals. with females being about 3 mm long and males about half that size  Xenodiagnosis can also be done. where a lab rat is fed with a suspected piece of tissue  DNA tests amplified with PCR have found T. Diagnosis  A blood test or muscle biopsy can identify trichinosis.

there is no treatment that kills the larvae.  Neurological symptoms need to be treated with steroids due to inflammation. Treatment  Symptoms can be treated with aspirin and corticosteroids  Thiabendazole can kill adult worms in the intestine.  Immunity for this parasite appears to be lifelong. however. .

10 days at -10ºF. Freezing wild game meats. The freezing requirements differ with the size of the meat. may not effectively kill all the worms. Pieces not exceeding 6 inches in thickness require 20 days at 5ºF. Control & Prevention  Cook pork thoroughly (also flesh of bear. Larger pieces require longer periods. wild pigs)  Cook all garbage fed to hogs  Proper meat handling. even for long periods of time. unlike freezing pork products.  Cook wild game meat thoroughly. This is because the species of trichinella that typically infects wild game is more resistant to freezing than the species that infects pigs. . Quick freezing and storage for 2 days is effective. walrus. ordinary curing and salting of pork products will not kill encysted juveniles  Freezing is effective if carried out properly. 6 days at -20ºF.

 An ELISA for swine trichinellosis is now approved for the certification of pork by the U. . smoking.S. Department of Agriculture." However. or microwaving meat does not consistently kill infective worms. under controlled commercial food processing conditions some of these methods are considered effective by the United States Department of Agriculture. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes the following recommendation: "Curing (salting). drying.

Question IV • Where do outbreaks occur most frequently? ~ In a community or among family members .

edu/imagemap/nemmap/ent156html/ nemas/trichinellaspiralis  http://www.ucdavis.gc.htm  http://www.htm  http://cmr.html  rames/S-Z/Trichinellosis/  http://ucdnema.html  ion/ .gov/dpdx/html/Trichinellosis.cdc. References  http://animaldiversity.